Using complexity theories and network thinking, the design of cities should start within an entirely new field, emerging in response to major changes in society. Also the understanding of the concepts of scale-free networks, self-similarity structures, and the process of unfolding can be utilized to understand the cities’ form and to predict and design efficiently new developments. Opportunistic urbandesign, invites us to consider innovative urbandesign solutions that respond to a specific context. This abstract focuses on the discussion of these topics in a research project that is being developed on the city of Lisbon considering the cross-referencing of its natural morphology with the city’s street movement which generates a self-organized network composed by links (streets) and nodes (plazas). The final aim is to define a pedestrian network informed by the understanding of patterns of public life which enable a public space to become a successful place.
Abstract. Touristic activities are growing all-over the world. The number of people traveling abroad to visit places and having adventures is increasing. Even though the most popular cities and countries in touristic terms are the most visited places, the small cities in rural areas are also defining strategies in order to improve their performances in tourism. The Portuguese city of São Pedro do Sul, very well-known because of its thermal baths with roots in the Roman times, is not an exception on this domain. This is a high potential area for touristic purposes linking the consolidated urban fabric of the city with the river Vouga banks. Therefore, it has all required features to become a touristic spot focused on river sport activities. In this sense this paper aims to present an urbandesign project having has pivotal goal to promote the sport activities related with the river. This solution was the result of an international team background (Portugal, Slovakia, Brazil, Greece, Poland and Lithuania) with their different understandings about the sensitive areas such as the river banks in an urban context. The conclusions show that the historical buildings can have a new life and use, which was the case of the nineteen-century train station transformed into a multicultural centre. The proposal main strategy is the creation of a set of facilities and public spaces such as the camping or a nautical centre in order to promote the touristic activities related with the river.
Although its history began on a small island (or rather, two small islands), as was the case with many European island cities, and although it was founded in the European heyday of systematic urban islanding, Belize City’s development did not follow typical contemporary European patterns of urbandesign on islands. Belize City did not become a round island or encircled urban archipelago. Given the difficult spatial aspects of its river delta location, the planned development of Belize City into a true urban centre would have required a massive initial investment in land reclamation, drainage, and canal construction. Yet British Honduras and, by extension, Belize City were not subject to intense British colonial interest. The city served the needs of British political authority without being significantly under the control of this central authority. It was, after all, only in 1862 that British Honduras as a whole was proclaimed a British colony. In 1934, Aldous Huxley (1984, p. 21) drily remarked that “If the world had any ends, British Honduras would certainly be one of them. It is not on the way from anywhere to anywhere else.” Though very much a European colonial city founded on European colonial needs, Belize City lacked strong administrative connections to its colonial power. It was not designed as a bastion of authority. In fact, it was not designed at all.
The presented urbandesign solution, was the result of a team work of polish students, coming from the Cracow University of Technology, at the Master Degree in Architecture on behalf of the Urban Planning Unit in year 4 of the course during their ERASMUS exchange programme experience along to one academic semester time at the University of Beira Interior in Covilhã, Portugal. It is focus on the idea of proposing a project capable to answer to the following issue: how can the urbandesign proposal create a qualified public space around a historical and cultural landmark, which is the nineteen-century train station building, using the most important and useful elements of the urban space composition?
Done studied for sustainability (Urbandesign for sustainability 2008) is, appropriate method for having sustainable cites. Therefore, was studied design theory and urban sustainable models in order to development of compact green city. In this research has been done, coherence between natural and manufacture environment by using functional coherence, improving green nods (Helsinki& Schulz, 2006), strengthening appropriate density ,appropriate green structure ,making integrated structure , developing neighborhoods centers , designing green structures & urban viewpoint , creating identity , improving design and management of structures and green nods as continues elements between old and new structures (Land use consultant , 2008) .
The qualities of urbandesign introduced by built environments that are important for foot travels are the imaginability, legibility, enclosure, transparency, human scale, linkage, coherence, complexity and tidiness. This premise contextualizes a model that enables the reading of built environments in such a way that the qualities present in them can be described and measured. With the observation of a street, its physical and functional aspects are characterized and, with the combination of these characteristics of the built environment, it is possible to identify what qualities exist in the place. As a case study, 91 streets in the city of Lisbon were selected through eliminatory and classificatory criteria. It was possible perceive the great diversity of elements present in the same set of similar streets. These elements make the qualities present in the streets very diverse,
Many factors lead to shortages or lack of green spaces in cities specially in historical urban areas. Morphologically, these spaces are characterized by narrow and winding streets, compact urban fabrics, high densities of construction and lack of conventional green spaces (gardens or parks). Therefore, the application of innovative strategies in order to bring greenery to the densest parts of the cities, is a way to achieve sustainable urban rehabilitation. In this context, green walls of buildings can be the opportunity to make cities greener and to improve public enjoyment of the urban environment  without using free space at street level, which is scarce in the compact city. Actually, the social life is not confined to the interior of the walls of the buildings. In fact, the walls are the elements of communication between interior and exterior, according to which the building ceases to have a neutral position in the city and begins to take an active role. The green walls are vertical surfaces which have plants growing on them or integrated within them. Whilst using green roofs is not new, contemporary green wall systems are on the cutting edge of urbandesign. In fact, modern green facades are still very much in their infancy .
In order to prepare the ground for the research, a comprehensive literature review on the study of squares has been undertaken, including relevant studies on thermal comfort analysis for outdoors and data mining, which resulted in knowledge transfer from different disciplines for the development of the presented inductive approach to urban analysis and design. The new methodology has then been implemented and tested in a suitable case study: Largo da Graça, a Portuguese square located in Lisbon’s historic centre. This experiment provided a practical example of how evaluation phases may interweave with design phases, thus influencing the generation and modification of the design proposals. Specifically, this applied research gives some insights on the possibilities of undertaking design changes when Space Syntax and Public Life Studies are a part of the decision-making process. The workflow is illustrated through the description of different design stages and of factors, indicators and multimodal ways of representing public open space, which have helped the design process. To sum up, this study presents a new way to approach the analysis, planning and design of public open spaces which invites the designer to perform a comprehensive synchronic and diachronic study of the design space. The proposed method provides insights on the socio-spatial consequences of the different design choices and thus helps to overcome the issue of subjectivity in contemporary redevelopment projects as well as the lack of systematic post-occupancy reviews of urbandesign interventions. Ultimately, it helps architects to learn more about design problems and also to explore further architectural ideas and understand the possible effects of their proposals (DURSUN, 2007).
Aerotropolis master plans to date have mostly consisted of elaborations of proposed commercial land use and urbandesign renderings, along with recommendations airport transportation infrastructure to improve region surface. Much less attention has been given to the strategic, economic and real estate investment issues that determine whether proposed Aerotropolis commercial development would occur. Thus, in addition to land use and transportation planning and urbandesign (including environmental and community elements), and effective Aerotropolis master plan must also be both an economic plan and a strategic, that articulates the drivers of and barriers to Aerotropolis development, as well as provide data-based assessments of commercial real estate demand for various Aerotropolis functions and sites. Five planning requirements are focused upon :
Regarding the presented urbandesign solution, the conclusions show that the main followed strategy in order to preserve the connection in between the urban fabric and the Vouga river was to use ecological materials and a low-density built structure. In parallel, there was the concern of to establish a good and direct connection in between the most important places, the river, the train station and the public main square, creating places where people can stay together, having a contact with nature with a wonderful view over the bucolic landscape of the water front.
set of data to design the theory and suggested model. In other words, compiling the theory on the basis of data and extracting the professional roles and comparative methods in analyzing and concluding the results, call for the usage of “Grounded Theory” method in the research. On the basis of Glaser and Strauss (1967) method, the theory is extracted from systematic data, with or without the background questions. Grounded theory is a methodology that provides the logical and systematic process by collecting and analyzing a set of certain data in order to extract the data-based theory (Hunter and Kelly, 2008; Bloor and Wood, 2006), different approaches in collection and analysis of the data are used in this method, Such as Coding, constant comparison and theoretical sampling. In this research with the aid of constant comparison technique, classification of the roles and the responsibilities of the two majors: Urbandesign and landscape architecture is constantly evaluated and compared and the main items in order to compile the theory are extracted.
This paper presented a case of biophilic urbanism using the project of the Albufeira city river restoration. The project was inspired by nature-based solutions and by implementing a green and blue rather than a grey infrastructure to reduce the risks of climate change, such as heat island effect and flash floods, while simultaneously providing greater health and well-being for urban residents and visitors. The new urbandesign for Albufeira reflects humanity’s innate need for nature and meets the needs of the following generations in a long-term sustainable solution that provides retention basins for water storage after torrential rains as well as a green and blue infrastructure, allowing the water to run its natural cycle. Due to the construction of wetlands and raingardens, the water quality will be improved and will enter the ocean clean. Adjacent to the supply of ecosystem services, a range of environmental, socio-cultural, ecological, and economic advantages were a result of the new design. The cooling green corridor brings fresh air to the city and thus, reduces the heat island effect making the city more energy efficient. City-cooling places all along the symbolic waterline, close to public spaces in the urban sounds area, create high-quality places for city residents and visitors. By establishing the blue-green infrastructure, the city will be cooled down, providing a great advantage in the socio-economic competition of the touristic hot spots in the region.
Agora (bahasa Yunani: Ἀ γορά, Agorá) adalah tempat untuk pertemuan terbuka di Yunani kuno (Gambar 5). Pada awal sejarah Yunani, (900–700 SM), orang merdeka dan pemilik tanah yang berstatus sebagai warga negara berkumpul di Agora untuk bermusyawarah dengan raja atau dewan. Di kemudian hari, Agora juga berfungsi sebagai pasar tempat para pedagang menempatkan barang dagangannya di antara pilar-pilar Agora. Dari fungsi ganda ini, muncullah dua kata dalam bahasa Yunani: αγοράζω, agorázō, "aku berbelanja", dan αγορεύω, agoreýō, "aku berbicara di depan umum". Agora terbentuk dengan ciri-ciri sebagai berikut: (1) bangunan-bangunan pada Agora memperlihatkan sebagai facade yang membentuk ruang kota yang tertutup, dimana sekelilingnya merupakan suatu arcade; (2) dibentuk dalam waktu yang cukup lama; (3) merupakan ruang urban pertama dan terpenting sebagai tempat masyarakat bertemu, berinteraksi sosial (kegiatan dagang dan kehidupan politik); (4) ide Agora baik sebagai “place” maupun “space” merupakan satu kesatuan sebagai konsep yang sangat berguna di dalam urbandesign; (5) ruang yang terbentuk secara visual berupa keseimbangan asimetrik-dibentuk oleh gabungan detail yang mirip; (6) merupakan ruang terbuka dengan fungsi yang lebih terklasifikasi; (7) bentuk Agora umumnya geometris dengan luas sekitar 5% dari luas kota.
The proximity of homes and employment to public transport networks is a key factor in explaining ridership. One of the most frequent strategies for increasing proximity to public transport is to densify the immediate station environment. However, proximity can also be created through the design of the street network in new urban developments. This article analyses the impact of urbandesign on public transport network coverage and its potential demand by comparing the real situation of the Madrid Metro network with four hypothetical scenarios representing different types of street network: irregular with high density, irregular with low density, orthogonal and station-oriented. By keeping the distribution of population and employment constant, the differences between the real scenario and each of the hypothetical ones can be explained entirely by the role played by the design of the urban fabric. A series of indicators have been calculated to measure the extent of the impact of street network design on the proximity to public transport: surface of the coverage areas, population and employment covered according to proximity bands, access quality and potential demand. The results obtained show that the station-oriented street system would lead to a substantial increase in population and employment in the first coverage bands, thereby generating a highly significant increase in the potential demand for public transport.
Shifting the focus on these two factors and taking them as the prime drives in creating places consequently affects both the planning and urbandesign process. The impacts are seen in the way in which planning process is conceived and carried out, character and content of the stages within the planning process, selection of criteria for planning purposes, and selection of key factors which should be included. The same relates to the design process and making design solutions which will comply with local culture, or creatively respond to local climate. Searching for the right answer apparently leads to the emergence of a new planning paradigm-Cultural Planning, nowadays already a recognized and authentic planning model which is able to solve these complex socio-spatial phenomena (Bajic Brkovic, 2011). Both planners and urban designers are engaged in transforming places and making places for people. While their concerns to make connections between people and places, movement and urban form, and nature and urban fabric, remain constant, the specifically and thematically centered approach transcends their routine and brings them to the more complex procedures laden with additional tasks. Thus, planners and urban designers are expected to reach (1) “full understanding of places and people, and how and why places are being used in a particular way; (2) they have to be able to develop visions and combine visions with reality; (3) their knowledge should be combined with imagination so that they could construct new concepts and projects by linking the analytic, synthetic and critical /evaluative thinking; and (4) they should remain aware of their responsibilities which are specific and far reaching, because they are changing the way resources are being used, distributed and allocated, while the implications of their proposals are serious and affect many concerned” (ETH, 2010).
Brasília, Distrito Federal, was the subject of just two national urban planning / design competitions. The first one was carried out in 1957, when the Lucio Costa’s proposal was chosen among 22 qualified competitors. The second one was intended to solve a rather surprising question to a 42 years old city: the renewal of a large fraction of its main urban area – the so-called W3 strip - which was allegedly under deteriorated status as part of the city’s fabric. Such was the decline of that urban fraction that the local government felt the obligation to carry out, in 2002, the National Public Competition of Ideas and Preliminary UrbanDesign and Planning Sketches Aiming to the W3 Strip’s Urban Renewal, in Brasília, Distrito Federal.
Greenery is another very important aspect to be considered at the urbandesign project, that is why buildings will be covered with green roofs. Therefore, people can walk on the roofs, from where there is a beautiful view over the surrounding landscape to the river and to the mountain. According to some authors , green surfaces including green roofs have been rarely used as elements of urbandesign, and the urban fabric composition, either in new urbanizations or in the rehabilitation of historical places. Thus, this proposal will be considered has an innovation regarding the features of São Pedro do Sul. Near to the main buildings there will be the train station and rent housing allowing to rent bikes and kayaks as well for river activities. Another aspect of the urbandesign methodology is to create a central square for cultural and local community events. Therefore, the road will be crossing the area via underground. Thanks to this short of solutions, the case study area will be concerned about soft mobility for cycling and pedestrians. A lot of walking paths and cycle paths will run along to the area. An iconic element of the project will be the new bridge for pedestrian and cyclists. Streets will be organized and a new car park will be designed. Finally, the most complex task of this urban project was to develop a strategy able to reinforce the contact in between urban fabric and water front. Thus, this solution will try to create a smooth connection, which will join the river with the city. Vouga river will be a matching part of the city and attractive place for its inhabitants and visitors.
Abstract. The urbanized policy of the last years in Portugal has been based on the construction of urban expansion areas, as much for industrial ends as for residential ends. It is estimated that the areas available for construction when added to the consolidated urban areas can house a population of 30 million inhabitants, while the Portuguese population is around 10 million. Many of these new urban areas are much bigger than it is necessary with problems in terms of waste of infrastructures, creating urban voids or discontinuity. Recently, there have arisen new legal diplomas designed to encourage an urbanized praxis that goes against the current trend and incentives the urban rehabilitation actions. These diplomas define one policy of urban rehabilitation in articulation with the municipal plans, namely with the contents of the detailed local plans (the most detailed of the Portuguese planning system). In this context, this article aims to present a reflection about the new challenges to the urban rehabilitation as an agent of urbandesign, the figure of detailed local plan as the first instrument of urbanized praxis in urban spaces which should be hackneyed in its utilization and, the process of construction of the city based on urban rehabilitation instead of urban expansion.
O Design “não é uma regra universal de configuração, mas uma ação interpretativa, criadora, que permite diversas formas de expressão” (BONFIM, 1999, p.152 apud NAVALON, 2008, p. 16). Daí a possibilidade de aproximações e distanciamentos entre as diferentes áreas do Design, pois, como bem argumenta Navalon (2008), a atividade de design pode ser comparada a construção de um tecido. É necessária a definição das interconexões estabelecidas entre o designer (trama), usuário (urdume) e o seu desejo (fio). Quando estes se entrelaçam e se interconectam, o tecido é configurado. E o segredo para tamanha variação nas áreas de atuação é que existem muitas maneiras de compor essas interconexões. (Pacheco et al., 2014, p.3)