Top PDF Abstract This article provides an overview of the

Abstract This article provides an overview of the

Abstract This article provides an overview of the

Abstract This article provides an overview of the profound changes in the more advanced welfare states in Europe and Latin America over the past 35 years. Deindustrialization, informalization, and the rise of unstable employment, combined with aging populations rendered traditional em- ployment-based models of social protection less ef- fective and at the same time increased demands on the welfare state. The two main responses to these challenges were efforts at cost containment and inclusion in non-contributory social protection schemes and health services of those in marginal labor market positions. The mix of these two re- sponses and the depth of the changes were shaped by the intensity of the economic and demographic pressures, policy legacies, the partisan preferences of governing parties and coalitional constraints, the strength of groups in civil society, the presence of veto points in the political system, and in Lat- in America the process of democratization, along with the international context. A broad compari- son between Latin America and Europe highlights the importance of the international context in the form of a relentless pursuit of neoliberal models by the International Financial Institutions in Latin America in contrast to the model of Social Europe promoted by the European Union.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Abstract This article discusses the issue of social

Abstract This article discusses the issue of social

Abstract This article discusses the issue of social protection against the demands presented in the treatment of children and adolescents in Brazil. It aims to problematize the advances and limits of the Brazilian social protection system in face of the social demands arising from the treatment of children and adolescents that go beyond the spe- cific limits of health care. It is a qualitative study that was structured based on the analysis of of- ficial documents, Laws, Decrees, Ordinances and Policies and the literature destined to children and adolescents in cancer treatment whose inca- pacitating consequences produce social demands that impact, above all, family life. The paper pres- ents social policies as a fundamental resource for treatment, considering the demand for income and displacement, in order to enable an effective health care. However, the reflections indicate that there is now a retraction of social policies by the State that was expressed in the focus and transfer of responsibilities of the State to other sectors of civil society.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac- teristics of federalism in Brazil and its institution- al relations with health policy. It discusses feder- alism from a classical perspective highlighting the essentially centralized nature of Brazil’s system and the prevalence of decentralizing health pol- icies underpinned by the principles enshrined by the 1988 Constitution.We used primary data obtained from an electronic questionnaire re- sponded by secretaries of health sitting on the governing bodies of the country’s health region and secondary data Ministry of Health databases covering the current health regions. The findings show that significant progress has been made in the implementation of regional governing bodies, yet without any significant impact on the reduc- tion of deep regional inequalities in primary and hospital care. It concludes by suggesting that the persistence of inequalities is down to weak cen- tral coordination capacity and an inappropriate trade-off between a centralized federal system and competition between entities, thus undermining cooperative regionalization of the public health system as envisaged by the 1988 Constitution. Key words Federalism, Regional inequalities, Unified Health System
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

Abstract This article briefly analyses the central

More cited than studied, the World Bank has attracted criticisms and controversies. Through its more than 70 years of existence, the Bank has undergone processes of incremental change and institutional expansion which have increased its size and its mandate, turning it into an immense and very complex organization, very different from the one agreed in Bretton Woods in 1944. The gradual growth of its loan portfolio was ac- companied by the extension of its areas of activi- ty, which, in addition to its original sectors of in- frastructure and energy, have come to cover eco- nomic policy, education, health, housing, public administration, the environment, rural and ur- ban development, and state construction and re- construction. Strictly speaking any activity linked to ‘development’ can be the object of the Bank’s actions, which distinguishes it radically from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations’ specialized agencies. This article analyzes the principal points of the World Bank agenda for the reform of national states in Lat- in America, between 1980 and 2017, based on documents from the institution itself and the specialized literature. Presented initially are some relevant aspects of the history of the Bank and its configuration as a multilateral organization. Next, the role of the institution is discussed in the encouragement of structural adjustment policies in the economies of the region during the 1980s, based on a hyper-market orientated agenda. Af- ter this, the renewal and expansion of the policy agenda of the Bank from the end of the 1990s on- wards is looked at, based on the maintenance of the macroeconomic adjustment, the promotion of institutional reforms, and the fight against extreme poverty. Finally, the central lines of the Bank’s social policy reform agenda are discussed.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Abstract This article analyses the process of con-

Abstract This article analyses the process of con-

lished the main guidelines for the construction of the National System of Epidemiological Surveil- lance in the SUS, which was intended to be de- centralized and comprehensive, i.e. not limited to communicable diseases, whilst at the same time not devaluing this component of traditional pub- lic health. The suggested strategy was to establish links with the National Council of State Secretar- ies of Health (Conass) and the National Council of Municipal Health Secretaries (Conasems) to construct an intergovernmental strategy involv- ing the three SUS management spheres in order to rapidly decentralize the prevention and control of diseases already existent in Brazil, ensuring that there was no interruption in actions or pos- sible damage to the health of the population, as well as expanding the scope of HS activities. The idea was to reduce the fragmentation of surveil- lance activities, which were largely organized in the form of special programs in the SES and the regional directorates of Funasa, and to construct a new surveillance. It was also proposed to inte- grate the health care network, particularly prima- ry health care, in order to provide greater connec- tivity and better quality for the system.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Abstract Abstract This article examines phar-

Abstract Abstract This article examines phar-

Bill 7082/17, which has already been ap- proved by the Senate (Bill 200/15) and is current- ly under consideration by the Chamber of Repre- sentatives seeks to provide greater judicial legiti- macy and swiftness to clinical trials and proposes limits to the mandatory provision of post-study medicines guaranteed by Resolution 466/12. The bill also proposes the creation of a new ethical regulation system for clinical trials connected to the Ministry of Health. In our view, this proposal is inconsistent considering the primary function of the NHC, which is a participatory and delib- erative body attached to the Ministry of Health that plays an important role in formulating and overseeing the implementation of the country’s health policy and has taken important steps in guaranteeing the protection of research partici- pants in Brazil.
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Abstract This article aims to investigate the

Abstract This article aims to investigate the

showed association between polymedication and morbidity. However, the statistical significance was not maintained in the multivariate model, and polymedication was not considered a factor for the development of MRM. From the cases an- alyzed, it appears that the type of medication used has a greater influence than the quantity of items, since the so-called PD and LTI medications, also in the multivariate analysis, were significantly involved in the demand for emergency services, increasing the chance of development of MRM by 2.01 and 3.09 times, respectively. This result is important since the increase in life expectancy and the complexity of some treatments contrib- ute to the increase in the number of polymedicat- ed patients. These factors are also involved in the increase in the demand for health services, which increasingly demand that health professionals es- tablish strategies to optimize their work.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Abstract This article is an objective examination

Abstract This article is an objective examination

In this panorama, something that stands out is the acceptance of trans people in contexts that are not related to bodily modifications of sex. As a consequence of the binary and cis-gender logic that orients the health system, and the vi- olation of their rights ( – to secrecy, privacy and the right to use of a social name: all guaranteed by the SUS Users’ Charter, of 2007), often they are effectively prevented from accessing services and procedures by bureaucratic and operational issues of a system that does not provide for giving care to non-normative identities and bodies, or their health needs.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac-

Abstract This article analyses the main charac- teristics of federalism in Brazil and its institution- al relations with health policy. It discusses feder- alism from a classical perspective highlighting the essentially centralized nature of Brazil’s system and the prevalence of decentralizing health pol- icies underpinned by the principles enshrined by the 1988 Constitution.We used primary data obtained from an electronic questionnaire re- sponded by secretaries of health sitting on the governing bodies of the country’s health region and secondary data Ministry of Health databases covering the current health regions. The findings show that significant progress has been made in the implementation of regional governing bodies, yet without any significant impact on the reduc- tion of deep regional inequalities in primary and hospital care. It concludes by suggesting that the persistence of inequalities is down to weak cen- tral coordination capacity and an inappropriate trade-off between a centralized federal system and competition between entities, thus undermining cooperative regionalization of the public health system as envisaged by the 1988 Constitution. Key words Federalism, Regional inequalities, Unified Health System
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe

Abstract The scope of this article is to describe the food consumption and eating behavior of qui- lombola and non-quilombola adolescents from the rural area of Southwest Bahia. A cross-sec- tional study with 390 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was conducted in 2015, using an adapted PeNSE and PNS questionnaire. Food consump- tion was assessed by the frequency of healthy and unhealthy food markers in the previous 7 days. Eating breakfast was used as a marker of healthy eating behavior and having meals while watch- ing TV as being unhealthy. Frequency distribu- tion was carried out and the differences between quilombola and non-quilombola groups were assessed using the chi-square test. The prevalence ratio (PR) estimated the association of food con- sumption and eating behavior and the variables of interest. Low fruit consumption (30.8%), veg- etables (44.3%) and milk (24.4%) was observed. Comparison between the groups revealed lower consumption of vegetables (PR = 0.73), fruit (PR = 0.67) and milk (PR = 0.68) among quilombola than among non-quilombola adolescents. Public policies targeted at nutritional assistance specific to rural adolescents are recommended, since bad eating habits can prevail throughout life and lead to poor health conditions.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi-

Abstract The scope of this article is to investi- gate the association between the source of snacks consumed in schools, their nutritional value and overweight/obesity. It involved a cross-sectional study with 3,930 schoolchildren aged between 7 and10 in the state of Santa Catarina. Food con- sumption in the school was assessed with an il- lustrated 24-hour dietary recall and the source of snacks was investigated by structured inter- view. Soft drinks and artificial fruit juices, fried and processed snacks, ready-to-eat or sweetened snacks, delicacies and stuffed biscuits were classi- fied as “low nutritional value foods,” while fruit, natural fruit juices, vegetables, and vegetable soup were the “high nutritional value foods.” Univari- ate and multiple logistic regression was conduct- ed. Overweight/obesity was significantly associat- ed with higher food consumption from the school canteen (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.07-1.68) in private schools. Bringing food from home was significant- ly associated with increased consumption of low nutritional foods, both in public (OR = 1.56; CI = 1.32-1.83) and private (OR = 2.64; CI = 1.76- 3.97) schools. The results highlight the need for tightening of norms to reduce the availability of low nutritional value food in canteens, and ac- tions to promote nutritional education involving the school community.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the accreditation criteria of the studies that eval- uated actions of health promotion and risk factor prevention of Health Promoting Schools (HPS). A systematic review was conducted based on the recommendations proposed in the “Preferred Re- porting Items for Systematic Reviews and Me- ta-Analyses (Prisma)” protocol of articles that assessed HPS in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Portal Capes. From the analysis of the three pillars for accreditation of HPS, three of the studies analyzed did not in- clude all the criteria for certification as HPS on the “Planning Process” and “Health Promotion Activities Developed” pillars. The schools cited in these studies perform health education, preven- tion and/or health promotion activities, howev- er, it is misleading to refer to themselves as HPS. The main challenges for implementation, devel- opment and continuity of HPS were identified as being intersectionality and insufficient financial and qualified human resources. HPS need to be certified and submitted to an ongoing evaluation process. It is also suggested the topic of health pro- motion be included in the syllabuses of training courses of health education teachers and other health education professionals.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze

the evolution of the profile of psychiatric admis- sions via the Unified Health System in psychiat- ric hospitals of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2001 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System. The analyses of trends were conducted by regression procedures, in which the independent variable was the year, and the dependent variables were the patients (sex, age, diagnosis) and admission characteris- tics (city, hospital administrative status, length of internment). A total of 202,188 admissions to 25 hospitals were appraised. There were significant changes in the diagnostic profiles of psychiatric admissions during the period under scrutiny, no- tably an increase in the proportion of admissions for substance abuse-related disorders and a reduc- tion for psychotic disorders. This study is in tune with the context of the reform of mental health- care in Minas Gerais, providing relevant input to support the mental health policies towards uni- versalization, humanization and the overcoming of inequalities in access to health services.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Abstract The scope of this article is to assess the

Abstract The scope of this article is to assess the

Abstract The scope of this article is to assess the oral health conditions and self-perceived chewing ability among the elderly seniors (≥ 80 years). Data from the FIBRA multicentric study were used. The sample consisted of 2,341 individuals with no cognitive impairment, aged ≥ 65 years, be- tween 2008 and 2009, where the elderly were sub- jected to data collection. Regarding the outcome, age was dichotomized into 65-79 and 80 and over. The association between longevity and the socio- demographic and behavioral variables, general and oral health and self-perceived chewing ability was assessed by Poisson regression. Complete data are now available for 2,126 seniors. The mean age was 70.91 (SD =± 4.11) years among the young elderly and 82.70 (SD =± 2.61) among the elderly seniors. The sample of individuals aged ≥ 80 years was 11.7%. Low education, single marital status and lack of work were associated with longevity, as well as self-reporting of having no natural teeth and difficulty or pain when chewing hard foods. The results suggest an association between lon- gevity with sociodemographic characteristics and oral health.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Abstract This article aims to estimate the prev-

Abstract This article aims to estimate the prev-

Abstract This article aims to estimate the prev- alence and violence-associated factors in the work environment of female correctional officers in Brazil. A cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted in 15 female correctional facilities in Brazil’s five regions. Pearson’s chi-square test was performed. The Odds Ratio and Confidence In- tervals were estimated for factors that showed a significant association or were confounding fac- tors. The prevalence of having experienced at least one violent occurrence during professional duty as an officer was 28.4%. An interesting factor is fact that agents themselves are identified as the main suspects of robbery (74.6%), moral violence (68.1%) and sexual harassment (66.8%) against their co-workers. Working in more than one cor- rectional facility increased the chance of suffering from violence (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.51 – 6.9). The main associated factors are: working in temporary detention centers, age of admission to the prison system and low social support among co-workers. Violence in the Brazilian prison environment is of great magnitude and considered a complex phe- nomenon with multiple causes. To combat this, it is necessary to adopt intersectoral actions, capa- ble of intervening both in the prison environment and in society.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Abstract This article aimed to assess the prev-

Abstract This article aimed to assess the prev-

In the present study there was an association between early weaning of children (<4 months) and LDL concentrations. According to an ob- servational study conducted in Pelotas-RS, in- fants exclusively breastfed for a longer period of time, developed better intelligence (IQ) and income and education in adulthood, compared to those non-breastfed infants due to breast milk present in its composition saturated long-chain fatty acids that contribute to neuronal devel- opment 20 . Another factor to consider is that ex-

10 Ler mais

Abstract This article aims to estimate the specific

Abstract This article aims to estimate the specific

Care services to treat these patients with pe- nile cancer must disclose information about this disease, which is not known for much of the pop- ulation, due to rare incidence and certain preju- dice. Should discuss and advising on prevention, risk factors, the importance of early diagnosis, the severity of its evolution and the result of mu- tilating treatment. Opportunities exist centers of multidisciplinary teams references that allow access and an approach not only the physical but also the mental. Considering the large number of patients that progress to depression and suicide.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Abstract This article presents a careful comparative

Abstract This article presents a careful comparative

This article has addressed the important problem of accurate numerical estimation of point curvature in closed parametrized curves. While the application potential of such techniques is considerable for vision research, image processing and analysis, shape analysis and computer graphics, relatively little attention has been focused on the issue of comparing and validating such numerical approaches. The present article has not only introduced a new approach to curvature estimation, namely the 2-D Fourier-based methodology, as well as the exclusion of perimeter/energy normalization, but also presented a careful and reasonably comprehensive comparison of the 1-D and 2-D Fourier-based approaches. An interesting phenomenon that has been verified consists in the fact that the 2-D approach tend to suffer when the curve is characterized by regions that are close in the 2-D space but distant along the 1-D parameter. Although the obtained results clearly indicate definite advantages in using the 1-D as far as execution time and accuracy is concerned, the 2-D approach is still relevant for problems involving the estimation of curvature in 2-D embeddings of parametric spatial curves. One such problem, namely the use of level-set methods to calculate propagating fronts [Sethian, 1996], is currently under investigation in the Cybernetic Vision Research Group, including the possibility of using the 1-D and 2-D curvature estimation techniques addressed in the current article as means for improving the accuracy of the curvature values required by the level-set approaches.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

ysis of work management and education in the healthcare field over the three decades since the creation of Brazil’s Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese). Using the sociology of professions as a frame of reference, it address- es the following topics: the health labor market; trends in healthcare employment; the healthcare workforce; and the regulation and dynamics of undergraduate programs in the health field. It an- alyzes each of the moments that characterize the area, from the pre-SUS period to the present day. The period has witnessed the following: a boom in health schools, largely in the private sector; an overall increase in the level of education of health professionals , an increase in regional inequity; an alarming increase in distance learning programs; an imbalance between labor supply and demand; the expansion of installed capacity; the munici- palization of health employment; an increased focus on multiprofessional teams; and an increase in precarious work and informal contractual rela- tionships and deterioration of pay levels. Key words Unified Health System, Work man- agement, Education, Labor market
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

Abstract This article presents a historical anal-

Abstract This article presents a historical anal- ysis of work management and education in the healthcare field over the three decades since the creation of Brazil’s Unified Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese). Using the sociology of professions as a frame of reference, it address- es the following topics: the health labor market; trends in healthcare employment; the healthcare workforce; and the regulation and dynamics of undergraduate programs in the health field. It an- alyzes each of the moments that characterize the area, from the pre-SUS period to the present day. The period has witnessed the following: a boom in health schools, largely in the private sector; an overall increase in the level of education of health professionals , an increase in regional inequity; an alarming increase in distance learning programs; an imbalance between labor supply and demand; the expansion of installed capacity; the munici- palization of health employment; an increased focus on multiprofessional teams; and an increase in precarious work and informal contractual rela- tionships and deterioration of pay levels. Key words Unified Health System, Work man- agement, Education, Labor market
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...