Joint funding covers activities, managed by NATO agencies, such as the NATO Airborne Warning and Control System and NATO pipelines; Common funding involves three different budgets: the civil budget, which covers the running costs of NATO headquarters; the military budget , which essentially covers the running costs of NATO’s integrated military command structure andthe NATO-wide communication and air defense networks; andthe NATO Security Investment Program (NSIP) that covers core NATO- wide investment requirements for communication systems, air defensesystemsand core networks of airfields, fuel supplies and command structures. The military budget andthe Security Investment Program also support the theatre headquarter elements of crisis response operations. Relatively speaking, these budgets represent a small amount of money, but they are key for the cohesion of the Alliance andthe integration of capabilities. NATO’s military common-funded budget represents 0.3 per cent of the combined defense budgets of Allied members.
Although general phytogeographic patterns can provide theoretical support for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest at a coarse level, the stakeholders (mainly the government and conservation organizations) should always be aware of the ecological criteria determining discrete floristic units within a given region. Even if the floristic knowledge is insufficient, consideration of geomorphology and climate at finer scales in subregions defined for other purposes (e.g., geopolitics or water management) can lead to wiser biodiversity conservation planning. Parks and reserves should be created in each of these subregions, in order to protect most of the plant species, especially the endemic and indicator ones. In forest restoration, species selection should respect the tree composition in nearby forests that are floristically similar.
per 1000 people, andtheir catchments areas. The ‘standards approach’ uses two major principles: the type of open space andthe space requirement, which would depend upon the area (a fixed percentage based on the total amount of land in the subdivision) andthe population in terms of a density ratio. These practices of standards and typology clearly contribute to prevent the development of strategic open space policies. The approach has its critics, who argue that such a formula does not relate needs and benefits. Furthermore, a significant consequence of such emphasis is its preoccupation with means rather than ends, uses rather than functions and products rather than processes. The shortcoming has been further strengthened by an overwhelmingly uni-dimensional perception of the role of open space as almost exclusively recreational. Other significant non-recreational functions of open space have been relatively neglected.
The perfect combination of modeling andplanning makes Simio one of the most advanced products on the market of simulation programs. The Simio system is a software with object-oriented processes and objects, defined in a graphic form without requiring programming. The program allows “rapidly build accurate 3D models and objectively analyze alternatives to reduce risk and improve performance”. It makes possible not only to improve the efficiency of the business from the perspective of object design but also to maximize the results of business processes by optimizing the use of resources and by the ability of risk assessment, related to business solutions. Simio can be used to model a wide range of systems, including manufacturing, healthcare, supply chain, transportation, defense, and mining.
Long term Development Plan of thedefense system of Republic of Serbia is the document of defenseplanning in which are defined: the strategic orientations for developing thedefense system, the necessary capability of Serbian Armed Forces (hereinafter: SAF), the content and dynamics of organizational changes, the development of human and material resources, the financing of thedefense system, and other issues for increasing functionality of thedefense system, according to its missions and objectives. Long term planning, basically, consists of: introduction; strategic environmental estimates; long term goals and objectives for development; necessary capabilities of thedefense system; assumptions for execution of the plan; way of following the process; conclusions and attachments. After concretization of the long term documents, middle term documents are being developed from their concepts.
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) were used for many years to protect networks and hosts. And since their design, they have not ceased to play a major role in thedefense against intrusions and attacks. They allow analyzing and monitoring the activities on a network or a given machine to detect fraudulent use of resources, log, alert administrators and in some cases react and stop the threat to enforce the security policy.
So far, it has been proved by researches focused on health outcomes that the lag between the economic recession and death or disease - like mental health outcomes, infections, and injuries - is short. Nevertheless, some effects on health may not manifest themselves for some time. There were several variations in access to needed services by the population, such as the appropriate management of chronic diseases with the consequent adherence to treatment and patient participation. Finally, it was verified in some countries increases in difficulties of accessing necessary care services. Actually, due to the recession and consequent health budget reductions, some policy changes have been made, such as the end of facilities, staff reductions, decreased opening times, and higher user charges. This situation is likely to deter the access to timely and effective care, implying higher financial and human costs. However, some countries have made several efforts, focusing their policies on diminishing the cost of publicly financed services, and therefore protecting the access to needed services. (Health, health systemsand economic crisis in Europe, Impact and policy implications, WHO, 2013).
Then, on NDPP step 2, during the Capability Requirement Review process, Strategic Commands will identify the requirements and associated shortfalls, with all planning domains joining in the analysis, in order to develop the single set of required Capabilities, the so called Minimum Capability Requirements (MCR) that will be made available to Nations. The complete set of capabilities needed by the Alliance to meet its Level of Ambition and other agreed objectives set out in political guidance will constitute the Minimum Capability Requirements, formerly referred to as Minimum Capability Requirements. They will also cover other areas such as Long Term Capability Requirements (LTCRs) and interoperability requirements. As such, during the Capability Requirement Review, together with the requirements derivation, the requirements for interoperability concerning in particular the ability to communicate operate and support will be deﬁ ned / determined by the appropriate authorities / NMAs, and lead committees within their respective planning domains.
Despite the strategic importance of these systems, most of the projects implemented in the early stages of implementation and commissioning of these systems failed, so that researchers stated the failure rate between 40 and 60 percent (Chang et al., 2008). Hence, the main concern of authorities for Communications and Information Technology Research is to identify key success factors in ERP implementation in order to prevent possible failure of the project. The major problem of this study, conducted in 2013 at the Institute of Communications and Information Technology in Iran, was to identify the key factors affecting the successful implementation of ERP and determine their relative importance in the research.
Abstract. Information & Communication Technology (ICT) tools such as computational models are very helpful in de- signing river basin management plans (rbmp-s). However, in the scientific world there is consensus that a single inte- grated modelling system to support e.g. the implementation of the Water Framework Directive cannot be developed and that integrated systems need to be very much tailored to the local situation. As a consequence there is an urgent need to increase the flexibility of modelling systems, such that dedi- cated model systems can be developed from available build- ing blocks. The HarmonIT project aims at precisely that. Its objective is to develop and implement a standard inter- face for modelling components and other relevant tools: The Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI) standard. The OpenMI standard has been completed and documented. It relies en- tirely on the “pull” principle, where data are pulled by one model from the previous model in the chain. This paper gives an overview of the OpenMI standard, explains the foremost concepts andthe rational behind it.
Command Transformation (ACT) plays the coordination role. Another important structure in implementing the concept of “smart defense” is the Conference of National Armaments Directors, the main NATO committee responsible for promoting cooperation in supplying weapons and capabilities to improve the effectiveness of NATO forces. Moreover, on July 6, 2012, an agency similar to EDA - NATO Procurement Organization (NPO) was created within NATO  in order to provide a framework which would integrate the multinational procurement programs. At the moment, NPO is still being organized in terms of the structure and processes that will underpin its operation. Also, the offi cial NATO website states that NPO will build on the experience of the existing multinational procurement agencies  that will continue to operate as such until NPO is operational or until the member who is involved in the NPO will decide the integration. However, the existence of specialized multinational procurement agencies clearly reveals that the idea of “smart defense” is not a new one. However, the concept acquires a new scope and new meanings in the global fi nancial and economic crisis. In addition, as with EDA, the implementation of “smart defense” requires certain necessary steps. The fi rst is to prioritize the necessary national capabilities in accordance with Alliance’s requests so that the main objectives identifi ed in thedefenseplanning coincide with those defi ned by NATO. The second step is specialization, namely the need for states to cut out from their budgets the expenditures with those capabilities allotted to other NATO member states and to which, in accordance with the principles of “smart defense”, they should also have access. Specialization involves saving some resources and investing them in others that are insuffi ciently developed or inexistent across the Alliance. The third step is cooperation, a core dimension emerging from the idea that states can, together, have access to capabilities that would not be otherwise available.
The increasing costs of health services left the majority of the world’s population without access to the most expensive health treatments. However, the social importance given to the value of life andthe randomness of the disease epidemiology, created the consciousness that no one should be left without treatment, just because its price is not affordable at a given time. This market failure raised the need for insurance, whether it comes from a public or a private entity. The increase in insurance plans andsystems left the demand for health quite insensitive to prices, which drove away competition in this market. It is in this conjuncture that RPS emerges as a policy able to, despite saving the access to health from most of the demand, transfer some of the expenditure to the consumer and breaking its insensibility to the price (Miraldo, 2009). Although competition is something desirable, within the pharmaceutical market under patent drugs are wittingly protected given the investments in R&D made to create the new drug. That is the reason why in the majority of the countries RPS is only implemented after the expiry of the branded drug patent 1 .
The questions above contain important elements in education; culture and values, economy (the skills to survive), and social skills. Delors (n.d.) argues that education should be considered as the principal means available to foster a deeper and more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war. Furthermore, The AEC’s Adelaide Declaration of National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First century (MCTEEYA, 1999 in Handerson, 2005) states that schooling should assist young people to contribute to Australia’s social, cultural and economic development in local and global context.
In India, stereotypes related to old women vary slightly depending upon their marital status. Socially, old age is viewed as a phase in life when one turns to god or to spiritual pursuits rather than enjoying material comforts or pleasures of senses. This notion of old age as a period of renunciation is applied to both male and female individuals, but in case of female members of social groups it is used as a general criteria to judge whether or not a woman is living up to that ideal image of revered mother or grandmother. As in all stages of her life, a woman receives respect in her old age if she remains within the social definition of good moral conduct. For a widow the chastity and morality aspect becomes even more important since she is expected to lead an exemplary austere life, dedicating herself to other-worldly thoughts and religious activities. With the great reverence attached to motherhood in Indian tradition, a woman in her old age acquires an image of a wise, experienced grandmother, who should be respected almost like a mother goddess. She has nurtured the family and now the younger generation has to pay her back with gratitude. She has been a mother, a wife and has fulfilled all her duties in life. So she deserves respect. She can not be a normal woman with wishes and desires. She can not be lonely and she can not have need for companionship, especially male companionship. Women who have no children or those who are not married can hope to achieve that legitimate place of a ‘respected grandmother’ only if they give up their individual identity, become part of brother’s or brother-in-law’s families and spend time in spiritual and religious pursuits.
Cretaceous age (Carvalho and Kattah 1998); 2 – Botu- catu Formation, Paraná Basin (Leonardi 1980, Leonardi and Oliveira 1990), a massive aeolian sequence of pos- sible Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age (Assine et al. 2004) that crops out in an extensive area in east-central South America (Scherer 2000). The ichnofaunas in- cludes possible theropod and ornithopod footprints re- covered mainly in São Paulo State (Leonardi 1994, Leo- nardi et al. 2007, Fernandes and Carvalho 2007). Some authors have noted that the dinosaur fauna from Botu- catu Formation is restricted both ecologically, as it is mainly composed of small to medium-sized animals, and taxonomically, with the virtual absence of sauropods (Leonardi 1989, Novas 2007, 2009). The interpretation of the Botucatu Formation as a paleodesert (Assine et al. 2004) suggests that environmental stress could be responsible for this pattern (Novas 2007, 2009). Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing rocks in Gondwana are rare, with significant records only from the Tendaguru beds, Tanzania, which includes several sauropods, theropods, stegosaurs, and basal iguanodonts (Janensch 1914, Bona- parte et al. 2000, Tykoski and Rowe 2004, Upchurch et al. 2004, Rauhut 2005, Remes 2006, 2007), andthe Cañadon Calcáreo Formation, Argentina, with sauro- pod records (Rauhut et al. 2005, Rauhut and Lopez- Arbarello 2008). Other records (see Novas 2009 for review) include the Lower or Middle Jurassic strata of the La Quinta Formation, Venezuela, with ornithischi- ans and saurischian incomplete specimens (Barrett et al. 2008), La Matilde Formation from Middle or Late Jurassic of Argentina (Leonardi 1989), with theropod footprints (Novas 2009), and Baños del Flaco Forma- tion, Tithonian of Chile (Moreno and Benton 2005), with sauropod tracks. The paucity of Jurassic dinosaurs in Brazil has been discussed under a paleoecological framework (Novas 2007, 2009), and it adds few infor- mation from a historical biogeography point of view. Indeed, the same can be said about the ornithischian record, which includes the above-mentioned and addi- tional footprints from the Early Cretaceous of Sousa and Uiraúna-Brejo das Freiras basins, northern Brazil (Leonardi and Carvalho 2002, 2007), and a preliminar- ily described vertebra from Itapecuru beds (see above) attributed to Hadrosauridae (Avilla et al. 2003). The ornithischian record from Argentina is much richer, consisting of stegosaurids and euornithopods, includ-
Naturally, there have been attempts at improving thedefense project performances through a series of initiatives . The US Department of Defense (DoD) sponsored the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) for ﬁ nding various solutions including the famous Capability Maturity Model (CMM) series. CMMs are series of models used to assess the maturity of system and software developing organizations. In addition, government defense ministries and agencies supported the development of various enterprise architecture frameworks (EAF). US DoD’s Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF), the British Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework (MODAF), and NATO Architecture Framework (NAF) are among such efforts. Object Management Group’s Uniﬁ ed Proﬁ le for DODAF/ MODAF (UPDM) is an attempt to combine these architecture frameworks. The purpose of these EAFs is to guide the development of defense system of systems projects.
At the quantitative level, the data corroborate the empirical record made. The analyses showed that in the green area, the Marechal Floriano Square, the temperatures were always lower andthe humidity was higher, reducing the thermal amplitude, both in the morning and in the afternoon. This is translated as a better level of comfort, andthe vegetation is a very important factor for this characteristic. The paved areas andtheir characteristics of the surroundings favor microclimates warmer and of lower quality for those who use it, as evidenced by the high temperature values. However, wind flow through the streets is greater, both in the qualitative record and in the quantification performed in situ through the wind speed values. This characteristic may be important for the generation of better levels of comfort in waterproof spaces and with high sun exposure, without the possibility of large green areas.
In late 1999, Atta, Shehhi, Jarrah, and bin al-Shibh decided to travel to Chechnya to fight Russian soldiers. However, al-Qaida recruiters in Hamburg convinced them at the last minute to travel instead to Afghanistan to meet with Osama bin Laden and train for terrorist attacks. In Afghanistan, they gave up their plans to fight in Chechnya against the Russian and were told they would be engaged in a highly secret mission, namely the 9/11 project, and were instructed to return to Germany and enroll in flight school. In Germany they like other future hijackers in the group tried to hide their radicalism and blend in with the population (shaving their beards, wearing conventional German student clothing, and ceasing to worship in Mosques). With financial backing from al-Qaida, they moved to the USA (except for Binalshibh who could not obtain a visa) and continued their flight training in different parts of the USA (some of this was noticed and appeared in FBI reports which reached President Bush’s desk during the summer of 2001. Their secrecy – and eventual congregating in Florida reinforced their loyalty to one another and to their cause. The core members of the Hamburg cell were obviously smart, increasingly technically skilled and able to pass among Westerners. Additional fellow hijackers took up residence in Southern Florida near Atta and Shehhi (Venice, Florida). The expanded group proved able to function as a single, task-oriented team – eventually 4 subteams one for each of the hijacked plans – owing to their shared religious ideology, secrecy, and focused task preparations.