application ofthe herbicide, the photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured. The visual intoxication degree andthe growth ofthe shoot andthe root ofthe plants were evaluated 21 days after the application. Paricá shows symptoms of visual intoxication characterized by chlorosis/winding, evolving to necrosis/abscission ofthe youngest leaflets. The growth ofthe stem andthe roots oftheintoxicated plants is preserved; however, an expressive leaf loss occurs, and paricá may have adaptation mechanisms to tolerate the action ofthe herbicide molecule. The photosynthesis decrease promoted by an indirect action ofglyphosate represents the main reduction on the growth of plants. The decrease on the stomatal conductance, which wasthe most sensitive physiological variable toglyphosate, resulted in lower transpiration rates, which, consequently, caused increases on the leaf temperature.
The calcium intake in the control treatment wasof 10.83 g/kg and considering the CaO doses, there was an increase of 826.52; 1,706.47; and 1,835.58% for the levels 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4%, respectively. These values are considered high when compared with values formulated in diets for sheep under normal conditions. In this speciﬁc case, the addition of calcium oxide at elevated amounts in diets for sheep differs from the recommendation of requirements given bythe NRC (1985), which considers an absolute requirement of 183 mg calcium and 103 mg phosphorus/kg of live weight for growing lambs, whereas the Agricultural Research Council (ARC, 1980) estimated calcium at 11 g and phosphorus at 6 g/kg of live body weight (LBW). Both institutions admit that the net requirements of macro elements are constant and are not dependent on the weight ofthe animal.
For depths of 10 to 30 cm (Figure 5C and D), the Wilcoxon test showed that 10 ofthe 12 best models did not differ from the null model (Table 6). A slight improvement occurred with the application of ALEX, M&J-B, BEN-B, and BEN-C models, but also for a par- ticular error range and, therefore, cannot be interpreted as better performance of these models compared tothe null model (Figure 5C). Previous studies have shown the influence of soil depth on the prediction of ρb. De Vos et al. (2005) found a 24 % improvement in the performance of PTFs in RMSE for ρb prediction at greater depths. Heuscher et al. (2005) noted that depth was responsible for approximately 1 % ofthe variation in ρb, andthe greatest variation observed was 7 %. Benites et al. (2007) did not observe an improvement in the accuracy ofthe PTFs after separating the soils by depth (0 to 30 cm and 30 to 100 cm). Tranter et al. (2007) found better results when using the depth expressed on a logarithmic scale. Nemes et al. (2010) observed a decrease in the bias after separating the soil by depth.
The genetic diversity (H) based on gliadin patterns, observed in the durum wheat landraces, in thisstudy, was higher (H = 0.892) than in other countries (Table 2): Spain, H = 0.844 (Metakovsky et al., 2000); France H = 0.714 (Metakovsky & Branlard, 1998); England, Italy, andthe former Yugoslavia with H = 0.676, 0.754, and 0.728, respectively (Metakovsky et al., 1994); and Índia, H = 0.875 (Sewa et al., 2005). The high level of genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces grown in Iran and Azerbaijan could be caused initially bythe variation of ecological conditions. It was shown that wheat might undergo intense geographical and microgeographic differentiation in adjusting their genotypes tothe environment. The diversity was probably maintained by continuing cultivation of old varieties and local landraces andby introduction of new wheat germplasm from different sources (Metakovsky et al., 2000).
According to Tecchio et al. (2007), the intense color of ‘Bordô’ grape wine is a characteristic ofthe cultivar, which has high concentration of anthocyanins. Thus, it is possible to infer that in the present experiment, this characteristic may have influenced the higher scores attributed by judges for treatments with higher percentage of ‘Bordo’ grapes (T1 and T2) and equal cuts of cultivars (T3), indicating their preference as tothe more intense juice color. Similar result was reported by Pereira et al. (2008), where ‘Bordô’ juice obtained better quality related to intensity and visual tonality in relation to juices of other varieties tested. According to Matsuura et al. (2002), color is of fundamental importance, since it is linked tothe attractiveness for consumers. Thus, ‘Bordô’ cultivar is much requested by industries, since it allows the increase in the color intensity of juices elaborated with cultivars with poor coloration (RIZZON; MENEGUZO, 2007).
In the ultra-processed food group, loaf bread obtained the smallest number of hits before the mini-course (11%) andwas classified as pro- cessed by 78% ofthe participants. This result will be discussed later. The other foods, which are classic examples of products considered “un- healthy”, such as cream-filled cookies, powdered juice and soda, were correctly classified by most ofthe participants before and after the mini- course. A study published in 2016 showed that the vast majority ofthe participants, made up ofthe general population, were able to give an ex- planation about ultra-processed foods; they con- sidered such foods to generally contain additives and other artificial ingredients, have low nutri- tional quality and be unhealthy 28 .
The voluntary water intake (Table 4) had a decrease (P<0.05) between treatments due tothe increased participation of cactus pear (Table 2) in diets. The mean values ranged from 1.48 to 0.77 kg/day. This behavior is due tothe amount of water present in cactus pear, resulting in a decreased amount of water consumed directly from the troughs (Arnaud et al. 2005; Cavalcanti et al., 2008, França et al., 2009). Accordingly, Vieira et al. (2008) reported that the main way of obtaining water is by direct swallowing due to daily rhythms of drinking water; however, when they eat succulent feed, the water consumption can be very low or absent. According to Arnaud et al. (2005), Ben Salem et al. (2005) and Costa et al. (2009a), the addition of cactus pear in the diet reduced the need for water consumption for cows, goats and sheep, respectively.
The psychological/behavioral sphere was evaluated to a very satisfactory degree among health professionals. Self-esteem, task signifi- cance, feedback and personal and profession- al development were evaluated in this realm. Self-esteem of health professionals andthe rec- ognition ofthe task’s significance are important and sensitive aspects in the daily life of health professionals in the prison system. The number of criticisms and grievances that the Brazilian prison system has been subjected to over the years is increasing, mostly by families of convicts andbythe communication and press system, regarding the application of inhuman penalties and inadequate treatment provided to inmates, which includes the lack of health care 26 .
ABSTRACT - Theobjectivewastoevaluatethe use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru), a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia), and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham) and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi) intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. Thestudy made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham andthe Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.
The survey in question was conducted ac- cording tothe criteria proposed bythe WHO, in which a representative sample ofthe Brazilian population in the index age groups was inter- viewed and examined through clinical-epide- miological examinations performed by dentists under natural light in their households regard- ing oral health, demographic and socioeconomic conditions, use of dental services and subjective oral health issues. The sample consisted of resi- dents from 177 Brazilian municipalities, from the five Brazilian macro-regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, and South), including the 27 capitals, selected by multi-stage probabilis- tic sampling by conglomerates, with probability proportional tothe size ofthe population and considering a design effect (deff) of 2.0. The ex- aminations and interviews were performed by dental surgeons previously trained and calibrated bythe consensus technique, with the minimum acceptable value of Kappa for each examiner, age group and injury being studied equal to 0.65 19 .
AbstractThisstudy aimed toevaluatethe socio- economic and demographic factors, behaviors and morbidities related to common mental disorders in adult women. Thiswas a cross-sectional pop- ulation-based study with cluster sample. We an- alyzed 848 women from a household survey held in Campinas, in 2008/2009. We used the Self-Re- porting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) toevaluate com- mon mental disorders. We estimated prevalence ratios by Poisson regression in hierarchical model of three steps, considering the weights relating tothe sampling design. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 18.7%. The hierarchical model showed that older women, with low educa- tion level, housewives, separated or widowed, who did not consume fruit/vegetables daily, who slept six or fewer hours per night, who presented sever- al chronic diseases and health problems, and with report of some type of violence were more vulner- able to common mental disorders and, therefore, should be treated with priority by health services. Early diagnosing women with common mental disorders, as well as accompanying and treating them, contribute for reducing the impacts on fe- male quality of life.
The associations between variables were measured bythe Chi-square test with 5% signif- icance. Multiple Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate the adjust- ed prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We conducted a hierarchical model of Poisson regression in three steps. In the first step ofthe model, we introduced the socio- economic and demographic variables with p < 0.20 in the bivariate analysis; those that presented p < 0.05 in the association with CMD remained in the model. In the second step, in addition tothe variables that remained in the previous step, we added health-related behaviors with p < 0.20 and kept those with p < 0.05. In the third step, we included the number of chronic diseases, the number of health problems, BMI, and accidents and violence suffered in the past year, keeping in the model variables that presented a significance level lower than 5% (p < 0.05). The statistical analyses performed with the program Stata ver- sion 11.0, module svy (Stata Corp., College Sta- tion, USA), and considered the sample weights andthe design effect. This research project was approved bythe institutional Review Board ofthe School of Medicine at University of Campi- nas (UNICAMP). All survey participants signed the informed consent form.
ABSTRACT: Our objectivewastoevaluatethemorphological pattern of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as well as tostudythe microbiological activity ofthe soil on family farms where Barbados cherry was cultivated. Soil and root samples were selected from four areas in the municipality of Maranguape-CE where Barbados cherry was grown, which were named according tothe age of plants in the following manner: A1-3, A2-3, and A3-3 (3 years), and A4-2 (2 years). After sampling, the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, morphological colonization pattern, basal soil respiration (SBR), and density of mycorrhizal spores (DS) were analyzed. The Paris-type morphological pattern was predominant in the root system of Barbados cherry; the affinity ofthis pattern in the culture was clear. Time of installation and management of Barbados cherry orchards in family farming areas promoted reduction in SBR. P levels in the soil may have negatively influenced root colonization and density of mycorrhizal spores.
Regarding the family context, reporting of sexual violence was greater among students that missed classes, were unsupervised by family members, and among those physically assaulted by a relative. Sexual violence was most frequent among students that reported insomnia, feeling alone, and not having friends. This type of vio- lence was most reported among students with risk behaviors such as smoking, alcohol con- sumption, experimentation with drugs, and hav- ing begun their sexual life. The chances of suffer- ing sexual violence were greater for students that felt unsafe in the route between school and their home and in the school itself, as well as those that reported having suffered bullying. There was no difference according to amount of physical exer- cise or activity (Table 1).
Fick D, Mion L, Beers M, Waller JL. Health outcomes associated with potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Res Nurs Health 2008; 31(1):42-51. Chrischilles EA, Foley DJ, Wallace RB, Lemcke JH, Semla TP, Hanlon JT, Glynn RJ, Ostfeld AM, Guralnik JM. Use of medications by persons 65 and over: Data from the established populations for epidemiologic studies ofthe elderly. J Gerontol 1992; 47(5):137-144.
The researchers visited the municipal prima- ry healthcare services and entered into contact with the research participants. They held meet- ings at each one ofthe health units wherein they explained thestudy objectives and methodology, then invited the staff who could be included in the research to participate. The sample was made up of those who agreed to participate by signing a free, prior and informed consent form. The ques- tionnaires were read out and participants were asked if they understood each question. If any doubt arose, the researcher would read the ques- tion again until the individual indicated that they had understood. The meanings ofthe questions themselves were never explained in order that the researcher did not influence the response. When there were no more questions, the participants themselves completed the questionnaires in the following order: 1 – Sociodemographic and health questionnaire; 2 – Gender stereotypes; 3 – Ambivalent sexism inventory. The research tools were applied in an isolated and quiet room with no interference from third parties. At the end ofthe period, the researcher checked that all ques- tions had been answered and requested respon- dents to complete any items that had not been completed.
AbstractTheobjectiveofthisstudywasto rese- arch the existence of sexism against women among primary healthcare (PHC) workers andto identify associated factors. Thiswas a cross-sectional study in which 163 PHC professionals of both sexes par- ticipated, all of whom were aged over 18 and had completed their primary or secondary education. The Gender Stereotyping and Ambivalent Sexism Inventory questionnaires were used. The average scores were more than 50% ofthe maximum score: Gender Stereotyping – 53.8%, hostile sexism – 58.2%, benevolent sexism – 64.1%. The average scores stratified by sociodemographic variables were higher. Significant differences in the hostile sexism score were found for sex (men scored higher than women), religion (higher scores for evangelical Christians) and among those who drank alcohol. For benevolent sexism, differences were found for schooling (greater scores for those who had only completed their primary education), religion (hi- gher scores for evangelical Christians and Catho- lics) and area of work (greater for those working in general services). The stratification ofthe Gender Stereotyping scores did not point to significant diffe- rences. Sexist prejudice was found to exist for hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and gender stereotyping. This finding could have a negative influence on the service-user relationship, leading to greater inequi- ties in health as a result of gender inequality. Key words Women’s health, Sexism, Health ine- quality, Healthcare staff, Health services
AbstractTheobjectiveofthisstudywasto analy- ze theobjectiveand subjective levels of burden felt by family caregivers of patients who were treated at three institutions: a General Psychosocial Care Center (known as ‘CAPS Geral’), a CAPS center for Alcohol and Drugs (‘CAPS AD’) andthe Psy- chiatric Admissions Unit of a General Hospital (‘UIPHG’) in the municipality of Sobral, Ceara State, Brazil. Thestudy included 385 caregivers, 216 of whom were in the CAPS Geral, 86 in the CAPS AD and 83 in the UPHG, and applied the Family Burden Interview Scale (FBIS-BR). Excel and SPSS were used to organize and analyze the data, and a 5% significance level was applied. The results show that the general objective burden was greater for caregivers at the UIPHG. This group was also found to bear a greater objective burden with regard to caring in day-to-day life. The ana- lysis ofthe subjective sub-scales showed that care- givers from the UIPHG group were most troubled by supervising problematic behaviors and also bythe future and patient’s type of care and medical treatment. Variables including sex and age were associated with burden.
ze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System andwas corrected and adjusted by means of pro- portional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analy- sis on both sexes and in all regions ofthe country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade ofthe 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. Thiswas up until the 1950s for men andthe 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio -economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.
Abstract - Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoevaluate gas exchange and production of Maçã bananas type, at different times ofthe year andthe day in semi-arid environment. Seven genotypes genotypes were used: Maçã, Caipira, BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa, YB42-03, YB42-17 and YB42-47, arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates and four useful plants per plot. For the physiological characteristics, a factorial arrangement 7x7x2 was considered (seven genotypes, seven evaluation periods, two reading times, 8:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.). Photosynthetic rates, carboxylation efficiency, and instantaneous water use efficiency are higher at 8:00 a.m., due to meteorological conditions, while foliar temperature and transpiration are higher at 2:00 p.m., due tothe elevation of air temperature and low humidity. Months with higher radiation and intermediate temperature provided higher rates of photosynthesis, higher efficiency of carboxylation and photochemistry of photosynthesis. In general, genotype YB42-47 wasthe most productive, with higher water use efficiency and photosynthesis rates.