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TOLERANCE OF DRY BEAN CULTIVARS TO SAFLUFENACIL

TOLERANCE OF DRY BEAN CULTIVARS TO SAFLUFENACIL

Saflufenacil is applied at relatively low doses and has low environmental, toxicological and ecotoxicological impacts by presenting minimal residual effect to cultivated species in sucession, common feature of herbicides with low residual in the soil (Soltani, Shropshire; Sikkema, 2010). This herbicide is recommended for weed desiccation prior to crop seeding, due to its broad weed species spectrum control, especially of dicots. It has shown rapid control of dicots species, including lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), horseweed (Conyza canadensis), morning glory (Ipomoea spp.), Commelina benghalensis, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Luffa aegyptiana, Merremia cissoides, Mucuna aterrima , Ricinus communis and various species of Amaranthus (Geier; Stahlman; Charvat, 2009; Monquero; Dalla Costa; Krolikowski, 2011; Martins et al., 2012; Inoue et al., 2012).
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Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental sti- muli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical spe- cies. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technol- ogy, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regu- lated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcrip- tome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and advance our knowledge of the genes involved in the complex regulatory networks of this plant under cold stress.
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Physiological characteristics of cassava tolerance to prolonged drought in the tropics: Implications for breeding cultivars adapted to seasonally dry and semiarid environments

Physiological characteristics of cassava tolerance to prolonged drought in the tropics: Implications for breeding cultivars adapted to seasonally dry and semiarid environments

Although research conducted in laboratories and in controlled environments is useful in elucidating a specific plant physiological characteristic or mechanisms underlying certain biological processes and responses to environmental factors affecting growth and productivity, by themselves they are inadequate for creating some benefit to the farmer (Evans et al.,1985; Kramer, 1980, 1981). Field research under representative environments and in relevant cropping systems using a broad genetic base must be conducted not only to verify findings in laboratories and controlled environments but also to generate essential information and insights concerning the real potential of crops under natural conditions as well as their responses to a specific limiting environmental factor (El-Sharkawy et al., 1965; El- Sharkawy, 1993, 2004, 2005, 2006a,b; Long et al., 2006). El- estratégia de melhoramento utilizando-se de uma abordagem multidisciplinar. Várias características e mecanismos associados com a tolerância da mandioca à seca foram elucidados, usando-se de um grande número de genótipos da coleção do germoplasma do CIAT; os genótipos foram cultivados em várias localidades representantes de ecozonas onde a mandioca é cultivada. Dentre essas características, destacam-se a elevada capacidade fotossintética das folhas da mandioca em ambientes favoráveis e a manutenção de taxas fotossintéticas razoáveis durante períodos prolongados de seca, uma característica crucial para altas e sustentadas produtividades. A mandioca apresenta um controle estomático eficiente sobre as trocas gasosas, a fim de reduzir as perdas de água quando as plantas são sujeitas ao déficit de água no solo ou a altas demandas evaporativas da atmosfera, portanto protegendo as folhas de uma desidratação severa. Durante déficits hídricos prolongados, a mandioca reduz a área de sua copa, via perda das folhas mais velhas e formação de novas e menores folhas, o quê reduz a interceptação da luz, outra característica
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COMPETITION OF Amaranthus SPECIES WITH DRY BEAN PLANTS

COMPETITION OF Amaranthus SPECIES WITH DRY BEAN PLANTS

The largest competitive ability of the dry bean identified in this experiment may be consequence of several factors, mainly those related to the biological characteristics of the species. Some supposed advan- tages are: (i) the dry bean germination is epigeous, with big seedlings with well lifted cotyledons over the soil surface, which secures its competitive advantage; (ii) dry bean seedlings have large cotyledon leaves that shadow little seedling weeds, which is the case of the pigweeds; and (iii) the dry bean cycle contributes to the fast initial production of large leaves (trifoliate), mainly in the case of short-cycle cultivars as the one here used.
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Germination and tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars to water stress

Germination and tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars to water stress

The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of cowpea cultivars to water stress, during seed germination and seedling establishment. For this, a completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial scheme consisting of nine cultivars of cowpea (BRS Guariba, BRS Potengi, BRS Itaim, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Aracê, Paulistinha, Maratanã, Costela-de-Vaca and Canapu-Branco) and two levels of osmotic potential induced by PEG 6000 (0.0 MPa (control) and -0.4 MPa) in four replicates of 50 seeds. The variables analysed were germination, germination first count, root and shoot lengths, and dry matter accumulation of shoots and roots. The dissimilarity between the genotypes was also determined by Euclidean distance. Germination and initial development of cowpea cultivars are impaired by the reduction in the potential to -0.4 MPa. The cultivars BRS Guariba, BRS Aracê, Paulistinha and Canapu-Branco are the most tolerant to water stress, while BRS Potengi, BRS Itaim, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Maratanã and Costela-de-Vaca are the most sensitive in the early development stage.
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Temporal selectivity of saflufenacil herbicide for the common bean crop of a brazilian oxisol

Temporal selectivity of saflufenacil herbicide for the common bean crop of a brazilian oxisol

In the 2011/2012 growing season, we observed that longer time intervals between the time of herbicide application and sowing were needed to reduce the negative effects of the herbicide on four plant variables compared with the time intervals for the 2012/2013 season; the need for longer time intervals between application and sowing was more important for two plant variables in 2012/2013 than in 2011/2012. The contrasting results between the growing seasons may be related to the ability of bean plants to metabolize the herbicide and its relationship to the times of definition of specific yield components. It has been suggested that the reduced plant metabolism of herbicides at low temperatures results in a lower herbicide tolerance (Cole, Cummins, Hatton, Dixon, & Edwards, 1997;
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Evaluation of common bean genotypes for drought tolerance

Evaluation of common bean genotypes for drought tolerance

In this regard, various studies have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of drought tolerance. Root architecture can allow deeper and moister soil layers to be exploited to escape from water deficit, and thus it can be a promising trait for crop performance under stress conditions (Vadez 2014). Morphological traits, such as lower leaf area index, and physiological aspects, such as lower stomatal conductance, are also considered to be mechanisms of adaptation to water shortage, allowing the plant to reduce evapotranspiration area (Beebe et al. 2013; Rao 2014). Other important traits are biomass production, partitioning of dry matter to promote grain production, and harvest index (Rao et al. 2013). Plants have diverse mechanisms for response and adaptation to water stress; therefore, determination of their distinct morphological, physiological, and agronomic traits for drought tolerance is indispensable to ensure efficiency in the selection process (Beebe et al. 2013).
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Tolerance of upland rice cultivars to aluminum and acidic pH

Tolerance of upland rice cultivars to aluminum and acidic pH

Experiment II: Upland rice cultivation in aluminic soil The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replicates, and the treatments were the same nine upland rice cultivars used in Experiment I. However, they were cultivated in pots containing aluminic soil (m% > 50%) and evaluated for the number of panicles per plant, grain production, shoot dry matter and harvest index of the cultivars under stress by Al 3+ . The harvest index was determined

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Early sowing can improve irrigation water use efficiency and yield of common bean

Early sowing can improve irrigation water use efficiency and yield of common bean

from an economic and environmental point of view, is to optimize the amount of water used in the production system. This study aimed at determining the viability of early sowing in the fall/winter harvest season, as well as its effects on the irrigation water use efficiency and yield of common bean. A crop model named CSM-CROPGRO-Dry bean, which simulates growth, development and yield of common bean as a function of environmental conditions, crop management and cultivar-specific parameters, was used to simulate the effects of 12 sowing dates on the irrigation water use efficiency and yield of the Pérola and BRS Radiante common bean cultivars. The simulated dates were as it follows: March 1st, 10 and 20 and April 1st, 10 and 20 (considered early); and May 1st, 10 and 20 and June 1st, 10 and 20 (considered traditional). The early sowing results in greater water economy than the traditional sowing season. Sowing in March provides a higher grain yield for the BRS Radiante cultivar and is similar to the traditional sowing of the Pérola cultivar. Concerning grain yield and irrigation water use efficiency, it is feasible to sow both cultivars in March.
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DRY MATTER ACCUMULATION IN GENOTYPES OF BEAN SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN

DRY MATTER ACCUMULATION IN GENOTYPES OF BEAN SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN

Some few works have been carried out in Brazil, showing that the bean lines present different response to the N applied (GUAZZELLI, 1988). In one of these works, Furtini et al. (2006) evaluated 100 lines in the presence and absence of N and observed that the lines differ in their response to N. However, there is no information regarding the strategy that the bean lines adopted in their divergent responses. It would be important to promote a growth analysis to verify how they respond or not the N applied. This procedure was used by Vieira et al. (2008) to assess cultivars of beans under no-tillage and conventional crop systems.
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SELECTION OF COMMON BEAN INBRED LINES WITH TOLERANCE TO HIGH MOISTURE AT HARVEST

SELECTION OF COMMON BEAN INBRED LINES WITH TOLERANCE TO HIGH MOISTURE AT HARVEST

The main problem in selection for tolerance to high moisture at the time of harvest is obtaining the moisture conditions that reflect the environments normally found in the crop conditions of the farmers. Normally farmer pulls up the plants and leaves them in a row on the ground to dry. If rains occur for prolonged periods of day before the harvesting, there is already the possibility of the seeds being damaged, that is, becoming spotted or germinating in the pod. The greatest damage, however, occurs when the rains are intermittent after harvest. In this case, pods in contact with the wet soil are damaged. The damage is caused in accordance with time of exposure and relative humidity. The intensity and duration of rainfall in the different crop seasons is rarely the same. The attempt was made, by means of irrigation, to reproduce the prevailing conditions when there are intermittent rains. That was not possible, evidently due to lower relative air humidity, even when irrigation is performed by spraying. Various
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INTERAÇÕES DE CULTIVARES E LINHAGENS DE FEIJOEIRO COM AMBIENTES

INTERAÇÕES DE CULTIVARES E LINHAGENS DE FEIJOEIRO COM AMBIENTES

ABSTRACT: The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations) were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ‘IAC-Carioca’ and ‘IAC-Carioca Eté’ were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while ‘FT-Nobre’ and ‘IAC-Una’ represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD) and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI). For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. ‘MAC-733327’ and ‘LP 9637’ were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while ‘LP 9637’ and ‘FT-Nobre’ were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni- and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.
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COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

In most situations, the crop may present a greater competitive ability than the weed in an isolated way because the effect of the weed species is not due to its greater individual competition, but mainly due to the combined effect of its total population of plants (BIANCHI; FLECK; LAMEGO, 2006). However, in some studies, the weed showed a greater competitive ability than the irrigated rice, living with: rice grass (AGOSTINETTO et al., 2008), Red rice (FLECK et al., 2008) and northern jointvetch (GALON et al., 2015); barley x ryegrass (GALON et al., 2011); and soybean x radish (BIANCHI; FLECK; LAMEGO, 2006). It is also emphasized that in a plant community there is a benefit in the competition for resources for those that establish themselves first, or for the intrinsic characteristics of each cultivar or hybrid in relation to the competitive ability (height, growth speed, spatial distribution, leaf area index , number of tillers, leaf area, dry mass, among others) and thus smaller amounts of resources will be available in the environment which causes increased damage to the competitor or crop (CARVALHO; CHRISTOFFOLETI, 2008; AGOSTINETTO et al., 2013).
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Tolerance of Arabica Coffee Cultivars for Aluminum in Nutritive Solution

Tolerance of Arabica Coffee Cultivars for Aluminum in Nutritive Solution

For the characteristics evaluated such as height (H), dry mass of the aerial part (DMAP) and root fresh mass and dry mass (RFM and DRM, respectively), there was no interaction between the coffee cultivars and presence and absence of aluminum at different initial development phases (Table 4 A and B). In maize, a reduction was observed in the dry mass of the aerial part with increase of aluminum (Batista et al., 2009) . Table 5 showed that the statistical difference between the means of the values obtained from the cultivars was significant for the four characteristics previously cited, pointing cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62 as presenting the lowest means, not differing statistically from cultivar Oeiras MG 6851, which presented the similar results. The seedlings of cultivars Iapar 59 and Obatã IAC 1669/20 presented, thus, more general development. Although showing less development, based on these characteristics, cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62 was the only one that effectively presented primary root growth increase (Table 3), indicating its tolerance to aluminum.
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Interferência e Nível de Dano Econômico de Picão-Preto sobre Cultivares de Feijão

Interferência e Nível de Dano Econômico de Picão-Preto sobre Cultivares de Feijão

ABSTRACT - The aim of the study was to assess the interference and determine the economic threshold level of beggartick damage on bean crops. Treatments consisted of bean cultivars (IPR Uirapuru, BRS Supremo, BRS Campeiro, Fepagro 26, BRS Esplendor and IPR Tuiuiú) submitted to competition with ten beggartick populations. We evaluated plant population, leaf area, ground cover and shoot dry mass of beggartick. Dry mass of shoots of beggartick fitted better to the hyperbolic model, and grain yield losses due to beggartick interference were estimated satisfactorily by this model. BRS Esplendor and IPR Tuiuiú were more competitive than the others in the presence of beggartick. Sowing of BRS Esplendor, IPR Tuiuiú and Fepagro 26 increases the level of economic damage, justifying the adoption of control measures only for higher densities of beggartick. Increase in grain yield, commercial price of beans, herbicide efficiency and reduction in control cost decrease the threshold level for weed control, justifying application of control measures for lower densities of beggartick.
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Adaptability and stability of common bean genotypes in family farming systems

Adaptability and stability of common bean genotypes in family farming systems

Abstract – The objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between genotypes and environments for grain yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines and cultivars with potential for use in family farming systems. Data from value for cultivation and use tests, carried out in 20 environments in the state of Goiás, Brazil, were analyzed in two cycles (2007/2008 and 2009/2010) in the dry, rainy, and winter crop seasons. Each test consisted of 15 genotypes from the carioca, purple, and rosinha common bean commercial groups. The experimental design was randomized complete block, with three replicates. The methodologies used to test the stability and adaptability of the genotypes were the one of Lin & Binns, of Cruz, the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) to calculate the weighted average of absolute scores and productivity (WAASP), and the GGE biplot graphical analysis. The productive performance of the common bean lines and cultivars is affected by genotype x environment interaction. The methodologies adopted allow the selection of cultivars for cropping, and of cultivars and lines for use as parents in order to obtain segregating populations for selection in a family farming system.
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Antixenosis and tolerance to Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in common bean cultivars

Antixenosis and tolerance to Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in common bean cultivars

Herbivorous insects are able to respond to several stimuli from host plants when selecting them for feeding and oviposition purposes (Panda & Khush 1995). The absence of favorable (attractive) stimuli and/or presence of unfavorable (repellent) stimuli in the plant are re- lated to expression of antixenosis. Probably, the volatile blends emitted by the leaf discs were not too distinct between cultivars; therefore, they did not guide the adults towards the most suitable common bean cultivars or repelled the insects in the case of unsuitable cultivars. Based on these findings, we suggest that the volatiles from the com- mon bean cultivars evaluated in the current study are not very effi- cient in repelling or attracting D. speciosa adults. However, it seems that some of the cultivars possess deterrent compounds allowing the adults to distinguish unsuitable cultivars only after they have started feeding on the foliage.
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Aluminium tolerance in bean traditional cultivars from Madeira

Aluminium tolerance in bean traditional cultivars from Madeira

the phaseolin pattern data (Silva et al., 2010), the beans accessions from Madeira can be classified as landraces; closely related to the Andean races iden- tified by Singh et al. (1991). Probably in the preva- lently acid Andosols and unsatured Cambisols of Madeira Archipelago, the Al phytotoxicity effects (Taylor, 1988) might occur, but only when soil or- ganic matter levels are low (Madeira et al., 1994). Ac- cordingly, in low input agriculture, under soil acidic conditions at pH 4.4, the decomposition products of organic residues decreased Al concentration in the soil solution, diminishing Al in exchangeable cati- ons, furnishing plant nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K) and attenuating the metal toxicity effects to bean and maize (Wong et al., 1995). The presence of 50 mM Al at pH 4.5 in nutrient solution allowed the identi- fication of Al resistance in common bean genotypes using the percent inhibition of primary root elonga- tion, percent increase of average root diameter, total root length per plant and total number of root tips per plant (Manrique-Carpintero et al., 2007).
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Aluminum tolerance in castor bean lines

Aluminum tolerance in castor bean lines

In general, CRZ H06, H12, H15, H17, H18 and FCA showed a better growth without Al toxicity (pH 4.0), primarily in light of the root dry weight (Table 1) and root length values observed (Table 2). With respect to the most efficient lines under Al stress, CRZ H06, H15, H17 and FCA stood out for their shoot dry weight production (Table 1), particularly CRZ H06, in terms of root length (Table 2). CRZ H06 is the most indicated for use in plant breeding programs aimed at obtaining Al-tolerant castor bean plants. However, in general, the plants are susceptible to Al under the conditions used in this study, what corroborates the findings of Lima et al. (2007 and 2014), Silva et al. (2014) and Passos et al. (2015).
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Tolerance to water deficiency between two soybean cultivars: transgenic versus conventional

Tolerance to water deficiency between two soybean cultivars: transgenic versus conventional

The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects on the development and physiological aspects of soybean plants grown under water deficiency at greenhouse conditions, comparing the levels of tolerance to water deficiency between one transgenic and one conventional cultivar, enabling a systematic way to carried out physiological comparisons between soybean cultivars under drought. The study was divided into completely randomized using a factorial 2×2 design, with five replicates. The experimental design included two replenishment levels of daily irrigation (100% and 40%), applied to the leaves during the V4 developmental stage (fourth trifoliate fully expanded) and two cultivars, ‘CD 202’ conventional and ‘CD 226RR’ transgenic. The results showed that both cultivars had similar effects, caused by water deficiency, on dry mass production, but the transgenic cultivar tended to maintain higher biomass allocation in pods, as well as, higher efficiency of leaves to support dry mass production than conventional cultivar in both water conditions. Moreover, the higher maximum CO 2 assimilation values and lower
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