Top PDF TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Biological methods for remediation of soils is based on the degradation of pollutants due to activity of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi). Biodegradation is a natural phenomenon, because the soil, subsoil and groundwater is normally living environment for many microorganisms (bacteria Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Flovorbacterium and fungi Trichoderma, Penicillium and Asperigillus), having an action on degraded organic pollutants. This type of decontamination is suitable for petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel, light fuel oil, gasoline, kerosene, mineral oils, benzene, toluene, xylene). Effectiveness of biological decontamination of soils depends on the following factors:
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

POTENTIAL OF GRASSES AND RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL-CONTAMINATED SOILS

POTENTIAL OF GRASSES AND RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL-CONTAMINATED SOILS

concentrations were higher in all soils with plants compared to unplanted soils, demonstrating the beneficial effects of rhizosphere-bacteria interactions (Crawford & Wilkens, 1998; Roelofs et al., 2001). Because root exudates contain compounds structurally similar to various petroleum hydrocarbons (Toyama et al., 2001) the growth of specific hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria can be stimulated. Nonetheless, the stimulatory effects of the rhizosphere of these grasses on specific bacteria carrying hydrocarbon catabolic genes was not evaluated and future studies will have to confirm our findings. After 10 weeks of treatment, the effects of rhizosphere on bacteria concentration (R/S) were mostly negligible (Figure 5b). This could be attributed to the unavailability of hydrocarbons (removed by degradation or volatilization losses after 10 weeks of treatment) as carbon source to support bacterial growth.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Pollution mitigation for hydrocarbons of petroleum through the bioremediation |  A mitigação da poluição para hidrocarbonetos de petróleo através da biorremediação

Pollution mitigation for hydrocarbons of petroleum through the bioremediation | A mitigação da poluição para hidrocarbonetos de petróleo através da biorremediação

Environmental contamination by hydrocarbons resulting from activities related to the oil sector is one of the great problems of our time and with the growth of production, distribution and consumption in recent years accidents involving oil or its derivatives have been increasingly steady. This environmental problems and frequent have become increasingly critical, since as can reach the soil, air and bodies of surface and underground water. Besides that, contain compounds with high level of toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment, and generate a major ecological impact, these pollutants hinder the treatment of contaminated areas. The objective this work is to analyze from the law involved in the prevention of environmental damage this work also sought to introduce control measures and repair of the impacts caused by the oil industry, with emphasis on bioremediation technology as a mitigation measure, working in the recovery of degraded areas. Several studies developed in Brazil and the world has shown good results in restoring environments that have been polluted by hydrocarbons. It was also demonstrated the importance of the choice of technique bioremediation that followed the most used techniques for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, both in situ and ex situ, as well as the processes involved for the bioremediation occurs effectively and safely. The development of studies like this can help generate new technologies or improve those that already exist, which is fundamental for the enrichment of new environmental decontamination projects.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

There are several technologies that have been applied to remediate soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon in the vadose zone. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technology normally used for the remediation of unsaturated zones contaminated with high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (Albergaria et al., 2008). However, when low concentrations of VOCs or non-volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) are present, this technology is not the most effective (Malina et al., 2002). Bioremediation is generally considered an environmental friendly and cost-effective technology for the removal of hazardous contaminants, where by-products are non-toxic (Singh et al., 2004). Bioremediation processes are among the best approaches to restoring contaminated soils; its success depends on the ability of microbial degraders to remain active in the contaminated environment and on the bioavailability of the contaminants to microorganisms. To improve the bioremediation process, besides a competent microbe able to degrade the contaminant carbon source, other parameters must be taken into account, e.g. water, oxygen, and usable nitrogen and phosphorous sources. The efficiency of the remediation process under natural conditions could be committed by the lack of any of the mentioned parameters. Strategies involving the addition of planted crops, nutrients, bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation have been reported (Fernandes et al., 2009; Lin et al., 2010; Tyagi et al., 2011) as allowing higher degradation rates. Due to limitations associated with bioaugmentation and biostimulation when applied individually, these techniques are emerging as complementary (Tyagi et al., 2011).
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Assessment of compost for bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (pah) and petroleum hydrocarbon soils

Assessment of compost for bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (pah) and petroleum hydrocarbon soils

Comparing GW finished and un-finished samples from sites 4 and 5 (figure 4.4), the unfinished and more active (D, I) have higher quantity of alk B genes (one order of magnitude) than the finished and less active (E, H). A similar result has been shown by (Wallisch et al., 2014) who found significantly higher gene numbers (one order of magnitude) in contaminated soil treated with immature compost compared to that with mature compost. (Franke-Whittle et al, 2009) have also found that in GW compost, the numbers of known compost microorganisms were higher for 2-week compost than 16-week samples, however, they didn’t characterise them as alk B degraders. There is also the possibility of presence of alkane degraders that don’t present the alk B gene, these microorganisms wouldn’t be detected by this method. For site 7, samples K and L the abundance of alk B is higher in sample L, the less active, finished compost. The alk B abundance in the samples from this site are two and one orders of magnitude lower than in the sites 4 and 5 respectively.
Mostrar mais

52 Ler mais

The use of Vinasse as an Amendment to Ex-Situ Bioremediation of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Diesel Oil

The use of Vinasse as an Amendment to Ex-Situ Bioremediation of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Diesel Oil

concentration of 33 mL.Kg -1 of soil. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by gas chromatography. The groundwater bioremediation was carried out in laboratory experiments simulating aerated (bioreactors) and not aerated (BOD flasks) conditions. In both the cases, the concentration of vinasse was 5 % (v/v) and different physicochemical parameters were evaluated during 20 days. Although an increase in the soil fertility and microbial population were obtained with the vinasse, it demonstrated not to be adequate to enhance the bioremediation efficiency of diesel oil contaminated soils. The addition of the vinasse in the contaminated groundwaters had negative effects on the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons, since vinasse, as a labile carbon source, was preferentially consumed.
Mostrar mais

13 Ler mais

POTENTIAL OF GRASSES AND RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL-CONTAMINATED SOILS

POTENTIAL OF GRASSES AND RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF DIESEL-CONTAMINATED SOILS

concentrations were higher in all soils with plants compared to unplanted soils, demonstrating the beneficial effects of rhizosphere-bacteria interactions (Crawford & Wilkens, 1998; Roelofs et al., 2001). Because root exudates contain compounds structurally similar to various petroleum hydrocarbons (Toyama et al., 2001) the growth of specific hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria can be stimulated. Nonetheless, the stimulatory effects of the rhizosphere of these grasses on specific bacteria carrying hydrocarbon catabolic genes was not evaluated and future studies will have to confirm our findings. After 10 weeks of treatment, the effects of rhizosphere on bacteria concentration (R/S) were mostly negligible (Figure 5b). This could be attributed to the unavailability of hydrocarbons (removed by degradation or volatilization losses after 10 weeks of treatment) as carbon source to support bacterial growth.
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Bioremediation of brazilian soils contaminated with used lubricating oil

Bioremediation of brazilian soils contaminated with used lubricating oil

microorganisms can metabolize only a limited range of hydrocarbon substrates, so assemblages of mixed populations with overall broad enzymatic capacities are required to bring the rate and extent of petroleum biodegradation further. Microbes are the main degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated ecosystems (Leahy and Cowell, 1990). Bioremediation has become an alternative way of remediation of oil polluted sites, where the addition of specific microorganisms (bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa) or enhancement of microorganisms already present can improve biodegradation efficiency in both in-situ or ex-situ procedures (Cookson, 1995). Activities of microorganisms are essential to nutrient cycling in soils, and any effect which pollution has on soil microorganisms will also affect vegetation development, ecosystem functioning and productivity (Bauer et al., 1991; Ladd et al., 1996). Soil microorganisms are very sensitive to any ecosystem perturbation, since their diversity and activity are rapidly altered by such perturbation (Schloter et al., 2003). The measurement of microbiological parameters, such as soil respiration, microbial biomass, provides information on the presence and activity of viable microorganisms as well as on the intensity, kind and duration of the effects of hydrocarbon pollution on soil metabolic activity; such measurements may serve as a good index of the impact of pollution on soil health (Brohon et al., 2001; Eibes et al., 2006). However, results on the effects of hydrocarbon pollution on microbial biomass and activity are not always coincident, probably due to the differences in chemical properties of the hydrocarbon used (Xu and Johnson, 1995). It is also true that contaminants may well serve as organic carbon sources, and an enrichment of oil-degrading microbial populations has been observed in most contaminated ecosystems (Margesin et al., 2000). A better understanding of the effect of hydrocarbon contaminants on plant and soil microorganisms may be of help in assessing the recovery potential of a soil.
Mostrar mais

108 Ler mais

Uma revisão das tecnologias de bioestimulação orgânica de solos contaminados com hidrocarbonetos de petróleo / A review of organic biostimulation technologies for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons

Uma revisão das tecnologias de bioestimulação orgânica de solos contaminados com hidrocarbonetos de petróleo / A review of organic biostimulation technologies for soils contaminated with oil hydrocarbons

The increasing use of oil and its derivatives for the supply of energy to humanity has led to several environmental impacts, among them contamination by spills of these substances in soil and water. Several technologies have been developed to remedy the areas contaminated by oil hydrocarbons, among them, the bioremediation is seen as ecologically correct and economically viable. The use of fertilizers to increase the efficiency of bioremediation is known as Bio-stimulation, and can be applied through the use of organic or inorganic fertilizers. This study is a non-exhaustive review, which presents the effectiveness of the use of organic fertilizers in the biostimulation of soils contaminated with total oil hydrocarbons, an ecologically correct process for the remediation of contaminated environments and which gives a new use for residual materials from activities such as agriculture and livestock.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, de- fined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the re- moval and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microor- ganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microbial cultures. The other factors that influence the effi- ciency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and con- centration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioreme- diation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This tech- nology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its de- rivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and trans- former oil.
Mostrar mais

15 Ler mais

Coupling electrokinetics and iron nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated soils

Coupling electrokinetics and iron nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated soils

The technologies previously described, although aiming to destroy or transform PCB, operate in very different ways and consequently have different clean up times, costs, breakdown products and envi- ronmental impacts. Their effectiveness is also site speci fic, since each technology depends on the contaminants (in most cases, a mix of organic and inorganic pollutants and, even if the contamination is only due to PCB different mixes of congeners), the aging of the con- tamination, the type of soil and geomorphologic conditions and other environmental factors (like mobility of the contaminants or sorption to soil particles). Generally biological treatments as bioreme- diation, phytoremediation and natural attenuation, are long-term processes, but have lower costs and environmental impacts than chemical, physical or thermal treatments, as well as higher public accep- tance. Their effectiveness is also less predictable. Life Cycle Assessment has shown that bioremediation has less impact than incineration for PCB contaminated soils, with the lowest environmental footprint being for electric aeration, especially in terms of global warming and depletion of abiotic resources (Busset et al., 2012). At equal distances between the polluted sites and the treatment plant, bioremediation had fewer im- pacts than incineration in eight out of 13 categories. The impact on global warming was nine times greater for incineration producing 6.5×10 5 and
Mostrar mais

280 Ler mais

BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

The pollution of soil with petroleum products, is part of the most obvious environmental problems with which Romania faces in the recent years, given by the increasing pace of accelerated and intensive use of these substances to meet the needs of fairness and of energy. The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes of water infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with the atmosphere.On the heavily polluted soils are no longer developed any kind of vegetation, being disrupted the activity of soil microorganisms, too. By this type of pollution is disturbed the ecological balance of the soil and of the groundwaters.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Evaluation of tests to assess the quality of mine-contaminated soils

Evaluation of tests to assess the quality of mine-contaminated soils

Abstract An acid metal-contaminated soil from the Aljustrel mining area (a pyrite mine located in SW Portugal in the Iberian Pyrite Belt) was subjected to chemical characterisation and total metal quanti Wca- tion (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Water-soluble met- als were determined and a sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate metal speciation. Two bioavailable metal fractions were determined: a mobile fraction and a mobilisable fraction. Soil eco- toxicity was studied using a battery of bioassays: plant growth test and seed germination with cress (Lepidium sativum L.), earthworm (Eisenia fetida) mortality, E. fetida avoidance behaviour, lumines- cent inhibition of Vibrio Wscheri and Daphnia magna immobilisation. Although the total content of Cu, Zn
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

The two selected fungal strains were further tested for their ability to decolorize on PDA and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) medium, Himedia, Mumbai, India. This was done to select which medium support better growth and dye decolorization activities of selected fungal isolates. Ini- tially, all the three fungal strains were grown as previously described. Following incubation, fungal mycelial agar plugs (~5 mm 2 ) were cut approximately 5 mm from the col- ony margin and inoculated on test tubes (in triplicates) each pre-filled with 2 mL of the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and SDA medium, supplemented separately with either with following dye 0.01% (w/v) Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin, respectively (Lopez et al., 2006). The culture tubes were then incubated at room temperature (~ 25 °C). The growth of the fungi and its ability to decolorize the dye were observed weekly up to four weeks. The depth of dye decolorization (in mm) indicated by clear- ing of the dye was then measured. Based upon growth of fungal strains and dye decolorization, for further studies PDA medium was chosen.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Reproduction of Eisenia foetida in agricultural soils from mining areas contaminated with copper and arsenic

Reproduction of Eisenia foetida in agricultural soils from mining areas contaminated with copper and arsenic

Abstract – The objective of this work was to evaluate copper and arsenic toxicity in agricultural soils, by means of standardized bioassays of chronic and acute toxicity on Eisenia foetida, and to relate E. foetida response to copper and arsenic concentrations in soils. The agricultural soils were sampled in the proximity of copper mining industries, in the Aconcagua river basin, Chile. E. foetida exposed to the studied soils exhibited a low mortality, indicating the absence of acute toxicity. Besides, a decrease in the cocoon production and juvenile development was observed, indicating the existence of chronic toxicity. Reduction in the cocoon production and juvenile development was related to soil concentrations of copper and arsenic. Both copper and arsenic reduced the cocoon production, while only arsenic diminished the juvenile development. Agricultural soils from mining areas of the basin have potentially toxic characteristics for the development of soil macrofauna.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Cupriavidus necator strains: zinc and cadmium tolerance and

Cupriavidus necator strains: zinc and cadmium tolerance and

The bacterial strains used in this study had been previously isolated from the rhizosphere of the legume Sesbania virgata using Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leu- cocephala as bait plants to isolate bacteria that nodulate legumes in uncontaminated soil (Florentino et al., 2009). The isolated bacterial strains showed rapid growth, re- sulting in alkaline culture medium and reduced gum production in medium 79 (Fred and Waksman, 1928). These strains were identified as C. necator by Silva et al., 2012 based on phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sequencing of other housekeeping genes and comparison of these sequences with the NCBI database. The four strains (UFLA01-663, UFLA01-659, UFLA02-73 and UFLA02-71) were selected based on the efficiency of their symbioses with legumes that have the potential to revegetate degraded areas and their toler- ance of Cd and Zn concentrations in solid culture me- dium (Ferreira et al., 2012).
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

Petroleum effects on soil microbial communities

Petroleum effects on soil microbial communities

Despite the toxic effect, some taxa are able to utilise oil hydrocarbons as a source of carbon and energy being favoured by oil amendment, and gradually overcoming the populations lacking those abilities. The effects on fungal diversity were more marked than that observed on prokaryotic diversity, corroborating Embar (2006), who reported a rapid increase in abundance and shift in diversity in the fungal community in response to oil contamination. The strong effect of oil on the fungal diversity may also be explained by metabolic differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This effect relates to the increased toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in crude oil, after metabolic activation mediated by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) of eukaryotes. The majority of carcinogens in the environment are inert by themselves and require the metabolic activation by CYP, in order to exhibit carcinogenicity (Shimada and Fuji-Kuriama, 2003). The CYP genes belong to the superfamily of dioxygenases, present in all domains of life. Genes that code for dioxygenases in prokaryotes are related to toxin and xenobiotic degradation, while in eukaryotes CYP genes may be related to a plethora of functions, ranging from biosynthesis of hormones to chemical defence in plants (Werck-Reichhard et al., 2000).
Mostrar mais

93 Ler mais

Rev. Bras. Geof.  vol.28 número4

Rev. Bras. Geof. vol.28 número4

ABSTRACT. The increasing usage of petroleum derivatives in industrial processes provides a generation of products which are being increasingly used by the contemporary society. The negative consequence from the use and manipulation of hydrocarbons is the generation of residues and highly pollutant effluents. Nowadays, the integrated usage of geophysical techniques can become an efficient tool in the evaluation and characterization of environmental problems. In general, the usage of geophysical in the characterization of an area affected by pollutant substances consists in mapping and detecting the extension of the affected area and inform about the saturated zone deep, the underground flux direction and the deep of the unaltered rocky substrate. The main objective of this research was the geophysical characterization of contaminated area by hydrocarbons derived from petroleum, by the usage of the following methods: Electrical resistivity, Inducted Polarization, and Inductive Electromagnetic. This characterization was carried out through field rehearsals and the usage of two-dimensional models in a chemical industry as study area, placed in the city of S˜ao Paulo – SP. This area was chosen as the basis in precedent studies which has indicated the event of contamination. The results from the resistivity, chargeability and apparent conductivity models, suggest the presence of contamination and its favorable way, which follows the underground water flux. Three kinds of anomalies could be individualized: first, low resistivity and low chargeability, which suggest older contamination and the relation with the biodegradation processes, confirmed thought the bacterial analysis; second, low resistivity and high chargeability, generated by the presence of polarizable materials (metals); and third, the high resistivity anomalies and low chargeability, generated by the presence of the raw contaminant (paint impregnated sediment), which confirms the most recent pollution where the biodegradation process does not occur.
Mostrar mais

1 Ler mais

Employment of local soils for treatment of metal-bearing wastewater from petroleum refinement.

Employment of local soils for treatment of metal-bearing wastewater from petroleum refinement.

EMPLOYMENT OF LOCAL SOILS FOR TREATMENT OF METAL-BEARING WASTEWATER FROM PETROLEUM REFINEMENT. The employment of local soils for extraction of metallic elements was evaluated through batch tests to treat wastewaters generated in a petroleum refinery plant in southern Brazil. Clay and organic carbon content and clay mineralogy provide these soils, in principle, with moderate metal retention capacity. The following retention order was established: Cr 3+ > Pb 2+ > Cu 2+

3 Ler mais

Carbonyl and carboxyl compounds determination in petroleum products.

Carbonyl and carboxyl compounds determination in petroleum products.

Traços de compostos carbonílicos e carboxílicos voláteis presentes no petróleo, suas frações, e especialmente em derivados da primeira geração da indústria petroquímica, tais como eten[r]

13 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...

temas relacionados