Melon seeds. Fresh seeds of watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) of the Cucurbitaceae family, mainly imported in Serbia, were purchased from the local market in Belgrade, with the identity authenticated by the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade. A voucher specimen was deposited in the herbarium of this institution. The seeds were taken from ripened fresh samples. Moisture was determined directly on the seeds by oven drying at 105 o C for 6 hours. The yield of the dry seeds from the sample was determined. The ripened seeds and dry seeds were then ground in some blender, separately, and placed in vacuum oven at 60 o C for 6 hours and finally stored in exiccator until analysed. Proximate analyses were performed in triplicate in accordance with the AOAC procedures (AOAC, 1975). The ash was determined by heating overnight at 500 o C and the protein content of the kernels and seeds by standard Kjeldahl (total %N) procedure.
Using the data reported by Ventura (2001) of the loss in mass of the commercial oils as well as of D. lacunifera seedoil in our study, Figure 2 was constructed. The total loss in mass of D. lacunifera seedoil in two steps of decomposition was 6.7% being smaller than soy (13.1%), canola (6.9%), sunflower (9.9%), corn (9.5%) and palm kernel (19.4%) oil. It can be observed from Figure 2 that (a) all oils, independent of origin or fatty acid composition presented the same model for thermal stability in which the loss in mass is linearly proportional to the time of heating at 180ºC. The model not take into consideration the type or proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in each oil. (b) the slope of the curve denotes the decomposition rate. The smaller is the slope of the curve, lower will be the rate of the decomposition of the oil, as for example, nhandiroba oil. The D. lacunifera oil showed more similarity with canola and sunflower oil.
According to the analysis of variance, there was a highly significant effect of the treatments (p < 0.001) for the quality attributes, such as the contents of TSug, RSug and SUC. When the chemical composition was detailed, with emphasis on the secondary compounds, the dependent variables were also affected by the treatments. This occurred for the contents of TPC, TC, ASC, FOL and, as a consequence, AC. The treatments did not influence the responses of other attributes, such as ExtAp, PF, pH, TTA, TSS and the TSS/ TTA, which were similar between the treatments with mean values of 1.51, 18.33 N, 5.93, 0.10% CA, 9.88 ºBrix and 98.57, respectively (Table 1).
, 2007) for lablab seed. The values are also higher than the ether extract content (2.10% and 1.41%) of pigeon pea reported by Ogundipe et al. (2003); Iorgyer, (2010) respectively. Compared with other legume seeds such as FFSB and mucuna, the mean value (3.95%) of EE obtained for lablab seed in the present study is low, indicating that lablab seed may have lower energy value from fat than the other legume seeds. The unavailability and when available, the high cost of FFSB is implicated by the numerous use it is being put to by human especially as an oil source in the oil industries. Due to this low oil content, lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source ofoil, reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. Therefore, lablab seed when produced would always be available at a lower cost for livestock feed than FFSB. Amino acid analysis of the three varieties of lablab seed in the present study revealed that lablab seed contains (fairly) high levels of both essential and non essential amino acids. The chemical scores indicate that all the essential amino acids except methionine, compare favourably with the FAO reference pattern, and have overall score of 84.38% on the
The historical process of deforestation was analyzed to evaluate the regeneration potential of forests from soil seed bank of Porto Rico island (53° 15’W and 22° 45’S) in the upper Paraná river floodplain. Remnant forest fragments were identified and measured and the structure of arboreous vegetation and the compositionof the seed bank of the forests and grassland of the island were evaluated. Results showed a fast process of deforestation with critical levels of forest: the remaining twice fragments represented only 5.98% of the total surface of the island. Disturbance by cattle raised on the island continuously degraded the fragments (backward succession), while expansion of areas with pasture favored severe impoverishment of the seed banks flora. The latter factor, soil compaction, andcharacteristicsof seeds of existing arboreous species in the bank suggested that the immediate reestablishment of vegetation was more conditioned to introduction processes of seeds (by rain and “flood seed”) than by stock of seeds in the bank.
Based on the internal and external morphological characteristicsof seeds, yield andoil quality, there is a narrow genetic base among the studied accessions, despite the existence of contrasting individuals. Reis et al. (2015) also reported low variation for oil content in jatropha seeds. In the present case, the low variability can be explained by having prioritized external visual aspects of the seed in the breeding program. The accessions studied here presented on average large seeds when compared to data available in the literature (Rao et al. 2008, Santoso 2011, Reis et al. 2015). It was observed that the endosperm does not increase proportionally with the increase of the seed area. Therefore, some genotypes will exhibit large seeds, however, with the internal cavity partially occupied by the endosperm. In addition to the endosperm area, the weight of the seed also does not increase proportionally with the area of the seed. In the present study, a correlation estimated was much lower than what was expected between the weight and endosperm area. Possibly, the X-ray captured image of the endosperm stops only showing high-density regions (lighter areas), as well as the image processing itself (Figure 1). Perhaps this fact was decisive in obtaining a superior correlation between oil content and area and percentage of the endosperm in the seed. Part of the weight of the seed was due to the weight of the seed bark since the correlation between weight andseed bark was relatively high.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristicsof parents and experimental hybrids of net melon improvement program developed in the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. Six net melon lineages (Jab-3, Jab-7, Jab-11, Jab-18, Jab-9, and Jab-20), belonging to the breeding program ofmelon from the UNESP were used and all their hybrid combinations as well as their reciprocal crosses. We used the randomized blocks design, with three replications and 38 treatments. From these 38 treatments [six lines, 15 hybrids, 15 reciprocal crosses and two commercial cultivars (Bônus nº2 and Louis)] we evaluated following physicochemical characteristics: fruit mass, pulp thickness, fruit coat thickness, netting degree of the coat, seed looseness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, maturation index, pulp firmness, and Vitamin C. The minimum mass of 0.8 kg per fruit of net melonand the minimum of 10°Brix soluble solids allowed to identify the genotypes: Jab-9 x Jab-3, Jab-18 x Jab-20, Jab-18 x Jab-11, Jab-7 x Jab-20, Jab-7 x Jab-11, Jab-20 x Jab-7, and, Jab-3 x Jab-20, as promising. These genotypes are therefore suitable for participating in assessment tests in the main net melon producing areas of Brazil and on different planting dates.
The compositionofseed banks is variable, and is classified as temporary or persistent, when modifying the regeneration of the vegetation during different time of the year. Temporary banks are composed of seeds of short life, which do not present dormancy and are dispersed in time for short periods during the year (Garwood, 1989). Species like Avenua fatua, Alopecus myosuroides, Galium aparine, Lapsana communis, Matricaria perforata, Centaurea cyanus, are classified as temporary, having a rate of decrease around 80%. Persistent seed banks are composed of seeds that have more than one year of age and reserves of seeds remain in the soil year after year,generally buried into the soil. Chenopodium album, Sinapis arvensis, Aethusa cynapium, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, Kickia spuria, Capsela bursa pastoris and Amaranthus retroflexus are examples of persistent soil seed banks (Barralis et al., 1988).
Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seedoiland mustard oil) have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regime for satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study ofcharacteristicsof biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seedoiland waste mustard oil).The characteristicsof biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20) and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.
these substances present a large diversity of structures, including phenols and phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids (Ho, 1992). On grape seedoil, the main phenolic compounds identified are gallic acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate (Zhao et al., 2017). Although TPC content decreased after spray drying process, its composition could have been changed due to distinct encapsulation efficiency (Secolin et al., 2017) and thermal stability of each phenolic compound; and interconversion reactions to derived structures (Barcia et al., 2014; Cheynier, 2012). Phenolic compounds are important for human nutrition, since plays the role of biological antioxidant. As consequence of the decrease of TPC content in grape seedoil encapsulated, a reduction in the DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed (Table 2). Some authors have also reported this negative effect of spray drying on the antioxidant activity of oils due to thermal and oxidative degradation of antioxidant substances (Calva-Estrada et al., 2018; Ferreira et al., 2016). Dn the other hand, although the oils encapsulated presented lower phenolic compound contents, they showed greater iron ion reducing capacity than the control sample (Table 2). This unexpected result was reported by Arana-Sánchez et al. (2010) for oregano oil microencapsulated by spray drying. The authors attributed this result to compositional changes in the oil during the microencapsulation process. Probably, in the current work, spray drying process could have favored the formation of some compounds possessing iron reducing capacity.
The variability in seed, oil content, and seedling characteristic along with variability in early growth performance indicates that economic benefits may be obtained. Although, Parthiban et al. (2011) reported that in India, few native Jatropha species were utilized in their improvement program with limited success; the results of this study will be valuable for strategies for conservation of genetic variation, prospects of improvement and assessment of the potential of locally adapted seed sources. As Boe (2003) mentions, that since seed is the main product of trees selection for increasing seed weight and their content (seed-oil concentration), it may become important selection criterion for new cultivar development.
Two emulsion bases were used – hydrophilic (o/w) and lipophilic (w/o) supplied by Nobilis Tilia (Czech Republic) formulated entirely on a natural basis; their composition is provided in Tables II and III. Both types of emulsion lacked the presence of humectants and contained a dispersant in aqueous phase for simple incorporation of the oil. For both bases, the oiland aqueous phase were heated separately in a water bath of 60–70 °C. As regards the hydrophilic base, the aqueous phase was stirred until all of the xanthan gum was dissolved and the oil phase was added into the aqueous phase with constant stirring. For the lipophilic base, the aqueous phase was poured into the oil phase under constant stirring. Both emulsions were homogenized using a high-speed dispersing machine Ultra-Turrax TP18/2N (IKA Janke & Kungel GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) at 3,500 rpm. Afterwards, the mixture was allowed to cool to the temperature of 28 °C. Vegetable seed oils at the amount of 3% (w/w) were homogenized into the emulsion bases on a RZR 2020 stirrer (Heidolph, Germany) at 2,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 24 °C. The pH of the prepared formulations was as follows: 4.38 in the hydrophilic emulsion base, 4.41–4.49 in hydrophilic emulsions with vegetable oils; 6.13 in the lipophilic base, 6.19–6.24 in lipophilic emulsions with vegetable oils.
The tocopherol compositionof papaya seedoil was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Prior to the HPLC analysis, the seedoil was diluted with hexane (0.4:10 v/v) and 20 µL samples were injected. The samples were analyzed with a HPLC Varian ProStar (Walnut Creek, USA) equipped with a luorescence detector. he operating conditions of the luorescence detection were λ excitation 290 nm and λ emission 330 nm. A normal phase column (Microsorb 100 Si, 250 × 4.6 mm internal diameter with 0.5 µm particle size) was used with hexane/isopropanol (99.5:0.5 v/v) as a mobile phase. he system was operated isocratically at a low rate of 1.2 mL/minute. he identiication of tocopherols (α, β, γ, and δ-tocopherol) was conducted by comparing the HPLC retention time with those of standard compounds (Supelco, Bellefonte, USA) under the same operating conditions, and the quantiication was based on an external standard method.
The content and the compositionof essential oils of aniseed are affected by ecological conditions, growing techniques and fruit maturity level [Özel 2009]. In case of coriander, which also belongs to Apiaceae family, it was concluded that dependence among temperature, radiance during fruit development and water supply of crops influence essential oil contents and its composition [Gil et al., 2002]. The investigation of the compositionof essential oil from anise fruits cultivated in different countries show that some significant differences in concentration of some compounds in oil are present [Orav et al., 2008]. But in different countries, apart from different climatic and soil characteristics, different ecotypes are cultivated, so differences in essential oil content andcomposition are huge. Different populations grown in one country also show great variations of chemical compounds in essential oil [Arslan et al., 2004; Ipek et al., 2004; Naher et al., 2012].
oil), saponification number 191.3 and 195.5 (mg of KOH /g ofoil), free fatty acids 0.6% and 0.9%, unsaponifiable matter 0.9% and 1.2% and color (1 in. cell), 2.2-2.9R + 30.0-25.0Y, respectively. Linoleic 42.1 and 45.8 %, oleic 13.4 and 12.6%, stearic 17.5 and 18.8% and palmitic 22.1 and 16.8% were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of palmitoleic, margaric, linolenic, arachidic, behenic, eicosapentaenoic and nervonic acid were also identified. The compositionof defatted seed residue of B. variegata and B. linnaei were found as: protein 41.9% and 38.6%, oil 18.0%, and 17.4% ash 4.8% and 4.2%, moisture 6.7% and 6.3%, fiber 6.9% and 7.3% and total carbohydrate 28.4% and 33.8%, respectively. Proximate and fatty acid compositionof both Bauhinia varieties were found to be almost similar. It was concluded that Bauhinia seed is a rich source of linoleic acid and could be explored for commercial uses.
Sarcocornia ambigua (Michx.) M.A. Alonso & M.B. Crespo is the most widely distributed species of the perennial genus of glasswort in South America, and it shows great biotechnological potential as a salt-water irrigated crop. Qualitative and quantitative compositions of fatty acids were determined in the seeds of S. ambigua that were cultivated in southern Brazil. Hexane extraction of the seedoil from S. ambigua yielded 13% of total lipids. The GC-FID (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector) analysis of the hexane extracts showed five prominent peaks for the seedoil: 42.9 wt.% linoleic-ω6 acid (18:2), 20.4 wt.% palmitic acid (16:0), 18.5 wt.% oleic acid (18:1), 4.5 wt.% stearic acid (18:0) and 4.0 wt.% linolenic-ω3 acid (18:3). The sum of the saturated palmitic and stearic acids (24.8%) in S. ambigua seedoil exceeded values cited for commercial oils use, as well as the seedoil from the cultivated annual glasswort Salicornia bigelovii. No undesirable fatty acid components were found in S. ambigua seedoil, and it could be recommended for animal consumption or biofuel production.
There are several minor compounds present in vegetable oils, including fat-soluble vitamins, phytosterols, pigments and phenolic compounds. Some of them had significant antioxidant capacity, which means greater potential to inhibit lipid oxidation reactions to which oils are more susceptible, i.e. the presence of minor constituents contributes to product quality and nutritional value improvements. There are numerous studies reporting minor compound concentrations in GSO produced in many countries, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy and France (Fernandes et al., 2013; Navas, 2009; Rubio et al., 2009; Crews et al., 2006). Similarly, it was important to characterize GSO from the Brazilian market as no data were found in the literature.
Abstract: The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L.), and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L.) as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seedoil yield is low (4.7%) since linoleic acid compositionof the seedoil is quiet high (67,5%), it can still be used as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seedoil.
Abstract - The aim of this work was to characterize the yellow melon seeds, hybrid variety, as for their proximate composition, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts ofseed in soybean oil. The extract ofmelon seeds (EM), obtained by extraction using ethanol: water (95:5), was applied in soybean oil at three different concentrations (500; 750 and 1000 mg kg -1 ) and submitted to Shaal oven method at 60 °C for 20 days. Oil samples were evaluated
The objective of this research was to increase knowledge on the biochemical compositionof fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and phospholipids of Brazil nut that form the largest groups of natural antioxidants for use in special diet formulations, pharmacology and medicine. We compared the oilcomposition with some well known nuts such as Grenoble walnuts or almonds and olive oil which is the reference oil in the Mediterranean diet.