Sodium chloride

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Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of dried salted pork meat with different sodium chloride levels

Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of dried salted pork meat with different sodium chloride levels

Northeastern Brazil is known for its traditional production and consumption of sun-dried meat, jerked beef, and salted meat, especially beef, goat, and sheep meat, and therefore it is considered a market potential (COSTA et al., 2011). Sun-dried meat is prepared manually, without standardization, with the addition of sodium chloride at levels from 2.9 to 11.9%, resulting in a semi-dehydrated product with specific sensory characteristics. However, there is a need to standardize the processing steps in terms of drying time, sodium chloride content, and addition of preservatives in order to reduce the water activity in an attempt to provide a safer product to consumers (COSTA; SILVA, 2001) and improve the production process in terms of determining the most suitable animal species or carcass weight for the production of this sun-dried meat (COSTA et al., 2011).
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Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride

Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride

100 mL volume of inoculums were dispensed into 96-well containing variable percentage of sodium chloride (final concentration in each well: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10% w/v) with each well containing a final concentration of 10 6 CFU/mL. Every experiment, performed in duplicate, comprised of at least five individual replicates. Plates were each incubated in three different temperatures of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for 60 h. Readings of the plates were taken with 12 h intervals. Appropriate controls of uninoculated growth (negative control) and normal saline (0.85% NaCl) were included in the tests.
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Water Stress Induced by Mannitol and Sodium Chloride in Soybean Cultivars

Water Stress Induced by Mannitol and Sodium Chloride in Soybean Cultivars

Observing germination and elongation of eight soybean cultivars exposed to water potentials of 0, -0.5, -1.1 and -1.5MPa, and at 15 or 30ºC, Seong et al. (1988) reported that the moisture content and the seedling length decreased when the mannitol concentration increased, concluding that germination in mannitol was useful for the selection of soybean cultivar for emergency capacity under conditions of water deficit. Induced water deficit by polyethylene glycol showed similar values to that observed in the fields (Thill et al., 1979), permitting also vigour evaluation (Santos et al., 1996). In similar potential ranges, germination patterns may be different between species or even between varieties of the same species (McWilliam and Phillips, 1971; Therios, 1982). However, some species, as soybean are very sensitive to sodium chloride during germination (Bourgeais-Chaillov et al., 1992; Santos et al., 1992).
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Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzhei- mer’s disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the “amy- loid cascade” hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor pro- tein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and re- duces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.
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Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

content in industrial formulations. Smaller sodium chloride particles can promote a higher perceived degree of saltiness because they dissolve more rapidly in the mouth. Kilcast & Angus (2007) evaluated the effects of different sizes and varieties of sodium crystals in potato chips on trained panelists’ perception using time-intensity methodology and observed that smaller crystals led to a faster, but less intense, perception of saltiness in comparison to that of larger crystals. However, no similar studies have been reported evaluating the substitution of sodium chloride for micronized salts.
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The role of sodium chloride on surface properties of chalcopyrite leached with ferric sulphate

The role of sodium chloride on surface properties of chalcopyrite leached with ferric sulphate

concentrate assaying 25.2% iron, 30.9% sulphur and 27.5% copper was leached in oxygenated ferric sulphate solutions at atmospheric pressure and 95 °C. It has been observed that although sodium chloride favoured natrojarosite precipitation, which reduced the total iron concentration during leaching, copper extractions as high as 91% were accomplished as compared to 45% copper extraction in the absence of NaCl. It is suggested that sodium chloride reduces chalcopyrite passivation and complexes Cu (I) ions adding a second redox couple to the system. Furthermore, morphologic characterization of the reaction products performed by SEM analyses as well as specific surface area and porosity measurements have confirmed that NaCl increases surface area and porosity of the product layer, which explains the high copper extractions observed in the presence of the salt.
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Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L) and zeolite (22.7 g/L) during shipment (48 h) of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34°C) were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia) were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.
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Sodium chloride dihydrate peritetic melting characterization through heating curves.

Sodium chloride dihydrate peritetic melting characterization through heating curves.

SODIUM CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE PERITETIC MELTING CHARACTERIZATION THROUGH HEATING CURVES. Binary mixture phase diagrams are normally obtained from thermal analysis involving freezing point curves. However, that approach is not always reliable and easy to follow to all kinds of mixtures in any proportion. In fact, even for a simple system, such as NaCl-H 2 O, this freezing methodology gives mixed results when one starts from a solid-solution system, due mostly to the formation of the NaCl.2H 2 O, which has an incongruent melting point, and the dependence of its solubility with the temperature. In this work we report a trustworthy, simple and cheap method involving heating curves to drawn the NaCl-H 2 O phase diagram.
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Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

intake in dehydrated rats are therefore similar to those previously reported [33]. Ebenezer et al. [34] also dem- onstrated that systemic administration of baclofen had no effects on water intake in fluid replete rats. Interest- ingly, in the present study was demonstrated that bilat- eral injection of baclofen into the LPBN induced water and 0.3 M NaCl intake (150 – 210 min of test) in a two- bottle test in fluid replete rats. Recently [31], we showed that injections of baclofen into the LPBN induced no water intake if only water was available. As indicated by the present results, ingestion of water usually increased after injections of baclofen into the LPBN when fluid re- plete rats simultaneously ingested 0.3 M NaCl. In spite of the simultaneous ingestion of water, this intake is not enough to compensate for the increased osmolarity pro- duced by the ingestion of hypertonic NaCl. The fluid ingested (water and 0.3 M NaCl), after injections of bac- lofen into the LPBN, was hypertonic during most of the test. Therefore, it seems that the increase in plasma osmolarity due to the ingestion of hypertonic NaCl may be reinforcing the effect of baclofen on sodium intake instead of inducing water intake.
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Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

Thus, the present results show that the blockade of LPBN mechanisms with baclofen induces hypertonic NaCl intake and reduces water intake in cell-dehydrated rats and induces hypertonic NaCl intake and reduces urinary sodium excretion and diuresis in fluid replete rats [31], all responses consistent with an action of LPBN mechanisms against body fluid volume expansion as previously proposed for the serotonergic mechanism in the LPBN [36]. Thus, further studies in rats submitted to intracellular dehydration are needed to test the effects of GABA receptors of the LPBN on behavioral and renal functions that induce to volume expansion.
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Sodium Chloride Crystallization by Electric Discharge in Brine

Sodium Chloride Crystallization by Electric Discharge in Brine

are being ejected from the solution, then some of them may be seem in the plasma-phase, as ionized or excited species. So, an evidence-based approach was made by Optical Emission Spectroscopy, to verify what species were present in the discharge zone. And indeed, it was possible to identify Sodium (Na I at 589,59240 nm) and Chloride (Cl I at 767,24 and 771,76 nm) emissions, clearly coming from the solution. In addition, it was possible to see reactive OH radicals (coming from water molecules, at 315 nm), nitrogen and oxygen species from the atmospheric gas (N II at 315.93 nm, NO I at 338,64 nm, N II at 359,36 nm, N I at 379,65; and O II at 376,24; 397,32 and 407,88 nm) 22 .
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A KINETC STUDY OF CHALCOPYRITE LEACHING BY FERRIC SULPHATE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE

A KINETC STUDY OF CHALCOPYRITE LEACHING BY FERRIC SULPHATE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE

varied from 60ºC to 90ºC, whereas the NaCl concentration was increased up to 2mol/L. Chloride ions improved copper extractions, which increased from 16.4% in the absence to 29.4% with 1mol/L NaCl. The experimental data were fitted to the shrinking core model for constant particle size. The leaching kinetics was controlled by chemical reaction on the particle surface with activation energy of 55.6kJ/mol. Chloride ions also increased the reaction rate constant, which was about 1.5 to 2 times that in the absence of chloride and the reaction order was 0.24 with respect to NaCl.
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A new insight about pharmaceutical dosage forms for benzathine penicillin G

A new insight about pharmaceutical dosage forms for benzathine penicillin G

from an induced interaction of intermolecular forces, including electrostatic and steric repulsions, hydrogen bonds, and Van der Waals interactions. This approach is of particular interest in the pharmaceutical field, given the ability of these systems to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs (Rangel-Yagui et al., 2005). Besides, this technique involves easily-controlled parameters, as the factors that change the properties of micelles are well established. In this study the physicochemical properties of BPG were evaluated. The CMC was determined for sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) in aqueous solution, as well as its effect of sodium chloride on its CMC value. It was aimed to develop a micellar system containing BPG, using data obtained on ideal surfactant concentration need to dissolve the drug.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.27 número2

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.27 número2

Electrostatic potential of the nebulizer with residual liquid and net charge of aerosol for deionized water and different concentrations of sodium chloride solution.. During nebulizati[r]

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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.23 número3

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.23 número3

The electrodeposition of polypyrrole (PPy) on aluminium electrodes has been achieved in phosphoric acid medium by using potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostatic techniques. The corrosion behavior of polypyrrole on aluminium in sodium chloride medium has been investigated by open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A mechanism to explain the beneficial effect of PPy-doping dihydrogenophosphate ion in the passivation of aluminium is proposed.

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REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Protective effect of ions against cell death induced by acid stress in Saccharomyces.

REPOSITORIO INSTITUCIONAL DA UFOP: Protective effect of ions against cell death induced by acid stress in Saccharomyces.

Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used to prevent or treat antibiotic-induced gastrointestinal disorders and acute enteritis. For probiotics to be effective they must first be able to survive the harsh gastrointestinal environment. In this work, we show that S. boulardii displayed the greatest tolerance to simulated gastric environments compared with several Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains tested. Under these conditions, a pH 2.0 was the main factor responsible for decreased cell viability. Importantly, the addition of low concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) protected cells in acidic conditions more effectively than other salts. In the absence of S. boulardii mutants, the protective effects of Na 1 in yeast viability in acidic conditions was tested using S. cerevisiae Na 1 -ATPases (ena1-4), Na 1 /H 1
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The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt) made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A), KCl (B), 1NaCl:1KCl (C) and 1NaCl:2KCl (D)). The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN), water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and ripening degree values) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.
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Rheological Characterization of Bentonite Dispersions with Xanthan for Oil Well Drilling Fluids

Rheological Characterization of Bentonite Dispersions with Xanthan for Oil Well Drilling Fluids

After selection of variables, a full factorial design 2³ showed that both consistency and flow behavior indexes are influenced by temperature, xanthan gum and sodium chloride concentrations, as well as some of their first order interactions. The increase of temperature and sodium chloride concentration resulted in an increase in “n”, reducing the fluid pseudoplasticity and caused a decrease in “k”. Increasing xanthan gum concentration caused the opposite effect: a reduction in “n” and a increasing in “k”.

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C APERP LANT TO

C APERP LANT TO

ABSTRACT - Caper (Capparis spinosa) is used as multipurpose and adaptable plant which provides a valuable opportunity to enhance greenery in harsh climatic areas. This plant like the others is affected by drought and sodium chloride stresses as the most common abiotic stresses worldwide. This study was carried out to determine the interaction between drought and different ratios of sodium and calcium chloride on caper. Droughts stress were two levels of 100 and 75% of field capacity and were applied based on the daily weighting method of pots. Salt treatments were four different ratios of calcium chloride: sodium chloride (1:0, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5]. Treatments started when the plants were sown in the pots. Results indicated that higher ratios of calcium chloride than sodium chloride which caused salinity stress have destructive effect on water relationships and contents of the caper. This stress affected growth, morphological, and physiological function related traits in a negative way. Growth and other traits decreased under water deficit conditions. It seems that interaction between salinity and drought had the most destructive effect on this plant and decreasing its quality and quantity of its traits.
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Removal of Mercury from chlor-alkali Industry Wastewater using <i>Acetobacter xylinum</i> Cellulose

Removal of Mercury from chlor-alkali Industry Wastewater using <i>Acetobacter xylinum</i> Cellulose

To produce the bacterial cellulose, Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23768 was cultured in the SH medium containing glucose, 2%(w/v) ; Peptone, 0.5% (w/v); yeast extract,0.5%(w/v); disodium phosphate,0.27% (w/v);citric acid,0.115 (w/v); at pH 6.0 and under static culture condition [11]. The cellulose sheets after cultivation were removed and rinsed with distilled water and devoided from bacterial and medium residues by 2% SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) and %4 NaOH solutions in a bath of water at boiled temperature[12]. The cellulose sheets were grinded and rinsed with distilled water. To set up the batch adsorption tests the dewatered cellulose was dried at 104 oC for five hours. To study effects of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose, synthetic wastewater was prepared by using mercury chloride and sodium chloride. Original wastewater was supplied from one of the chlor-alkali plant. For carrying out the batch adsorption tests exact amounts of 0.2g of dried cellulose were transferred into 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml synthetic wastewater of 500 ppb mercury concentration. The effect
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