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A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

As observed from the present work the tribological properties of neat castor oil are inferior to the mineral oil, although from close observation of the results we find that the values in both the cases are much closer to each other. The commercial mineral oil contained additives and thus, performed better as compared to the neat castor oil. Hence, more detailed research work would be carried out using various types of additives in castor oil to get a good fomulation of castor oil which may replace mineral oil in many applications,thus, reducing the impact on environment. The results of the future research would be reported in future articles.
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PRODUCTION OF CASTOR OIL MALEATE USING DI-TERT-BUTYL PEROXIDE AS FREE RADICAL CATALYST

PRODUCTION OF CASTOR OIL MALEATE USING DI-TERT-BUTYL PEROXIDE AS FREE RADICAL CATALYST

investigated to determine the detailed structural organization of the reaction product and to determine how the maleic units are interacting with the castor oil unit. The proton integrations of the H18 signals of the CO moiety at δ 0.87 in both spectra from the mix of maleate anhydride and castor oil in the proportion of 1:1 proved to be the same amount of castor oil in the samples. However, the integrations of the signal from the CO unit interacting with the MA unit (δ 4.84, and δ 6.32 and 6.34) confirmed that more MA units exist coupled to the CO unit. The integration values showed that mono-castor oil maleate is the main product of reaction and that it co-exists with a very small fraction of di-castor oil maleate (< 5%). The chemical shifts of the signals C10", C12’, and C12" were also indicative of the connection in only one other position (as illustrated in Figure 2), and that no tri-castor oil maleate was formed under the conditions applied in this study. The reactions of castor oil with anhydride maleate produced the same product when carried out with or without the reaction initiator.
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Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polymeric surfactants

Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polymeric surfactants

ECO was prepared as previously described [24] . DCO was prepared using castor oil, sodium hydrogen sulfate and TBHQ with mass ratio of 1 : 0.005 : 0.002. The dehydra- tion process was carried out at 230°C under vacuum for 80 min. The product (DCO) was separated by filtration when the solution temperature had cooled to 100°C. DCO (10 g) was then added to a three-necked round-bottomed flask with phosphoric acid (0.05 g) as catalyst. Peracetic acid (10.32 g) was added dropwise into this mixture for 30 min and the reaction was maintained at 30°C for 3 h. The mixture was then neutralized with 0.5 mol$L –1 NaOH
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Biodegradation of Soybean and Castor Oil Biodiesel: Implications on the Natural Attenuation of Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater

Biodegradation of Soybean and Castor Oil Biodiesel: Implications on the Natural Attenuation of Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in Groundwater

The increased probability of biodiesel co-occurring with hydrocarbons in contaminated aquifers underscores the need to assess the associated risks to groundwater quality. Critical knowledge gaps include the biodegradation characteristics of different types of biodiesel (and their constituents) under oxygen-limited conditions commonly encountered at fuel- impacted sites and their effect on BTEX natural attenuation. Toward this goal, this article compares the biodegradation of pure biodiesel methyl esters derived from soybean vs. castor oil, evaluates the influence of soybean biodiesel on the biodegradation of benzene and toluene, and considers the physicochemical properties of biodiesel to infer on its likely field-scale behavior and region of influence compared to the common biofuel, ethanol.
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Polyurethanes sintetized of polyols obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification with pentaerythritol.

Polyurethanes sintetized of polyols obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification with pentaerythritol.

POLYURETHANES SINTETIZED OF POLYOLS OBTAINED FROM CASTOR OIL MODIFIED BY TRANSESTERIFICATION WITH PENTAERYTHRITOL. Castor oil was reacted by transesterification with various percentages in mass of pentaerythritol to obtain different esters of pentaerythritol. Alternatively, glycerol was also used instead of pentaerythritol for the same reaction in order to establish comparative reference products. The products of the reactions were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy in order to detect and quantify (in terms of the molecular mass and structural information) the components of the products obtained. Analysis for hydroxyl value, acid value, viscosity and specific gravity were used to complete the characterization of the polyols obtained and also of the original castor oil. The polymer characterization was accomplished by tensile stress-strain tests, Shore A hardness, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical resistance to solvents.
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Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture

Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture

according to the percentage of castor oil in the membranes. Membrane type 3 had a rough irregular surface and presence of more defects, pores, bubbles, sulcus, reentrances, and large amount of castor oil ibers. Membrane type 2 had an aspect similar to membrane type 3, but the bubbles, pores and castor oil ibers were fewer than in membrane type 3. Membrane type 1 showed microscopic geometric irregularities on the surface characterizing a smoother pattern comparing to the others. In addition, the membrane type 1 had fewer bubbles, pores and castor oil ibers than the other types.
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Likelihood ratio test between two groups of castor oil plant traits

Likelihood ratio test between two groups of castor oil plant traits

Thus, the objective of this study was to calculate the type I error and the power of the LRT for determining the independence between two groups of castor oil plant traits under a mul[r]

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Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of castor oil plants

Non-destructive determination of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of castor oil plants

Leaves of castor oil plants (cultivars BRS Energia and BRS Paraguaçu) were collected and subjected to different nitrogen doses at a stage of full development before flowering to measure the photosynthetic pigments with portable equipment and to extract them using a classical model. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Algodão, a research unit of Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), which is located in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil (7°13’32”S, 35°54’22”W). The predominant weather is AS', according to Koppen (1948), which is semiarid, hot and humid, with a maximum annual temperature of 28.6ºC and a minimum of 19.5ºC.
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Growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle in goat kids fed diets with castor oil

Growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle in goat kids fed diets with castor oil

Intakes of crude protein (CPI) and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI) were not affected (P>0.05) by the use of castor oil in the diet, probably because the diets were isonitrogenous and had similar fiber contents, in addition to the fact that DMI did not change. However, due to the oil addition, the EE intake increased (P<0.01) in the treatment with castor oil, which was expected due to the higher diet supplement. The use of oil in the diet did not alter (P>0.05) the ADG of the goat kids. Therefore, their final weight was not changed (P>0.05). A weight gain in these animals was expected, once the diet with oil had higher energetic density and the DMI was not affected.
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Biodegradation of polyurethane derived from castor oil

Biodegradation of polyurethane derived from castor oil

Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the biodegradation of a polymer derived from castor oil, which is a renewa- ble, natural material that is a practical alternative for the replacement of traditional polyurethane foams. Due to its molecular structure, which contains polyester segments derived from vegetable oil, the polymeric surface is susceptible to microor- ganism attack. This study tested the biological degrading agent that was in contact with the microorganisms resulting from microbiological grease degrading agents, when foam was inoculated. Solid-media agar-plate tests were conducted for their potential to evaluate the biodegradation of polymeric particles by specific strains of microorganisms during 216 hours. The growth rate was defined. This technique provides a way of distinguishing the degradation abilities of microorganisms from the degradability of materials.
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Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

Due to the tensioactive properties of castor oil-based detergent, which are similar to those of regular detergent, the group treated with commercial neutral soap (group 3) was also studied to verify the performance of this tensioactive agent. The castor oil-based detergent presented the best results due to its low saponification and high detergent activity, proving to be more selective than a regular neutral soap. Another relevant difference among the groups is that group 3 was the only one attacked by leaf-cutter ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). This likely indicates the inactivation or degradation of the compounds of the plant’s secondary metabolism, which are natural herbivore repellents. 42
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Synthesis of modified polyurethanes based on castor oil employed in energetic materials.

Synthesis of modified polyurethanes based on castor oil employed in energetic materials.

SYNTHESIS OF MODIFIED POLYURETHANES BASED ON CASTOR OIL EMPLOYED IN ENERGETIC MATERIALS. The aim of this work was to synthesize a polyurethane polymer matrix using castor oil as a polymer chain modifier, whose characteristics can be adjusted for use as a binder in the manufacture of energetic materials such as propellant and pyrotechnics for aerospace use. We attempted the partial substitution of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), a pre-polymer commonly used as a starting polyol in obtaining energetic matrix composites. Thermoanalytical techniques were employed to characterize the material based on castor oil and the unmodified HTPB. The results showed similar behaviors, confirming the possibility of their use as polymer matrix composites through the proposed adaptations.
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Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

C astor oil bean cement (COB) is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH) and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Material and methods: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene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response within long periods.
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Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation

Bone regeneration after demineralized bone matrix and castor oil (Ricinus communis) polyurethane implantation

nnocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial.
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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci.  vol.48 número3

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. vol.48 número3

The matrix systems are classiied according to their chemical nature and release mechanism. Hydrophilic ma- trices absorb water and form a gel prior to dissolution (e.g., methylcellulose, agar-agar, alginates, and carbomer) and hydrophobic matrices produce porous solid structures in which the drug is dispersed. Hydrophobic matrices include the inert matrices, which are insoluble in gastric juices (e.g., cellulose acetate, ethyl cellulose, etc.), and lipid matrices that undergo erosion, gastric enzyme lipolysis, or solubilization by ionization (e.g., hydrogenated castor oil, stearic acid, and cetyl alcohol). The choice of matrix is very important, because this choice will inluence the ability of the formulation to control the drug release and thereby sustain the therapeutic action over time (Liberal, 2008; Salomen, 1980). Waxes and other related lipidic ma- terials such as cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, and hydrogenated castor oil form matrices that control the release of drugs by diffusion through pores or by erosion (Rowe et al., 2003).
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Evaluation of growth and production of Pleurotus sp. in sterilized substrates

Evaluation of growth and production of Pleurotus sp. in sterilized substrates

incubation, in Treatment 6 (elephant grass + rice husk) after 120 hours, in Treatment 3 (rice husk) after 168 and 216 hours. However, until the end of the incubation period, which lasted 264, 312 and 360 hours, the highest growth rate was seen in Treatment 6. Species of P. ostreatoroseus (POR01/06) showed a different behavior when compared to P. sajor-caju (PSC96/03), since 48 hours after incubation the highest growth rate was observed in Treatment 1 (ele- phant grass); after 120 hours, the highest rate was visualized in Treatment 7 (elephant grass + castor oil plant wastes); and from 168 hours to the end of the incubation period (360  hours), growth in Treatment 1 was superior to the others in all evaluations, as seen in Table 2. In short, despite the growth variation during incubation time, the more sui- table substrate for the lineage PSC96/03 was elephant grass + rice husk, and for the lineage POR01/06 elephant grass.
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Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

Several features of the castor oil separated this compound from the others, such as the lowest iodine index and the highest viscosity, which are properties that are directly related to the chemical composition (Table 1). The saponification index indicates the mean molecular weight of the fatty acids that are esterified to glycerol in the triacylglycerol molecule, i.e., a high saponification index indicates the presence of fatty acids with low molecular weights, and vice versa. According to Nabil and Yasser (2012), the insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil on Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was related to the presence of high molecular weight fatty acids, which might also be an important factor in the insecticidal activity of the castor oil.
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Flexible polyurethane foams based on 100 renewably sourced polyols

Flexible polyurethane foams based on 100 renewably sourced polyols

Flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used in many applications such as mattresses, seating and car industry and they are gaining great interest in areas such as biomedicine, intelligent materials and nanocomposites (Hodlur and Rabinal, 2014; Kang et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2013; Singhal et al., 2014). Nowadays, there is a growing concern about environmental issues in material syn- thesis. This reason together with crude price fluctuations have encouraged scientific community to develop materials, including polyurethanes, based on renewable resources which do not depend on petroleum based raw materials (Rashmi et al., 2013). Regarding renewable-based resources, vegetable oils have received special attention as raw materials for polyol synthesis (Ionescu et al., 2012; Narine et al., 2007; Palanisamy et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2014). Helling and Rusell (2009)carried out a life cycle assessment analysis for vegetable oil based polyols and demonstrated that a reduction of 33–64% on fossil resources consumption as well as a lowering on greenhouse gas emissions could be achievable by using soy or castor oil.
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Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera1 , Cristina Mattos Veloso2 , Leonardo Sidney Knupp1, Alcy Heleno de Souza Júnior1 , Edenio Detmann2 , Rogério de Paula Lana2

Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera1 , Cristina Mattos Veloso2 , Leonardo Sidney Knupp1, Alcy Heleno de Souza Júnior1 , Edenio Detmann2 , Rogério de Paula Lana2

ABSTRACT - The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap), lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD), rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive characteristics.
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Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg.  vol.30 número1

Braz. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. vol.30 número1

Methods: Twenty-four Guinea Pigs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals (I, II, and III). The infrarenal abdominal aorta was dissected, clamped proximally and distally to the vascular puncture site. In group I (control), hemostasis was achieved with digital pressure; in group II (polyurethane) castor oil-derived polyurethane was applied, and in group III (cyanoacrylate), 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate was used. Group II was subdivided into IIA and IIB according to the time of prepara- tion of the hemostatic agent.

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