The job natures ofschoolteachers included frequent reading, marking of assignments as well as writing on blackboard. Poor posture and improper techniques of lifting or carrying are the two very common causes oflowbackpain. Meanwhile, lifting heavy loads which ranked as the main contributing factor involved materials such as books, overhead projectors and other equipment (Tessa, 2010). They should make use of trolleys, especially when handling instruments in the laboratory. Poor posture, either seating or standing was ranked as second and third major risk factor. This included twisting such as turning from the board to the class andback again. Prolonged sitting also occurred when teachers marked and prepared work on computers. All teachers shared the same standing position favorable to the development of lower backpain (Lemoyne et al., 2007). Subject teachers which included physical education teachers perceived that movements when picking up and carrying heavy objects were the fourth cause of the lowbackpain (Lemoyne et al., 2007). Working with computer made one more prone to other musculoskeletal problems, such as neck painand upper limb pain. Besides, the teachers have to crane their necks while typing; making the shoulders and backs more tense thus resulting in pain.
METHOD: his was a transversal, exploratory and descriptive study carried out with 124 pregnant women divided in 2 com- parative groups (GI and GII), who received prenatal assistance in diferent moments by diferent professionals in a Family Health Unit between June 2009 and June 2010. Data were collected through perinatal records and semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Data analysis has shown that most pregnant women were aged between 20 and 29 years (67%), education has varied from no education (42%) to elementary school (33%). GI had 42% prevalenceof UTI and GII 33%. As to genital hygiene habits, it has been observed that 17% of GI patients would not carry out any genital hygiene after vesical and intestinal eliminations and in- tercourse during pregnancy. In GII, 66% would carry out genital hygiene. Other study data have shown that 100% of GI patients have reported not having attended orientation groups during prena- tal assistance versus 100% attendance of GII. As to lowbackpain, 85% of GI women and 84% of GII women with UTI have referred lowbackpain, being this association statistically signiicant. CONCLUSION: he prevalenceof UTI during gestation was 42% for GI and 33% for GII. Lowbackpain was the primary symptom reported by patients with conirmed UTI. here has been progressive spread of health and education knowledge dur- ing prenatal assistance provided by the GII professional with possible association with decreased incidence of UTI. his study proposes a topographic lowbackpain evaluation during patient’s history for early UTI diagnosis andits potential association with lowbackpain; and suggests more emphasis on educational ac-
culoskeletal pain cases where the respondent affir- matively answered the question “Did you feel pain or discomfort in the last seven days in any of these are- as: neck, shoulders, upper back, hips and legs?” The answer was rated on a numerical scale from zero to 10, where zero corresponds to no painand 10 to the most intense pain ever felt (5) . For analysis, the inten- sity ofpain was classified as: absent (zero), low or moderate (1-6) and from strong to unbearable (7-10). The instrument Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) (6) was used to evaluate the suspicion of alco-
As part of the international CUPID investiga- tion, we compared physical and psychosocial riskfactors for musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brazil and Italy. Using questionnaires, we collected information on musculoskeletal dis- orders and potential riskfactors from 751 nurses employed in public hospitals. By fitting country- specific multiple logistic regression models, we investigated the association of stressful physical activities and psychosocial characteristics with site-specific and multisite pain, and associated sickness absence. We found no clear relationship between lowbackpainand occupational lifting, but neck and shoulder pain were more common among nurses who reported prolonged work with the arms in an elevated position. After adjust- ment for potential confounding variables, pain in the lowback, neck and shoulder, multisite pain, and sickness absence were all associated with somatizing tendency in both countries. Our findings support a role of somatizing tendency in predisposition to musculoskeletal disorders, act- ing as an important mediator of the individual response to triggering exposures, such as work- load.
In addition to being widespread among adults [3–6], backpain is also reported in children and adolescents [7–9], frequently affecting more than 50% of Brazilian schoolchildren [10,11]. Although the relationship between the existence ofbackpain in adolescents and in adults is well established and the presence of this disorder in adolescence increases its chronicity in adulthood [12–14], in developing countries such as Brazil (Human Development Index— HDI = 0.744), this health problem has been neglected and more research on it is needed . Prevalence studies give an indication of the extent of such health problems in a specific popula- tion, and they are useful as starting points for future epidemiological and intervention studies designed to prevent and reduce the impacts of this health problem .
ABSTRACT | Objective : To determine the prevalenceoflowbackpain nonspeciic and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type ofschool transportation, body mass index andlowbackpain. The outcome was deined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results: The prevalenceoflowbackpain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no signiicant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence oflowbackpain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalenceoflowbackpain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had inluence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies oflowbackpainamong children and adolescents.
Considering the special study that we realized above the self-concept factor (and not forgetting the necessary prosecution of studies similar to this with ballot of factor of familiar and social natures), we had in count the prominence of the relation between this personality construct and all an amount offactors directly modifiable ofpain perception. This remains us, in reality, to the psychosomatic field, essentially be- cause the psychological factors interfere in the complex multidimensional chain ofpain (consonance with the Gate-control Theory of Melzack & Wall), influencing its percep- tion and modifying the resulting functional scheme.
Insomnia was assessed based on the presence of insom- nia symptoms as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (that is, difficulty in falling asleep, or frequent arousals with diffi- culty getting back to sleep, or early awakening and not being able to fall asleep again, or non-restoring sleep; these items refer to the previous month and with a frequency of at least three times per week) associated with daytime impair- ment. The questions used to acquire information on insom- nia andits symptoms are listed in Table 1.
ABSTRACT: Lowbackpain (LBP) is a major public health issue. There is lack of research on this disorder afecting urban cleaning workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalenceof LBP, occupational and extra-occupational characteristics, as well as associated factors in these workers. A census was performed with 624 workers in Salvador, Brazil, using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer in 2010. Cases of LBP were deined by reported symptoms ofpain in the previous 12 months, lasting more than a week or with monthly minimum frequency, which led to restrictions at work or to seeking medical attention, or in cases when respondents had a severity score ≥ 3 on a numerical scale from 0 to 5. Physical demands at work were measured on a numerical 6-point scale with 14 variables. Psychosocial demands were measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits and domestic work were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression (LR) was used to identify factors associated with LBP, for which the prevalence was 37.0%. Among them, 62.8% of workers felt pain in the last 7 days. LBP was associated with longer working hours, lexion and trunk rotation, psychosocial demands, working directly in collection andlow schooling. Dynamic work (walking, running) served as a protective factor. It was concluded that many workers develop their activity at the presence ofpain. The results emphasize the need for preventive measures through multifactorial approach encompassing adaptations in physical environment and changes in work organization.
Abstract: Problem statement: Depression is common in adolescents and especially in high school students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof depression among high school students andits relation to parental configurations. Approach: A cross-sectional study was conducted during first term of the academic year 2003-2004. Data was collected by Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI-21 test) and researcher made questionnaire for demographic characteristics, using census procedure. Results: Results indicate that 31.3% of students (23.11% of males and 39.85% of females; p<0.0001) suffer from a degree of depression (BDI score ≥17). There was a significant relationship between depression and family structure (living with or apart of parents) (p<0.05), verbal and physical quarrels of parents (p<0.001), physical punishment of student by his/her parents (p<0.001), preventing from going outside with companions (p<0.05), history of chronic disease in the student (p<0.001), history of psychiatry disease in the family (p<0.001), school dropout (p<0.001) and sexual abuse (p<0.001). One of the most important results of this study was that 6.91% of those who have BDI score ≥17 have suicidal ideation but this figure in those who have BDI score <17 was 1.1% (p<0.001). The results show that there is no significant relationship between depression and marital status, citizenry, parents literacy level, parents job, rank, smoking, alcohol ingestion and having addicted father (p>0.05). Conclusion: The study findings highlight the need of psychiatry consulting and support services available to vulnerable students. Diagnosis of depression is still frequently missed and even when it is recognized, treatment is often inadequate. Then, we suggest education authorities about depression to improve recognition and diagnosis of at risk students. This recommendation should be applied to all teachersand physicians who study at schools and primary health care centers. Furthermore, further evaluation in longitudinal studies is needed to understand the stressors andriskfactors leading to depression. This understanding should be used to design prevention programs at least in high school.
Contextualização: A dor lombar crônica não-específica é um problema de saúde associado à redução do desempenho funcional e a alterações emocionais. Os métodos BackSchool e McKenzie têm se mostrado eficazes no tratamento desse sintoma. Objetivos: Realizar uma análise preliminar da eficácia dessas técnicas em pacientes com dor lombar crônica não-específica para os desfechos intensidade da dor, desempenho funcional e amplitude de movimento (ADM) de flexão de coluna e testar a viabilidade da condução de um estudo controlado aleatorizado utilizando essas intervenções nessa população. Métodos: Os indivíduos foram avaliados por um examinador cego e distribuídos aleatoriamente para os grupos de tratamento. A análise dos dados foi realizada em 18 pacientes, e o estudo continua em andamento, portanto os resultados apresentados se referem a esses pacientes como sendo de um só grupo. Resultados: Os pacientes obtiveram melhora nos desfechos intensidade da dor (média das diferenças de 2,4 pontos e IC a 95% - 0,84 a 3,93) e desempenho funcional (5,2 pontos e IC 95% - 2,55 a 7,78), mas não para a ADM de flexão de coluna (7,2 graus e IC 95% - 1,82 a 16,29). Conclusão: Os métodos BackSchool e McKenzie podem ser benéficos no tratamento de indivíduos com dor lombar crônica não-específica. Além disso, concluiu-se que o estudo é viável e continua sem alterações no projeto inicial.
FSW’s ability to use condoms with clients is influenced by individual and venue-level factors where women who work in the lower socioeconomic tiers of sex work, including on the streets and in smaller venues, are at greater riskof unprotected sex and HIV/STI [33, 34]. In fact, 2012 data from the sentinel surveillance sites showed that although consistent condom use amonglow tier (street-based) FSW increased from 2010 to 2012, it still remains lower than condom use among high tier FSW (59% versus 72%) [30, 35]. FSW who do not use condoms with cli- ents are at higher riskof HIV/STI . A nationwide probability sample has shown that about 6.9% men aged 18–49 years have ever patronized FSW during their lifetime, and about 19.4% of men who did not have consistent condom use with FSW reported having STI in the past 12 months . This study shows that men who did not always use condom with FSW were 3.71 (95% CI 1.18–11.66) times more likely to report past STI in comparison with those who use condom consistently.
The Idea of pulsed radiofrequency was developed in 1997. It is very similar to conventional radiofre- quency in terms of producing and distributing energy to neighbor tissues. Its fundamental difference is that the generator, rather than emitting continuous waves, generates pulses of waves at deined intervals. A clas- sic exposure to pulsed radiofrequency emits waves lasting 20 milliseconds, followed by 480 milliseconds of rest (2 active cycles/sec). During active periods, a wave frequency of approximately 500,00 Hz is ired. This way, the heat wave offered by the short exposure time is compensated by a prolonged wash-out period, enough to prevent signiicant temperature increase. Seldom the temperature goes beyond 42º C in this type of procedure, thus not causing neuronal injury. Its application ield is neuropathic painandits action mechanism is the persistent blockade of nociceptive transmission at medullar level 7,8 .
individuals at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that, in the studied sample, the number of women was higher than the number of men and different from the expected through the distribution of the population by sex. There was, at the moment of data collection, a concern regarding a possible selection bias, but the systematic quality control of the research showed that this was a random fact and thus, no strategies were used to correct such difference. The values obtained, however, maintained their statistical significance even after correction for this sample difference. As the frequency of AH was higher among men, there could be a possibility that, for this reason, there would an underestimation of the prevalenceof hypertension in the total population, which does not invalidate, but rather reinforces, the importance of the obtained data.
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalenceof schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant riskfactors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalenceand morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities.
RESULTS: Participated in the study 139 pregnant women assis- ted by the pre-natal assistance program. Mean age of 24.4±7.65 years. here has been signiicant correlation between quality of life domains questionnaire (physical domain p<0.000, psycho- logical domain p<0.004, environmental domain p<0.022; social relations domain p<0.0025 and overall quality of life p<0.000 and Roland Morris questionnaire. here has been correlation between weeks of gestation and Roland Morris questionnaire (p<0.005). As to weeks of gestation and quality of life questio- nnaire there has only been correlation in the social relation do- main (p<0.025).
ABSTRACT | Objectives: To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Method: An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed painand patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Riskof Bias Tool was used to evaluate riskof bias, and the quality of evidence was rated following the GRADE approach. There were no language restrictions. Results: Eleven trials were included totaling 383 patients. Overall, the trials had high riskof bias. GPR was superior to no treatment but not to other forms of treatment for painand disability. No placebo-controlled trials were found. Conclusion: GPR is not superior to other treatments; however, it is superior to no treatment. Due to the lack of studies, it is unknown if GPR is better than placebo. The quality of the available evidence ranges from low to very low, therefore future studies may change the effect estimates of GPR in musculoskeletal conditions.
domains (occupational, transport, household and leisure activi- ties). hey combine walking, pedalling and moderate or vigo- rous physical activity to demonstrate the physical activity level presented by individuals. here was no signiicant diference between both groups regarding the level of physical activity in our study, since there was a low level prevalence. hese results have shown that patients submitted to surgery tend to adopt protective measures to avoid lumbar spine impairment. his procedure can interfere with their choice of daily routine acti- vities. Another study used an accelerometer to check the level of physical activity in individuals with CLBP and reported a low level of physical activity with a reduction of 29% of their steps within a period of 24 hours as compared to the level in the control group 33 .
In conclusion, the prevalenceof CIN was high among HIV-infected women, with low rates of high-grade lesions. We observed that immunosuppression, younger age and HPV infection were predictive of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. As these women were enrolled for long-term care of their HIV infection, future opportunities for repeating gynecological evaluations will provide longitudinal data for other conclusions concerning riskfactorsof CIN. It is necessary to further investigate these riskfactors to identify HIV-infected women with higher riskof CIN and establish appropriate strategies for management, including cervical cancer screening.
formulation and development of public health and education should not be based on general features. Therefore, to promote more specific information about this topic it is appropriate to carry out this study that aim to compare the prevalenceofbackpainand behavioral habits of students about two Brazil’s cities, from Ceres, Goiás state, and Teutônia, Rio Grande do Sul state. Ceres, situated in the center of Brazil, there is 21,782 people, territorial area of 214,322 km 2 and population density