Cognitive maps

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Sex Differences and Similarities in Urban Home Ranges and in the Accuracy of Cognitive Maps

Sex Differences and Similarities in Urban Home Ranges and in the Accuracy of Cognitive Maps

One methodological approach for the investigation of spatial abilities is the use of cognitive maps. Cognitive maps may be seen as a mental representation of an individual’s environment, depicting only relevant and frequently visited places in daily life. Their development and characteristics are influenced by individual spatial abilities. Thus, on the basis of the results outlined above, one may expect that the cognitive maps of men and women differ in quantitatively measurable aspects such as Euclidean distance estimation. Research on cognitive maps has revealed further factors influencing map characteristics and development, such as age and environmental experience (for a review, see Evans, 1980). Using a drawing as a representation of one’s cognitive map harks back to Lynch (1960) and was thereafter applied by several researchers (e.g., Hirtle and Jonides, 1985; Kerst, Howard, and Gugerty, 1987). Kerst et al. (1987) could show that, despite the variance in subjects’ drawing abilities and corresponding questions on comparability (Byrne, 1979; Montello, 1991), drawings are a suitable and reliable method to survey distance estimation.
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An expanded conceptualization of 'smart' cities: adding value with fuzzy cognitive maps

An expanded conceptualization of 'smart' cities: adding value with fuzzy cognitive maps

The term “cognitive map” was coined by Tolman (1948) to describe individuals’ internal mental changes and their representation of the relationships between concepts. Swan (1997, p. 188) reinforces this idea by defi ning cognitive maps as “internally representing schemas or mental models for particular problem-solving domains that are learned and encoded as a result of an individual’s interaction with their environment”. Cognitive mapping is thus used to structure complex situations because this method allows researchers to model cause-and- effect relationships between existing variables in complex phenomena. In addition, as visual tools, cognitive maps facilitate representations and communication of knowledge, support the identifi cation and interpretation of information, enable consultation and codifi cation, and stimulate mental associations (Gavrilova et al., 2013; Fernandes et al., 2018; Marques et al., 2018; Oliveira et al., 2018).
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REPRESENTAÇÃO TEMÁTICA DA INFORMAÇÃO E MAPAS COGNITIVOS: interações possíveis THEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION AND COGNITIVE MAPS: possible interactions

REPRESENTAÇÃO TEMÁTICA DA INFORMAÇÃO E MAPAS COGNITIVOS: interações possíveis THEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION AND COGNITIVE MAPS: possible interactions

ABSTRACT: Th eoretical-conceptual approach focuses the thematic representation of information as a moment that refl ects terminological and cognitive questions through the day by day of the information professional of the indexing into his/her activities at the Information Unities. Presenting the possibilities of inter- relationship between the usage of the cognitive maps in the research on mental strategies of indexer during the indexing process. It amplifi es the possibilities of usage of conceptual maps for another studies with the same fi nality and creates a better interaction between the Information Unit and their staff .
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Cognitive maps in early entrepreneurship stages: from motivation to implementation

Cognitive maps in early entrepreneurship stages: from motivation to implementation

As this has been used as one of the main methodolo- gies to study cognitive maps (for example, Eden, 1988), this research collected semi-structured individual interviews to draw cognitive maps. Although responses to the questionnaires commonly used in these studies do not provide an understanding of the association or relationship between factors, cognitive mapping does. Specifically, we use cognitive maps to explain the different factors interacting during the stages of motiva- tional process, business opportunity recognition and the decision to launch a venture, and to describe, analyse and compare three different entrepreneurs’ groups. In other words, ‘in what way’ do different groups structure knowledge concerning initial entrepreneurship stages? Evidence of how knowledge is structured between different developmental entrepreneurship groups has the potential to shed light on whether early entrepreneurship stages are perceived differently, thereby leading to different practical implications.
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Enhancing knowledge and strategic planning of bank customer loyalty using fuzzy cognitive maps

Enhancing knowledge and strategic planning of bank customer loyalty using fuzzy cognitive maps

Cognitive mapping became an even more powerful tool with the development of fuzzy cognitive maps (Kosko 1986, 1992), which have been extensively applied to a variety of different contexts and decision problems, sharing the common trait of complexity (e.g. Kim, Lee 1998; Stylios, Groumpos 1999; Tsadiras et al. 2003; Carvalho 2013; Ferreira et al. 2015a). In this type of maps, the relationships between criteria can be represented by positive and negative causality; the intensity of which is then translated into a number which can vary from –1 to 1. Specifically, all the values in the map can be fuzzy and, therefore, each concept has a state value A i that can be a fuzzy value in the range [0, 1] or a bivalent logic in {0, 1}. Additionally, the weights of the relationships/arcs can be a fuzzy value within [–1, 1] or a trivalent logic within {–1, 0, 1}. As pointed out by Salmeron (2012) and Carlucci et al. (2013), the resulting map then allows for dynamism, by including feedback links between the criteria, as shown in Figure 1, where C i is criterion i and Wij represents the extent to which criterion i influences criterion j. As discussed, this relationship (Wij) can be of positive, negative or null causality, depending on whether C i causes a move in the same direction, the opposite direction or has no impact on C j .
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Different Configurations and Applications of Dynamic - Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Applied in Industrial Processes /Diferentes Configurações e Aplicações de Mapas Cognitivos Dinâmicos - Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Applied in Industrial Processes

Different Configurations and Applications of Dynamic - Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Applied in Industrial Processes /Diferentes Configurações e Aplicações de Mapas Cognitivos Dinâmicos - Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Applied in Industrial Processes

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n. 7, p. 52559-52578, jul. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 used. The concept of membership functions discussed above allows the definition of fuzzy natural language systems that make use of linguistic variables, where the universe of discourse of a variable is divided into a number of fuzzy sets with a linguistic description attributed to each one. In this work, Fuzzy systems were used as a way of representing the expert’s knowledge of the analyzed processes. A Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) is a soft computing technique that combines the advantages of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Fuzzy Logic, using existing knowledge and human experience to model complex systems (PAPAGEORGIOU, 2014). Due to their simplicity, support for ambiguous (Fuzzy) knowledge, they are applicable in many areas, such as medicine, engineering, software development, etc. FCMs emerged from Kosko’s, (1986) work, which expanded the concepts of Axelrod’s, (1976) and Tolman’s, (1948) previous Cognitive Maps works. FCMs introduced fuzziness to Cognitive Maps, by using numeric descriptions (fuzzy binaries) of causal influences instead of positive or negative symbols.
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From cognitive maps to cognitive graphs.

From cognitive maps to cognitive graphs.

A number of studies have cast doubt on a globally consistent Euclidean cognitive map [6,12–16]. For example, distance estimates between locations frequently violate Euclidean axioms [15,17–21], and the addition of turns [6,22], intersections [23], or barriers [14] can increase the subjective distance of a route. A labeled graph (Figure 1b) can incorporate local metric information about distances between known places (edge weights) and/or angles between known paths (node labels), without being globally consistent. This local metric information might be coarser than survey knowledge, and may incorporate biases such as regularizing angles to 90 u. Such augmented graph knowledge would be advantageous for finding efficient routes and detours, and would permit approximate shortcuts via local integration of information, without the complications of creating a global metric embedding necessary for survey knowledge.
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A holistic conception of sustainable banking: adding value with fuzzy cognitive mapping

A holistic conception of sustainable banking: adding value with fuzzy cognitive mapping

Within cognitive mapping, “Fuzzy Cognitive Maps” (Kosko 1986, 1992) in particular have been extensively applied to contexts and decision problems characterized by high levels of complexity (e.g. Kardaras, Mentzas 1997; Stylios, Groumpos 1999; Tsadiras et al. 2003; Kok 2009; Salmeron 2009; Papageorgiou et al. 2012; Salmeron 2012; Carvalho 2013; Papageorgiou, Salmeron, 2013; Yesil et al. 2013; Dias et al. 2015; Ferreira, Jalali 2015; Vi- dal et al. 2015). One of the method’s features/advantages lies in complementing cognitive mapping with fuzzy logic. In FCMs, relationships between criteria can be represented by positive and negative causality at the same time; the intensity of which is then translated into a number which can go from –1 to 1. The resulting map thus allows for dynamism, by including feedback links between the different variables/criteria (Carlucci et al. 2013), as represented in Figure 2, where C i is criterion or variable i and w ij represents the extent to which criterion i influences criterion j. This relationship (w ij ) can be of positive, negative or null causality, depending on whether C i causes a move in the same direction, the opposite direction or has no impact on C j .
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Factors influencing urban investment attractiveness: an FCM-SD approach

Factors influencing urban investment attractiveness: an FCM-SD approach

to represent the beliefs of all the targeted stakeholders. As previously mentioned, statistical models are the most popular approach in this research context, but they impose rigorous distribution assumptions, need data with specific scaling properties, and are limited in flexibility (cf. Belton & Stewart, 2002). Furthermore, the correlations identified do not necessarily involve causation, which means that modeling and analyzing complex systems requires exam- ining cause-and-effect relationships carefully. In broad terms, the limitations presented in Table 1 can be grouped into two basic categories. The first is the unclear definition of the criteria used to evaluate urban investment attrac- tiveness. The second category is the absence of dynamic analyses of criteria considered in the research. Acknowl- edging the existing general limitations is a fundamental step toward adopting new complementary approaches to overcome these problems. To fill some the gaps detected in the existing literature, the present study applied fuzzy cognitive mapping and the SD approach. These approach- es can be used to create collective cognitive maps based on specialists’ knowledge of urban investment, facilitat- ing a better understanding of key decision criteria and their cause-and-effect relationships. In addition, this dual methodology allows for the performance of simulations to understand the consequences of a given decision for the entire system.
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For sale… but for how long? A methodological proposal for estimating time-on-the-market

For sale… but for how long? A methodological proposal for estimating time-on-the-market

ABSTRACT. The real estate sector has been negatively affected by the recent economic recession, which has forced structural changes that impact property value and price. Recent pressures have also motivated reduced liquidity and access to credit, causing a drop in property sales and, thus, boosting the rental housing market. It is worth noting, however, that the rental housing segment is not with- out difficulties and complexity, namely in terms of legislation and rental value revaluation. In light of this reasoning, this study aims to develop a multiple criteria decision support system for calculation of residential rents. By integrating cognitive maps and the measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH), we also aim to introduce simplicity and transparency in the decision making framework. The practical implications, advantages and shortfalls of our proposal are also analyzed.
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Affective maps: validating a dialogue between qualitative and quantitative methods

Affective maps: validating a dialogue between qualitative and quantitative methods

Thus, Lynch (2010) argues that the urban environment, even broad and large, can take on a perceivable form as the subjects draw their mental maps of the city. In ad- dition to an image of the physical structure, as the author points out, in drawing the subjects express elements of their symbolic world, with regard to their interaction with the environment, i.e. the meanings that they structure for the city, the interpreta- tion that they make and their individual and collective way of representing it become public. Therefore, in researches conducted by the author, it was found that not always drawn maps correspond to the physical reality of the environment, but to widespread generalized impressions that this reality generated in subjects. In this procedure, the construction of the drawing starts from the acquisition of information about places and attributes of urban space, which are encoded, stored, recalled and decoded by the subjects through a graphical expression. The cognitive maps studied by Lynch show that the guidance and knowledge of the city are important for the feeling of security, as well as enabling the organization of space, social and cognitive experience (Lynch, 2010).
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Rabindranath tagore: the portrayer of juvenile sensibility

Rabindranath tagore: the portrayer of juvenile sensibility

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps of researchers signed procedure may include different kinds of knowledge to draw and analyze complex operating system. During the process of learning and understanding mapping system between particular favours, in which the process of representation and public buildings researchers FCM certain perception of the obstacles created reason. A SEI consists of many elements / concepts / nodes / factors and their influences on one another, the chances of the weighted are depicted with arrows between the elements. The analysis of the relationship between the goal of beings found in a SEI detecting and interpreting the map and by understanding its structural properties and the dynamism. The structured ways of collecting and data coding enables comparison studies have been reused.
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J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag.  vol.8 número2

J. Aerosp. Technol. Manag. vol.8 número2

ABSTRACT: This article approaches Engineering Requirements concepts and proposes the use of cognitive maps as support to the problem identiication of the stakeholders during the requirements elicitation process. It presents a case study of the aerospace cluster of São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo. The cognitive map technique was developed to represent the views of the individuals, generating cognitive maps, which, in an aggregated way, express graphically the collective vision to support the decision-making process. Applied to Engineering Requirements, it has revealed the potential to promote the convergence of different points of view on the actual stakeholders’ needs in innovative fashion. This technique has demonstrated effectiveness when approaching the stated requirements early in the development process implemented throughout the life cycle of the system/product.
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Continuous attractors with morphed/correlated maps.

Continuous attractors with morphed/correlated maps.

In the experiments of [32], two environments correspond to two different light configurations in the same arena. A slow linear morph between light configurations results in a sharp transition from the population representation for one environment to the other. This is a promising experimental technique which is able to probe with unprecedented flexibility the dynamics of remapping between two environments or along a morph sequence [32], and could serve as a fertile ground for our model’s predictions, hence for testing the attractor hypothesis. We show that, in agreement with the experiment, the slow morph protocol produces sharp transitions due to dynamical pattern separation. This result is even more significant considering the acknowledged difficulties in reproducing sharp transitions between correlated maps in a ‘‘traditional’’ setting [36]. The model predicts a transition between representations slightly delayed compared to half of the morphing period; it remains to be seen whether this occurs also in the experiment.
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Profiles of ageing in the South of Portugal: education and cognitive functioning in elderly persons living in institutionalized and community contexts

Profiles of ageing in the South of Portugal: education and cognitive functioning in elderly persons living in institutionalized and community contexts

As a first analysis of a sample of older people living in Algarve, the present research has several limitations such as the possible bias of some results due to limitations of the instruments, lack of representativeness of the sample or the absence of inferential statistics. Otherwise, from our point of view, various implications of this study are related with the necessity of integrated policies and approaches at regional and community level able to meet the needs of a very differentiated population as the elderly. In a time of scarce resources and social and economic crisis it is necessary to optimize all available means with the aim of facilitating normal or successful ageing profiles. Continuing education programmes interconnected with the specific needs of elderly persons and with the support of local authorities is an adequate strategy to prevent cognitive decline and enhance the continuous exercise of social practices in the elderly.
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Cognitive systems evolution: immigrant last generations and cognitive mapping

Cognitive systems evolution: immigrant last generations and cognitive mapping

Abstract- There is little evidence on the correlation between immigration effects and the evolution of the mind and cognition, especially concerning children. Last generations of young immigrants are expected to experience adaptive strategies to respond to the school environment in order to achieve success. Specifically concerning the new language learning in the diversity of the host countries (plus the diversity of the countries of origin and home languages/cultures), it should be analyzed how the human cognitive aptitude (language aptitude and problem solving) is being reorganized in terms of thought, concepts and cultural orientations previously developed in a certain native culture. The native culture (aspects of the nationality and of the home language) is mentally associated to concepts and generates the self-regulation which implies consciousness in a home culture as a reference. How does it works for new immigrants that were separated (including cases of forced immigration) from their unique cognitive reference? Different cognitive achievements and language deficits would be constrained in their natural development and differences in academic achievement are expected. This lead to implications for the biological hypothesis of critical period concerning the new waves of immigration and ethnic differentiation in current generations. Age would be considered along with other unexpected variables such as nationality. The present study examines populations’ differences – ethnic and age – on specific language and cognitive tasks considering immigrant students in Portuguese schools (M=13 years old; SD= 2,7) with origin in different world areas: Western Europe, Eastern Europe, African countries, Latin America, Asia (Indian Asia) and China and with different home languages and cultures. Data showed a variability of groups’ achievements in cognates, text recall, lexical recall and dichotic listening tasks. Disparities among the minorities will be discussed considering educational and ethological implications. Population evolutionary characteristics might be concluded from those disparities.
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Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

A relational map is related to cognitive map, which is also known as mental map. It is a representation and rea- soning model on causal knowledge [32].It is a labeled, directed and cyclic graph with disjoint set of nodes and edges represent causal relations between these set of nodes . A relational map represents knowledge (useful in- formation) which further helps to find hidden patterns and support in decision making. Fuzzy Relational Maps are re- lational maps which use fuzzy values in domain . This represent the cases of existence and nonexistence of relations between nodes but indeterminacy between the re- lations are not represented. F. Smarandache proposed Neu- trosophic Relational Maps which is an extension of fuzzy relational maps that can represent and handle indeterminate relations [31].
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Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis.

Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis.

Our positive results concur with previous reviews [10,19]. The last review conducted by Kueider and his colleagues concluded that computerized training was an effective, less labor intensive alternative compared with traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training [19]. However, it was only a qualitative review with both RCTs and non-RCTs published from 1986 to 2011. Any strictly qualitative approach may be problematic because it is more subjective than a meta-analysis. In our review, 12 moderate to high quality RCTs were included [14– 18,22–28]. Detailed subgroup meta-analyses were conducted based on the different outcome measures. The aggregated results indicated that CCP improved memory performance and pro- cessing speed. Furthermore, there was a long-term enhancement in memory performance. Consequently, the current review provides stronger evidence of CCP beneficial effects on age- related cognitive decline.
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Complexity, variation and meaning: an integrated view on language and cognition

Complexity, variation and meaning: an integrated view on language and cognition

It is frequent to see in Cognitive Linguistics and other cognitive sciences some tension between cognitive and social, individual and interindividual, perception and interaction, and neural and cultural. Two main reasons can explain these tensions and, in fact, why these classic dualisms are maintained. One reason comes from the cognitive perspective, which sees language from a psychological point of view, as part of the organization of knowledge in the individual mind. Another reason that has already been discussed here involves the very conception of human cognition – more specifically, the tendency of focusing on the individual and universal dimensions of cognition and its physical and neurophysiological sides. A sociocognitive agenda and the systematic integration of the social aspects in the agenda of Cognitive Linguistics thus become tasks of highly difficult realization.
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GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS AND SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN ALBIAN CARBONATES RESERVOIRS - SOUTHWEST OF CAMPOS BASIN (RJ - BRAZIL)

GEOLOGICAL SETTINGS AND SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN ALBIAN CARBONATES RESERVOIRS - SOUTHWEST OF CAMPOS BASIN (RJ - BRAZIL)

These tools should be used because the seismic data cov- ers a bigger area than the wells, and according to the established relation between the rock and seismic amplitude, it is possible to extrapolate the interpretation of local information. In the reser- voirs levels, a pattern of seismic amplitude response associated to density and velocity changes can be stated. So, among all cal- culus in different approaches (sum of positive/negative/absolute amplitudes, mean amplitude and maximum/minimum amplitude, etc.), the crossplots (quantitative) and maps (qualitative) should direct the better representation of the study reservoirs.
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