Top PDF Smart Cities & Challenges in India – A Vision

Smart Cities & Challenges in India – A Vision

Smart Cities & Challenges in India – A Vision

The collaborated companies should get good fiscal policies, so that they can come forward to set up Smart Cities. The State governments, and real estates also should be in active participation to full fill creation of Smart Cities. Thanks a lot for the Japan Government to give their hand in economically in setting up 7 Smart Cities across nation and including Dholera (Gujarat) and Dadri (UP). There is a talk that one more Industrial Corridor is coming up between Bangalore and Chennai which can consists of Smart Cities. Apart from these, Third Industrial belt is going to come up in between Chennai – Visakhapatnam and going to consists some more Smart Cities. While constructing new cities we have to consider a lot of factors in term of investments, land acquisition, socio economic, international embeddedness etc. In terms of Land acquisition problems, we should prefer Vertical Smart Cities like Singapore, GIFT (Gujarat-India) and rest of the places, we can go ahead for Horizontal Smart Cities (Lavasa, Masdar (UAE)) constructions. More over building of Smart Cities should make sure for (24×7) water along with sanitation and recycling, smart electricity connection through ZigBee technology, intelligent traffic (GIS, GPS) and transport systems that use data analytics to provide efficient solutions to ease commuting, automated home, office surveillance security systems, requiring minimal human intervention, and Wi-Fi powered open spaces and houses that ensure always-on, high- speed band width connectivity availability. We should also follow ITU, IoT-A, IEEE, IPSO and other international standards in terms of Smart Cities building and in terms of technology development, interoperability and legal aspects to smoothen cities building. We have to take Korea and China as a role models as they are into mounting of more Smart Cities.
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Smart Cities as Support and Legacy of Huge Sport Events

Smart Cities as Support and Legacy of Huge Sport Events

Cities can be seen as a complex and multidimensional network of integrated components or as a system made of systems that make its basic infrastructure, such as transportation, energy, communications, education and health. Its cultural, economic, social and geographic characteristic create unique contexts, making it absolutely necessary for us to have an analytical and holistic view in order to understand its challenges and to propose specific solutions in order to make them Smart Cities. Therefore, each city has its own characteristics, priority and vocations. Hence, a strategy that is adequate for a city cannot be automatically transposed to another. A simple example is the traffic system. In some cities there is a strong traffic towards the downtown are in the morning and the reverse traffic in the afternoon. In others, traffic flows in all directions, without a strongly defined flow and counterflow notion. Hence, a solution for a characteristic traffic model will not always work adequately to the others.
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Opening up Smart Cities: Citizen-Centric Challenges and Opportunities from GIScience

Opening up Smart Cities: Citizen-Centric Challenges and Opportunities from GIScience

Tables 1 to 3 also show that maps are a recurrent helpful component to address citizen-centric challenges. The map is explicitly present in approaches which aim at tackling the issues of deep participation (C1), and data literate citizenry (C2). It is also implicitly present in approaches for analysis (C3), the adoption of standards (C4) and the development of persuasive interfaces (C6). For instance, maps (and geoanalytics) are often used for visually informing end users about analysis results; OGC standards include the Web Mapping Service and the Web Map Tile Service specifications, both dealing with map rendering (see [108]); and maps also play a key role in gestural interaction [124]. All this indicates that maps are a central component for spatial representation and visualization in smart cities. Other related GIScience work, such as the underlying spatial representation models or alternative visualization techniques, are equally applicable in smart cities. In addition, spatial analysis is an invaluable part of understanding spatio-temporal data, detecting patterns and making predictions. In today’s expanding cities, where an explosive amount of organizational, participatory, demographic, environmental, and spatial data is present, the analysis techniques and solutions developed in GIScience are particularly relevant. Spatial analysis aspects are explicitly present in pairing quantitative and qualitative data (C3), adoption of open standards (C4), but also relevant for deep participation (C1) and personal services (C5). Example applications of spatial analysis include crime detection and prediction [127], green living and sustainability [34], traffic congestion and control [128].
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e-Government and Smart Cities: Contexts and Challenges Taking from Digital Usage and Exploration

e-Government and Smart Cities: Contexts and Challenges Taking from Digital Usage and Exploration

• Additionally, we are in a fast, complex, and information sophisticated world. As so, open access and social media, two the trending phenomena when dealing with information management place a number of challenges but also opportunities for those who are responsible for manage information within organizations

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Analytics-as-a-Service no contexto de plataformas de Big Data para Smart Cities

Analytics-as-a-Service no contexto de plataformas de Big Data para Smart Cities

The migration we are witnessing in recent decades, particularly for urban areas, results in serious problems of sustainability, both in terms of natural resources, as in the quality of life of its habitants. It is known that 75% of the EU population lives in cities, and it is estimated that by 2020 this number will rise to 80%, which concerns not only the central authorities but also, the local ones. On the other hand, it´s possible to see a change of mentality, in which citizens show interest in collaborating with the authorities, and thus to start a participatory governance. The challenges are posed to this type of administration, it impossible to make by traditional ways. However, the proliferation of new technologies has proved its added value in various areas, since they are well harmonized. This dissertation project aims to provide the architecture as well as the necessary platform to fill these analytical needs through a service available in the paradigm as-a- Service. In this work, a literature review on the relevant literature was developed, giving emphasis to the concepts of Big Data, platforms, examples and architectures of Big Data, both in terms of treatment and analysis of vast amounts of data, giving important insights on the state-of-the-art in relation to the topic under study. With regard to the technological environment, it is showed the BASIS architecture designed to support Big Data in a Smart Cities context, which is a starting point for this thesis, continuing the work already done, and following the need identified by the author to go into detail on the analytical layer of the architecture. After this, a detailed analysis was carried out to several platforms like Pentaho, BIRT, SpagoBI and Jaspersoft, in order to see their main features and identify the one that best fits and that responds to the BASIS architecture requirements. After the analysis of the state-of-the-art, it was established a technological architecture that allowed the execution of brief tests to the SpagoBI platform where it was found that it was able to make available many of the needed analytical tasks. The proposed analytical detail specified in the BASIS architecture is, paying particular attention to the conceptual and technological layer, thus fulfilling a major gap in the literature, the lack of technological detail. Finally, the proposed architecture has been validated through the integration of the SpagoBI features in the SusCity prototype, using some user examples.
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Smart cities in Arabian cultures: Dubai as a case study

Smart cities in Arabian cultures: Dubai as a case study

the middle of the desert. As Chapter 4 has intended to show, this city is a pioneer example of a smart city in the Arab world. Dubai has experienced a deep transformation towards a smart approach, turning a place, which was not much more than a strip of desert, into a bustling metropolis and one of the world’s most modern cities. This transformation was possible throughout the vision of its governments, which were adopting strategies in order to achieve a smart city approach, by focussing on applying smart infrastructures, whether physical or digital, with an efficient management for water, energy, good conditions for the healthcare, mobility and housing quality, available to all citizens. This approach could be considered as a good management example to get new resources of energy, providing the best ITS ever, and without forget a wide application of ICT infrastructures, with good communications, where intelligence and information flow rapidly, such as it was shown in point 4.2 of the same chapter. All of these projects were contributing, step by step, to achieve the smartness concept for Dubai as well the sustainability with its three pillars, the social realm including a high quality of life for citizens also providing a wide range of services, the environmental realm with a concern of saving the natural resources (fuel, water, or energy), discovering new renewable energy sources, and the economic realm including diversification, dealing with flexibility in terms of economic shocks, like falling oil prices.
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BASIS: uma Arquitetura de Big Data para Smart Cities

BASIS: uma Arquitetura de Big Data para Smart Cities

In today’s world, urban centers are the main choice for living. Citizens behave like service consumers, expecting adequate performance from cities’ government, despite current restrictions. With this phenomenon come economical, social and environmental sustainability challenges. It is expected that cities turn their attention to the citizen, involving him in a participatory government. Thus emerges the Smart City concept, where the actual human dynamic is based on the intensive use of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which multiple devices are permanently connected, generating vast amounts of data, in various formats. Smart Cities are seen as a continuous Big Data source and a potential application field for the storage and processing technologies used within this emerging type of data, mainly defined by the volume, variety and velocity. In this dissertation it is proposed a Big Data architecture in the context of Smart Cities (BASIS), whose contribution was supported by the realization of an adequate conceptual and technological framework, in order to study the concepts present in this dissertation, the main approaches discussed in the scientific publications and the Big Data technologies that can integrate the set of technological components present in the architecture. After this, the architecture was specified, paying particular attention to the creation of multiple abstraction layers, from the most conceptual to the most technological, eliminating one of the main gaps identified in the literature, the lack of appropriate technological detail. Afterwards, particular attention was given to the public availability of data, another issue that was not as detailed as needed in other approaches, focusing specifically on the Open (Big) Data Portal and on the integration with other data access platforms. Lastly, the architecture was validated through the development of two intelligent services in the context of a Smart City: the first service consists in the storage and processing of electricity and gas consumption of 237 homes, in order to create consumption profiles and to forecast electricity consumptions, comparing each home with the profile in which it is inserted; the second one is based on the identification of delay profiles on flights in certain companies, airports or regions, making use of distributed Data Mining in order to find clusters in about 18.000.000 flights. The results produced by the development of these services reveal an architecture capable of storing, processing and make available Big Data in the context of Smart Cities, including advanced analytics as Data Mining models (clustering and time series forecasting) with adequate performances and a small margin of error.
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Rethinking GIS Towards The Vision Of Smart Cities Through CityGML

Rethinking GIS Towards The Vision Of Smart Cities Through CityGML

For the various spatial operations, firstly the geometric and the thematic characteristics of objects and their spatial relationships should be integrated in a database. However, current DBMSs do not support the organization and implementation of 3D objects in their geometrical models and topological models (Stoter and Zlatanova, 2003). Current trend is to develop specific ad hoc solutions for using 3D geo-information on top of the object- relational databases such as PostGIS and Oracle Spatial. Storage specific extensions for 3D city models, such as 3DCityDB and DB4Geo, facilitates complex modeling of the semantic part of the CityGML and also making specific queries (Mao et al., 2014, Prandi et al., 2015) by implementing CityGML schema in an SQL table schema (Kunde, 2013). In order to mature 3D GIS, a 3D geometrical model should be fully supported by DBMSs based on OGC specifications for 3D features, which still have to be completed (Stoter and Zlatanova, 2003).
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Data Security in Smart Cities: Challenges and Solutions

Data Security in Smart Cities: Challenges and Solutions

In a smart city, objects are connected in order to provide seamless communication and con- textual services. A large variety of things are used in a smart city. Part of them are very so- phisticated embedded systems – such as smart phones and TVs, tablets, printers, medical de- vices, SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems and so on, others are wearable (sensors placed on/under the skin or sewn into clothing that provide information about a person’s vital signs), and many of them are usual things like keys, watches, cof- fee filters, fridges, domestic heating control- lers, books, doors etc. Also, a lot of sensors are used to monitor air quality and pollution, auto and pedestrian traffic, bridges’ resistance and road infrastructure in general, criminality rates and policing, energy and water con- sumption, waste management etc., forming a perceptual/recognition layer used to collect data and identify the physical world. On this layer, objects respond in numerous ways to their internal states and/or to external factors. All this things can be very smart in some situ- ations and quite stupid in others: for example, smart in the sense that they transmit/pro- cess/respond to various data, but stupid when there is a need to protect them. Smart things suffer from hardware limitations (computa- tional and energy constraint, memory con- straint, tamper resistant packaging), software restrictions (embedded software constraint, dynamic security patch), hard network-re- quirements (mobility, scalability, multiplicity of devices, multiplicity of communication me- dium, multi-protocol networking, dynamic network topology). [10] These resource-con- straints restrict the inclusion of adequate secu- rity mechanisms (e.g., cryptography) directly in smart objects. In consequence, designers let the security aside, hoping it could be add later- on, and attack-resistance is usually losing the race against other design-factors, as good per- formance, small form, and low energy con- sumption. [11] In this sense, a Hewlett-Pack- ard study showed that 80% of things in IoT fail to require passwords of a sufficient com- plexity and length, 70% enable an attacker to identify valid user accounts through account enumeration, 70% use unencrypted network
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GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR  GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

The definition of urban area varies from country to country in the world. Besides this, the periodic reclassification of urban also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult for the different periods (Knox, 1994; Michael et al., 2010; Pacione, 2009; Peter et al., 2013 and Rain, 2007). The urban area can be defined by one or more criteria as followed during different censuses. In the Census of India 2011, the demarcation of urban area is based on the specified criteria which are as firstly, “all places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. (known as statutory town); secondly, all other places which satisfied the following criteria (known as census town) as: (a) a minimum population of 5,000; (b) at least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and (c) a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km” (CoI, 2011). Besides this, the increase in proportion of urban population over time, calculated as the rate of growth of urban population minus that of the total population. It is a fact that the positive rate of urbanization result when the urban population grows at a faster rate than the total population. Whereas, there is found an increasing concentration of the number of people who live in towns and cities. The pace of urban population growth depends on the natural increase of the urban population and the population gained by urban areas through both the net rural-urban migration and the reclassification of rural settlements into towns and cities.
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Genetic algorithm for waste collection in smart cities : case of Campolide

Genetic algorithm for waste collection in smart cities : case of Campolide

Smarts cities are becoming an important concept in the cities, it tries to discover methods to interact with the environment in sustainable ways inside urban areas. This concept emerged to deal with the growing urbanization faced by the cities around the globe. Within problems brought by the urbanization, waste management is one of the hardest and most impactful. The collection stage of the waste management is the costliest and the route planning for the garbage trucks is a well-known hard problem. In this project, a genetic algorithm is proposed to deal with the waste collection routing problem using a heterogeneous fleet of trucks. As the population in the city is expected to grow over the years, the project adapts to the current state of the city, because it uses the concept of open data from the municipality to feed itself with the garbage collection information and generate its results. Multiple runs were performed to define its parameters. The algorithm was tested in the simplified real case of Campolide, in the municipality of Lisbon, and proved to be feasible for application on real- world scenarios relying only on actual data of the cities’ waste collection.
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Urban Population Growth in Europe: The Attractiveness of Smart Cities

Urban Population Growth in Europe: The Attractiveness of Smart Cities

The inclusion of urban recreation areas increases the explanatory power of our model from 0.823 to 0.835. A one percent increase in the amount of green spaces per capita is on average correlated with a 0.091% increase in the population growth rate. As green areas compete for land with commercial and residential usage we assume their presence increases local housing prices more directly than other amenities. The significant impact of their availability on urban attractiveness is a strong indicator for the perceived improvements in QOL that households expect from it. These improvements might arise from intangible benefits such as aesthetic value, social inclusion and the promotion of public health and safety (Takano et al., 2002; Maas et al., 2006). In a study of German cities, Buch et al. (2013) observe a similar effect, although at a different order of magnitude. Their analysis provides evidence that a one standard deviation increase in the share of total land area covered by green spaces generates a 0.524% – 1.127% increase in cities’ migration rate. It is likely that this discrepancy in the point estimates is partially generated by different specifications of the empirical model as well as by the use of alternative measures of population growth and measurement of green spaces variables. However, it might also indicate that Germans, who enjoy a comparatively high GDP per capita within Europe, place greater weight on non-economic factors in their location decisions. Additionally, this might be the case because income differentials within Germany are smaller than income differentials within the EU.
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Post-Covid city: what are we talking about? :

Post-Covid city: what are we talking about? :

ABSTRACT – As the pandemic progresses towards all corners of the globe, it becomes more noticeable how this crisis is undermining some of the central aspects that give meaning to urban life. In this scenario, future urban planning must learn to implement city models capable of responding to this kind of challenge. The constant reflections that appear regularly coincide in pointing out that COVID-19 has disrupted the dynamics of the contemporary city unveiling significant weaknesses in terms of management, social cohesion, and planning. From this evidence, scholars argue that a new model of the city will emerge once we overcome this crisis. But what kind of city? Through a literature review this paper identifies four central areas that underpin the construction of the new Post-COVID city, urging for a global and multidisciplinary debate and joint reflection on the opportunities that open in this context of global crisis.
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O estatuto da cidade frente ao novo paradigma das smart cities

O estatuto da cidade frente ao novo paradigma das smart cities

As smart cities são reconhecidas atualmente por modernizar a Administração Pública, através da utilização de soluções tecnológicas para o enfrentamento de problemas causados pela urbanização. Porém por ser um fenômeno recente, ainda não conta com regulamentação no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Logo, este trabalho acadêmico tem por objetivo central a análise do Estatuto da Cidade, lei 10.257/2001, cuja foi inserida no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro como marco, sob o ponto de vista do Direito Urbanístico e do reconhecimento do papel da Administração Pública Municipal, sob análise deste novo espectro trazido pelo paradigma das smart cities. Pretende-se traçar uma análise crítica sobre os benefícios e ameaças do uso da tecnologia na Administração Pública, investigando a função do Município em gerir estes projetos. Por outro lado, também é objetivo deste trabalho examinar a compatibilidade jurídica das smart cities com o Estatuto da Cidade, observando a possibilidade de regulamentação deste modelo na supracitada lei. Este trabalho teve como metodologia investigativa baseada na bibliografia jurídica e técnica brasileira e internacional, notadamente europeia, por força dos avanços investigativos sobre este tema liderados pela União Europeia.
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Smart cities, smart tourism? The case of the city of Porto

Smart cities, smart tourism? The case of the city of Porto

Besides that, the Portuguese Smart Cities Index, 2016, points out the city of Oporto as the Portuguese city with better results in what concerns the main vectors of intelligence (policy, strategies and projects implemented, edification, mobility, energy and smart services).At the same time, in the international press, the city of Porto appears as a reference for its architectural wealth and as one of the more indicated European destinations for one who would like to enjoy quality holidays at a reasonable price.That is perhaps why Shermans Travel presents Porto as one of the top 10 destinations for intelligent tourists. The purpose of the present study is to understand if the emergence of smart cities can be in some way connected to the appearance of smart tourism. For such a purpose, we will study the city of Porto and a survey will be conducted among the tourists of the city.This article compiles some of the first results of the study, referring to the data collected during the months of August and September of 2017, and intends mainly to set out some hypotheses about the motivation for the choice of a tourist destination, that will be developed in future works.
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Urban lifecycle management:  A research program for smart government of smart cities

Urban lifecycle management: A research program for smart government of smart cities

a) Soft and hard Subsystems: Today‟s prototypes of would be smart cities are techno driven but mainly forget the inhabitants. City dwellers have the main role to play since it is their behavior and their use (and more and more the production) of information and technology that make the day to day decisions that render the ecosystem smart or no. Figure 4.0 represent both parts of the ecosystem the soft one, or human subsystem, and the hard one, the group of technical subsystems. Integration of these subsystems obeys different laws: human subsystems are dissipative ones, difficult to model, not obeying physical laws, with important entropy. Reducing their uncertainty relies on the sociology of uses, social consensus based on accepted formal and informal institutions, and a close association of inhabitants to the design of the system, which is a common feature of complex system design. Physical subsystems are conservative ones that can be modeled through the laws of physics with a possibility to reduce entropy, but keeping in mind that the decider in last resort is the city dweller who will use it.
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A smart city guideline based on the main standard activities

A smart city guideline based on the main standard activities

A – Within the Smart City scope and since we are responsible for the management of the public space, which is everything that involves sidewalks, streets, urban equip- ment and garbage collection, we decided to create an application. After meetings with our teams and several companies, we concluded that the municipality of Braga suffered from the existing bureaucracy. When something was wrong, the citizen could present a complaint to the city council via Facebook’s chat, by email or at the city council’s desk. But these occurrences had the bureaucratic part: between the complaint and the resolution of the problem the citizen had no idea of what was happening. So, in this application, citizens can take a photo with georeference, and report the problem, for example, a hole in the street, a broken drinking fountain or a broken light post. All municipal technicians have access to the back office of the application and filter the occurrences that are under their control. Users can access the application without reporting a problem, but to see the status of all complaints made: if the problem has already been dealt with (green status), if the problem is being processed (blue status) and if the problem is still not being addressed (red status), all to avoid duplication of complaints. Once the reported problem is solved, the user that made the complaint receives a message reporting it.
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Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

Availability refers to ensuring timely and reliable access to information, which is the primary security goal of a smart-grid metering and control system. Malicious at- tacks targeting availability can be considered as denial- of-service attacks (tinyurl.com/jzn67), which intend to delay, block, or even corrupt the communication in the system. In particular, due to the extensive adoption of wireless communication technologies in the smart grid, a jamming attack (tinyurl.com/km9sd9) that fills the wire- less medium with noise signals has become the most typical form of physical-layer attack. The jamming at- tack is able to defer the transmission of messages and to distort the transmitted data signal. As a result, the le- gitimate receiver cannot recover messages out of the damaged data packets. Jamming attacks are more relev- ant and serious in the smart grid than other than other networking systems, because the smart grid involves es- sential resources for people’s everyday lives. On the oth- er hand, many man-in-the-middle attacks (tinyurl.com/ fco32) can be launched only when the full or partial com- munication channels can be jammed. Examples in- clude jamming then inserting false location information and jamming then delaying the transmis- sion. Because the network traffic in the smart grid is generally time-critical, it is crucial to evaluate the im- pact of denial-of-service attacks and to design efficient and effective countermeasures to such attacks.
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Cycling as a smart and green mode of transport in small touristic cities

Cycling as a smart and green mode of transport in small touristic cities

Moving smartly depends on an efficient public transport and a network of safe and continuous cycle lanes, and interchange parking that avoids the city congestion [22]. Recently the European Community has developed a strong interest in the topic. The green paper of the European Commission states that more money should be given to adequate bicycle infrastructure [23] The benefits of investments in cycle networks are estimated to be at least four to five times the costs. Therefore, such investments are more beneficial to society than other transport investments [24]. For short distances, the bicycle is an efficient mode of transport. Motivation for this type of investment also constitutes the additional benefits related to increased health and the reduction of environmental pollution and road congestion [24]. According to Börjesson and Eliasson [10], in Sweden, time savings constitute the major part of the benefits of transport investments although some cyclists seem to take health and environmental benefits largely into account when making their travel choices. In the Greek city of Orestiada [17], residents evaluated the most important benefits from cycling, which included the reduction of air and noise pollution, the convenience of transportation and parking, as well as the reduction of congestion. It was noted that most of the cycling benefits were external and closely related with social welfare. However, in spite of these clear and well-known benefits over other modes of transport, the mode of cycling remains rare in many settings [25].
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