The commercial eggproduction is a very demand- ing process that requires decision making regarding both production and cost monitoring on a daily basis (Sossidou, 2005). In conditions, modern technical and technological solutions prevailed, it is necessary to pro- vide optimal utilization level of capacities determined by a large number of factors, the most influential of which are costs and their structure (Beierlein, 1986). Qualitative and precise business decision-making is connected with the recognition of problems and finding potential solu- tions; it should, therefore, result in choosing the most favourable and achievable one (Chadwick, 2000). An important presumption in business decision-making is understanding of some cost movement. The purpose of this investigation is to monitor consumption (Tolušić, 2005) of the elements included in the production process, their prices and equivalent costs as well as the estimate and calculation of cost cover in commercial egg produc- tion between conventional eggproduction and production of eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (Lewis, 2000).
There was quadratic effect (P<0.05) of digestible lysine levels on speciﬁc egg weight (Table 3). The level of 10.90 g digestible lysine/kg of diet resulted in 1.072 g/cm³, enabling the occurrence of eggs with lower shell quality as compared with other levels of lysine studied. However, in studies conducted by Rodrigues et al. (2007), the digestible lysine levels did not have effect on speciﬁc egg weight of Japanese quails. Nevertheless, even showing a 0.19% variation between the highest speciﬁc egg weight (1.074 g/cm³) and the lowest speciﬁc egg weight (1.072 g/cm³), which could result in eggs with thinner shell, we can observe that there was no interference with eggshell quality, which can be conﬁrmed by the production of marketable eggs, which, in absolute values, presented the greatest percentage (98.64%), close to the level estimated for the highest egg weight (11.20 g digestible lysine/kg of diet).
This study aimed to verify the existence of differences between hens from the Barred Plymouth Rock (PRB) breed and White Plymouth Rock (PRW) breed by multivariate analysis of weekly eggproduction and cumulative during the years of 1998 and 2010, from the Laboratório de Avicultura (LAVIC) of the Departamento de Zootecnia at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM). For the analysis of the univariate and multivariate variance, the experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (breed) and 299 repetitions of the PRW breed and 350 of the PRB breed. The parameters analyzed were the weekly productions of eggs per bird from the 21st to the 50th week of age (P21, P22, ..., P50) and production of eggs accumulated being from the 21st to the 25th (PA1), 21st to the 30th (PA2), 21st to the 35th (PA3), 21st to the 40th (PA4), 21st to the 45th (PA5) and 21st to 50th (PA6). Analyzes of univariate and multivariate variance were conducted and the comparison of means were made by "T" Student and Wilks respectively (P < 0, 05). Based on the results, an analysis of the principal components was performed with parameters PA1, PA2, PA4, PA5 and PA6. With the average eggproduction per family accumulated, a cluster analysis using Euclidean distance and single linkage method (nearest neighbors) was performed. The first two principal components meet the total variation ineggproduction accumulated from the 21st to 25th, 21st to 30th, 21st to 40th, 21st to 45th and 21st to 50th weeks of age. Most of the phenotypic variation of the layers can be explained by the production of eggs accumulated from the 21st until the 40th week of age, and this variable is highly correlated with total eggproduction. Families from the PRW and PRB breed form seven distinct groups, but homogeneous by the similarity between them. This allows direct crossings between different groups, in the pursuit for heterosis.
ABSTRACT - The aim of this study was to verify the effect of the addition of an enzyme complex on performance (feed intake, eggproduction, egg weight and egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, and feed conversion per dozen eggs), and on egg quality (% of shell, albumen and yolk, shell thickness, specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen index), in medium-heavy laying hens at 28 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were used in a randomised block design with 10 replications of six birds per lot and four treatments: positive control (basal feed), negative control (with a reduction in metabolisable energy, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus), negative control + enzymes, and positive control + enzymes. The enzyme complex, composed of β-glucanases, β-xylanase, cellulase and phytase, was added to the feed at a ratio of 50 g t -1 . The data were submitted to analysis of variance with the mean values compared by Tukey’s test at 5%. There was
As we mentioned before , the CVP model analyzes the evolution of total revenue, total costs and operating profit as are changes inproduction levels (in the general economic activity), the selling price, the unit variable cost and / or fixed costs of a product. From practical work we could find that the even the easiest CVP analysis is useful in making decisions regarding strategic planning and offers, regarding the features of the tourism package products, prices and tariffs offered.
Experiments using selection methods have also been carried out to evaluate heterosis. Reciprocal recurrent selection, which involves two types of selection in favor of additive and nonadditive genetic variation, is an important breeding method to obtain heterosis and stable genetic lines. First developed by Comstock et al. (1949), this method enables the selection and combination of preferred capable lines. That is to say, reciprocal recurrent selection designed to increase the genetic distance between lines should eventually achieve maximum heterosis. This is even more so in the negative correlation between body weight and eggproduction. This situation should be considered in the development of quail parent lines (Kocak et al., 1995; Minvielle et al., 1999; Yahaya et al., 2009). It is reported that the long-term selection for body weight in quails has resulted in a decrease ineggproduction and an increase inegg weight. Usually, a significant increase ineggproduction causes a decrease inegg weight. This is applicable for quails as well, and it is an important measure for selection for body weight (Marks, 1996, Alkan et al., 2010; Silva et al. 2013).
The main factors shaping the variability of eggproduction rates of Acartia clausi in a short temporal scale were salinity and ammonium. Previous studies reported that the main factors influencing Acartia reproduction are food availability (e.g. Uye, 1981, Kimmerer et al., 2005) and temperature (e.g. Uye, 1981, Castro-Longoria, 2003). Although it is well known that food is an important factor for the reproduction of A. clausi (Uye, 1981, Pagano et al., 2004), it was not the case in the present study as this factor was not selected by the model that explain EPR variability (Table IV). This can be attributed to the fact that food was not a limiting factor during this season, when a relatively high abundance of dinoflagellates occurred, which are an essential food source for the reproduction of A. clausi (Band-Schmidt et al., 2008). Furthermore, most of the previous studies have been conducted in a higher temporal scale than the present one or in laboratory experimental conditions, therefore lacking a higher temporal resolution. As stated before, there was a salinity decreased (34-35) and macronutrients increased at the end of August and beginning of September, which corresponded to higher productivity of this calanoid species. Castro-Longoria (2003) recorded the highest A. clausi EPR at a salinity of 35, in an experiment using a salinity range between 15 and 35. Moreover, A. clausi eggproductionin a Northern African lagoon was negatively correlated to salinity, where it decreased with values over 35 occurring during the summer (Annabi-Trabelsi et al., 2012). In fact, the metabolism of this species in terms of respiration rates was lowest at a salinity of 35, meaning that it is well adapted to these conditions (Gaudy et al., 2000). The decrease of reproduction in salinities > 35 mean that salinity could be a limiting factor for A. clausi even when it encounters suitable food conditions. The other factor influencing the reproduction was ammonia, showing an increment ineggproduction rates when this nutrient increased. Only a few previous studies have observed the same pattern despite the toxicity of this nutrient. Moraitou-Apostolopoulou and Verriopoulos (1981) have found that A. clausi inhabiting
OFFICIAL methods of analysis. Microbiological methods. Washington: AOAC, 1995. Chapter 17. OKAMURA, M.; KAMIJIMA,Y.; MIYAMOTO, T. et al. Differences among six Salmonella serovars in abilities to colonize reproductive organs and to contaminate eggs in laying hens. Avian Dis., v.45, p.61-69, 2001. OLIVEIRA, D.D.; SILVA, E.N. Salmonela em ovos comerciais: ocorrência, condições de armazenamento e desinfecção da casca. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.52, p.655-661, 2000.
Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava productionin Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
Cross 1 can also be represented by a decision circuit diagram, as in Figure 6H. HR-h is not available in cross 1, and conversion from the sister chromatid (HR-s) yields a regenerated I-SceI cut site that is vulnerable to another round of DSB formation. HR-s would also restore the cut site in cross 2, but this event is not shown explicitly in Figure 6A– G. The scheme in Figure 6H provides an explanation for the peculiar behavior of rad51 mutants that cause a reduction of NHEJ in cross 1 but not cross 2 (Figure 4F versus 4C) while increasing SSA in both crosses (Figure 4E and 4H). We interpret these cross-1 effects as indirect consequences of a reduction in HR-s usage. We cannot measure HR-s directly, as it regenerates the original Rr3 structure. However, as shown in Figure 6I, a reduction in HR-s from pool 2 would enhance usage of SSA. Since NHEJ is the only other outcome from cross 1, its frequency would then decrease owing to elevated competition with SSA. This reasoning, however, applies only to rad51 and not rad54, since the results from cross 2 place the action of rad54 at a different point in the decision circuit (Figure 6D). The reduction in NHEJ from rad54 in cross 1 is only weakly signiﬁcant (p ¼ 0.04) and could be spurious. In addition, we do not see any effect on SSA or NHEJ in cross 1 for DmBlm or top3a even though they are postulated to act at the same segment of the decision circuit as rad51 (Figure 6C). The reason may be that DmBlm and top3a have a weaker reduction in HR-h than rad51, so their secondary effect on cross 1 (indirectly via HR-s reduction) would be less apparent.
Changes in the acid-base balance and imbalances in the Na, K and Cl supplementation cause loss of appetite, reduction in weight gain, affecting feed conversion, and causing drop ineggproduction (Borges, 2003b). It appears that the interrelationship between electrolytes affects the performance of birds both when providing levels of minerals that are outside the nutritional requirement and when changing the optimum relationship between them. According to Lobato et al. (2009), birds require minimal amounts of K in their diet to meet their physiological needs, and in addition, the ratio between K, chlorine and
This enormous success of Search Engine lies in its unique features like free access, user friendly interface, and availability of multiple Search Engines. The expertise of a Search Engine lies in its search algorithm which is a major player in fetching results for user query. India has seen the emergence of Online Business Industry as a major revenue generating Industry. This has created a race to expand business online. Google, Yahoo, MSN, have emerged as major Search Engines in India. Apart from these India has seen the emergence of local tailor made Search Engines like Khoj, Guruji, Justdial. The success of Search Advertising strategy lies in the fact that it is based on contextual advertising. Contextual advertising implies that the advertisements will be displayed relevant to the search query of the user. This increase the probability that the user will click the advertisement as it may be of its interest. Study by Anurag Gupta((2006) shows that search advertising globally is already as large as banner / display advertising. Popularity of Search Advertising lies in the fact that it is contextual and so leads to better response and secondly and more important the entire cost is based on performance (clicks) i.e. an advertiser only pays when someone clicks on his advertisement. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) has emerged as truly the marketing model of the future. With big companies like Kingfisher Airlines, MTV, Pfizer, Novartis investing in the Pay Per Click (PPC) model many Indian companies like communicate 2,web techies have came up that are totally based on Search Engine Marketing Industry.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27%) of methionine (MET), two levels (12.8 and 14.7%) of protein (PRO) and two levels (1 and 3%) of tallow (TAL) with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%), was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Eggproduction and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk). Low level of protein (12.8%) significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05). Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.
Suppose that the subunit denoted 1 of bainitic ferrite forms without diffusion, but any excess carbon is soon rejected into the residual austenite. Consequently, all the subunits denoted 1 were formed at the early stage of transformation from austenite whose carbon concentration is initially identical to that of bulk alloy (region of upper bainite). The subunits denoted 2 and 3 were formed from enriched austenite as a consequence of carbon redistribution occurring after the growth event (region of lower bainite). The transition between these two regions is not sharply defined. There is then the possibility of the reaction beginning with the growth of upper bainite but decomposing to lower bainite from the enriched austenite at the later stages of reaction. This explains why both upper and lower bainite sometimes can be found in the same temperature.
This paper analyses the application of cost management systems in the Brazilian soya bean and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the structure of the sector, which influences the competitive strategy of the organizations, would influence the cost management system that the firms were using. The methodology was based on personal interviews in 06 (six) soya bean companies and 08 (eight) dairy companies. In the dairy sector the results indicate a precarious situation related to the application of the cost management systems. On the other hand, in the soya bean sector the results show a greater concern with the use of more rigorous control systems of the industrial costs. This was demonstrated by the intensive use of more traditional cost management systems by the companies studied.
There is a limited availability of RTM in the poultry science (Mendes and Akkartal, 2009). Taking into consideration earlier studies concerning RTM and its advantages, RTM based on CHAID algorithm can be an admirable tool in the classiﬁcation of eggs, existing inegg quality criteria instead of traditional regression methods. But there is no reported knowledge which proved the prediction of EW using regression tree method. Hence, the aim of this present investigation was to predict EW from AW, YW, and SW on commercial layer hybrids by means of MLR, RR, and RTM (based on CHAID algorithm) analyses for developing egg quality standards.
affected by lysine and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA), while dry weight decreased when concentrations of lysine and TSAA were increased. According to them the decreased shell quality was associated with the increased synthesis of shell membranes rather than shell with less shell availability per unit area. However, another study proved that shell weight and percentage would not be affected when TSAA level was increased from 624 to 822mg/hen/day (Shafer et al., 1996). The same effect of increasing TSAA on shell weight was also observed by Scheideler & Elliot (1998). Albumen weight (25.03±0.37g), height (7.53±0.12mm), diameter (53.09±0.41mm) and index (14.19±0.15%) of birds reared on L3 was also significantly higher than those of L2 and L1 (Table 2 and 3). Albumen quality is inter-dependent upon many factors where temperature and storage time are the most crucial one (Samli et al., 2005). Significantly improved albumen weight was also reported by Garcia et al. (2005) in their study on Japanese quails fed with different levels of protein and lysine. As albumen height is the measure of egg quality and according to Khajali et al. (2008) the albumen height was not significantly (p≤0.05) influenced when Hy-Line W36 hens were fed with reduced CP
w eeks. Body w eight, feed intake and eggproduction w ere measured w eekly during 26-40 w ks of age. The hatchability of eggs w as recorded on w eeks 38, 39, and 40. A ntibody production w as recorded after 8 w ks of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation. Prebiotic supplementation did not affect feed intake, the percentages of eggproduction and settable eggs percents. Prebiotic increased egg hatchability and reduced the percentages of infertile eggs, as w ell as dead embryo-in-shells. A ntibody titers against influenza and reovirus w ere higher in prebiotic fed gro up, but there w ere no significant differences among the other blo od antibody titers. Probiotic had no significant effect on the considered parameters. In co nclusion, findings of present study show ed that prebiotic improved egg hatchability and humoral immunity of broiler breeders.
Air renewal in the setter room is also essential in artificial egg incubation (Kornfeld et al., 2004). The fans in the setter room have two main functions: (i) to allow the intake of fresh air and removal of already circulated air, and (ii) to provide uniform air flow over the eggs, creating a homogeneous microclimate inside the setter that promotes adequate heat transfer, gas exchange, and water loss between the eggs and the incubation environment. The levels of CO 2 inside the setter room should not exceed 0.4% (Cobb, 2008). Sotherland et al. (1987) state that setter room ventilation should be able to reduce the heat transfer coefficient in the beginning of incubation to heat the eggs, and to increase it at the end to allow egg heat loss. Therefore, air renewal in the setter room is essential for the removal of excessive CO 2 and heat produced by the eggs, and for the restoration of O 2 levels (Calil, 2007). On the other hand, air speed within the setter room may influence in-ovo development: an air velocity of 2 m/s results in a 0.5-1°C difference between air and egg temperatures, while 0.5 m/s promotes a difference of 1-2.5ºC, which has strong effects the embryo development, resulting in weak hatchlings that may be unable to get out of the eggshell (Meijerhof and van Beek, 1993).
Different methods of molting are practiced, all presenting advantages and limitations. In the present study, fasting for the period of 13 days was adopted and 36%body weight loss was observed. Because birds were fasted in an open house during winter, this could have caused this excessive live body weight loss. Almost same body weight loss results, ranging between24 and31%, were reported in molted layers by some authors(Baker et al. 1983; Andrews et al. 1987; Bell, 1992; and Oguike et al. 2005), while Hassanabadi & Kermanshahi (2007) withdrawal feed for five days and reported 20% weight loss. Consistently, Bass et al. (2007) reported more body weight loss in complete feed with draw al treatments and faster regain when ad libitum feed was offered. Andrews et al. (1987) reported that25% of total body weight loss was directly attributed to regression of the liver, ovary and oviduct. Ocak et al. (2004) suggested that lighter hens loose more weight during molting. In a study with Japanese quails, Kashmiri & Vatsalya (2011) reported that forced molting resulted in body weight loss, regression of reproductive organs and decrease in the size of liver.