Top PDF Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

of abundance in concentration of heavy metals falls as F e> M n> C u> Z n. C oncentration and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments is closely related to the frequency and duration of tidal flood and river pollution. T he uptake of elements by the plant parts varies with each element. O ur present results are in accordance with the previous results. I n addition, the present work found an interesting trend of accumulation between essential and non-essential metals in the mangrove species in relation to pollution and growth status of mangrove forests. I n general, essential heavy metals were in higher quantities in mangrove plant parts than non-essential metals except A l. B ioaccumulation of essential heavy metals was more in A. marina of mature forest than that in polluted or young forests. W hile, the bioaccumulation of non-essential heavy metals was greater in A. marina of polluted forest than that in mature or young forests. T he ratio between essential and non-essential heavy metals was high in A. marina of young forest than that in mature or polluted forests. I n general, bark was found to exhibit higher bioaccumulation of heavy metals than other plant parts. I n A. marina of mature forest, bioaccumulation of essential heavy metals was highest in bark and least in stem, while a similar trend seen with non-essential elements. I n A. marina of polluted forest, bark and root were higher in bioaccumulation of essential heavy metals than stem and leaf, while bark exhibited highest bioaccumulation of non-essential elements. I n A. marina of young forest, bark was the highest in bioaccumulation of essential heavy metals, whereas root was the highest in bioaccumulation of nonessential metals followed by bark. T he essential metal accumulation showed relation with maturity of mangrove forest and this may be attributed to the fact that the essential metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, vanadium, cobalt and molybdenum are known to influence primary production. H eavy meals are distributed more uniformly among the plant parts [14] , and this statement is supported by the
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Trace elements detection in whole food samples by neutron activation analysis, k0-method

Trace elements detection in whole food samples by neutron activation analysis, k0-method

Several studies have been conducted in recent decades about the determination of trace elements in biological samples. Due to the increase of environmental pollution, other researches have also been developed about the impact that the exposure to those trace elements can cause to human and animal health [1, 2]. Chemical elements present in the environment come from many different natural and anthropogenic sources [2, 3]. Some of them are essential to the growth and development of plants, animals and people, however others that can cause damage to human health and the ecosystem due to their potential toxicity, tendency to bioaccumulation and long residence in the environment [2, 3, 4]. In recent years, emissions of metals from anthropogenic sources have reached values several times higher than natural emissions, characterizing a potential threat to the health of living beings and the environment [2, 3]. These elements accumulate in the atmosphere, soil, crops and reservoirs near urban areas and can reach the human body, mainly by inhalation and ingestion of water and foods [2].
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Joana Raimundo Pimenta ACCUMULATION, RESPONSES AND GENOTOXICITY OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS

Joana Raimundo Pimenta ACCUMULATION, RESPONSES AND GENOTOXICITY OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS

For example total Pb concentrations in the digestive gland of octopus presented a considerable contrast between two areas of the Portuguese coast: Matosinhos (low levels) and Olhão (high levels). To the best of our knowledge for the first time, Pb stables isotopes were analysed in octopus tissue (Chapter 2.2). This initiative was done taking into account the success of using stable Pb isotopes in sediments to trace the origin of this element (Gobeil et al., 2001; Komárek et al., 2008). Isotopic ratios were determined in digestive gland of octopus and compared to the ones registered in the sediments from the same areas. An agreement was obtained between isotopic ratios in biological and sediment samples. This parallelism suggests that octopus reflect the sources of the Pb that is present in a specific environment. The less radiogenic signature obtained in digestive gland of octopus from Olhão (corroborated by findings in the sediments) suggested that elevated Pb levels found in that area are mainly from natural sources (Iberian Pyrite Belt). On the other hand, the lower total Pb concentrations and higher radiogenic signature observed in octopus from Matosinhos results from various origins, such as industrial influents. The contrasting aspect of these results is quite interesting and can be interpreted from different angles. It indicates that in a region with minor sources of industrial activities, like the southeast of Portugal, the lead present in coastal sediments is mainly derived from erosion or weathering of the drainage basin. Despite the distance of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, one of the largest mineral resources in Europe, it expands its influence until the coast. The most surprising aspect is the linkage with the biology. The relationship between signature of the accumulated levels in octopus digestive gland and in sediment provides a promising approach to the scope of bioaccumulation studies. In the light of these findings, Pb isotopic signature in the digestive gland of octopus seems to be a useful tool to distinguish and identify octopus populations.
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Minor and trace elements in the shell of Patella aspera (Röding 1798)

Minor and trace elements in the shell of Patella aspera (Röding 1798)

ate, and tropical waters as the common limpet Patella vulgata (Foster and Chacko, 1995) and the Neritidae family (Foster et al., 1997), respectively. Whether it be the soft tissues or the shells, the approach adopted in addressing the potential use of organisms as environmental indicators usually did not consider the heterogeneity of the results and the parameters to be compared, usually the mean concentrations of various elements, must be representative of the sampled populations. This is particularly evident when samples from particular environments are pooled in the absence of knowledge on intra-population variability at the sampling sites; and comparisons of elemental data on tissue composition at various locations are made in the absence of ‘field truth’ data on the characteristics of environmental exposure sites (Foster and Chacko, 1995). Therefore, prior to pooling animal tissues for analysis with the intention of using the data for environmental quality assessment, it is prerequisite to have an appreciation of how the chemical assemblage in the tissue changes through the population in a given environment and how, and to what extent the chemical assemblage is modified in populations subjected to different environmental conditions.
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Corals as biomonitors: application, pre-treatment and determination of major and trace elements.

Corals as biomonitors: application, pre-treatment and determination of major and trace elements.

Todos os procedimentos mencionados acima devem ser realizados em capelas de fluxo laminar. O emprego de técnicas adequadas, rea- gentes e água de boa qualidade são fundamentais para a confiabilidade dos resultados. Para o controle de qualidade analítica, é fundamental a inclusão de amostras em branco e de material de referência certificado (MRC), nas determinações de elementos majoritários e minoritários. O MRC deverá ser usado para checar a precisão e a exatidão do procedimento e das análises químicas. Para os corais, geralmente, o MRC usado para amostras de corais é o JCP- 1, produzido pelo Geological Survey of Japan.
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Assessment of trace element pollution and its environmental risk to freshwater sediments influenced by anthropogenic contributions: The case study of Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin)

Assessment of trace element pollution and its environmental risk to freshwater sediments influenced by anthropogenic contributions: The case study of Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin)

and Cu have been reported (Davutluoglu et al., 2011; Passos et al., 2010). Higher trace el- ement contents were found in the residual fraction for Zn (wet period: 58 to 93%; and dry period: 74 to 85%), Cu (wet period: 58 to 85%; and dry period: 26 to 61%) and As (wet period: 59 to 91%; and dry period: 82 to 92%). These fractions are less bioavailable since the trace elements are strongly bound to silicates. Among these elements, As showed the greatest contents on the residual phase for both sampling periods, which indicates that this potentially toxic element is the less available to aquatic fauna, and consequently the less available to enter in the food chain. The relative content of trace elements in the residual phase can be used as a measure of the contribution of natural sources and/or old anthropogenic contamination (Singh et al., 2005; Passos et al., 2010). On the contrary, the percentage of trace elements extracted in the most labile fraction (F1) indicates recent anthropogenic inputs, with an increment of the status of sediment contamination. Locations where trace elements are signi ficantly associated with the oxidizable or reducible sediment fractions are in fluenced by pollution that is less recent (Passos et al., 2010). The order of mobility (from most to least bioavailable; having in consideration the percentage in the F1) was Cd N Pb N Cu N Zn N As, which points to Cd as the most bioavailable Table 1
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Assessment of fate and bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pirene by computer modeling.

Assessment of fate and bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pirene by computer modeling.

ASSESSMENT OF FATE AND BIOACCUMULATION OF BENZO(A)PIRENE BY COMPUTER MODELING. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental distribution of benzo(a)pirene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, by the EQC model. The modeling of the contaminant distribution was accomplished by means of the fugacity model applied to a hypothetical scenario constituted by air, water, soil and sediment. The modeling and simulations revealed that the soil is the preferential compartment. We also discuss the implications of the results about fate and ecological risks associated with benzo(a)pirene. We concluded that the emissions of HPAs can not be ignored and bioaccumulation among others risks can be induced.
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Chia trace elements detection by neutron activation analysis / Detecção de elementos traço de chia por análise de ativação neutrônica

Chia trace elements detection by neutron activation analysis / Detecção de elementos traço de chia por análise de ativação neutrônica

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) allows identify and quantify many elements of chia seed and permit been classified as high content of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Zn, Ca according ANVISA rules. This technique detects also the presence of Mo, Co, Cr, Se, V, La, As, Sc. The sensitivity of INAA varies considerably among elements; nevertheless, it can be used as an important reference for other analysis methods. In that sense, present results will contribute with important information on detailed chia composition, highlighting the nutritional value of chia seeds responsible for their health benefits.
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A Study of Correlation of Serum Leptin with Trace Elements in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

A Study of Correlation of Serum Leptin with Trace Elements in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Zinc is essential for the function of more than 200 enzymes, and Zn-containing enzymes are found in metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism (Cunnane, 1988). It has been demonstrated that in different species, the administration of leptin increases energy expenditure and decreases appetite. Zinc also affects the appetite regulation and zinc deficiency decreases the appetite, while zinc supplementation increases the appetite (Mantozoros et al., 1998). It is postulated that zinc status influences the regulation of the appetite and metabolism by influencing the leptin system of mice (Tallman and Taylor, 2003). Zinc acts as a cofactor and regulates the expression of several genes and may affect leptin production directly by regulating gene expression, and/or indirectly by affecting circulating concentrations of IL-2 and TNF- α (Mantozoros et al., 1998; Marreiro et al., 2006). There are some controversies regarding the relationship of the serum concentration of leptin with serum zinc (Taghdir et al., 2010). A negative correlation between plasma leptin and Zn levels has been found in some studies on healthy humans (Canatan et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2000). However, similar to our results, no significant relationship between these was reported in some experiments on healthy humans (Olusi et al., 2003; Taghdir et al., 2010). The same controversies were reported about the change in serum leptin following Zn supplementation in humans (Chen et al., 2000; Marreiro et al., 2006; Taghdir et al., 2010). In rats, serum leptin and leptin mRNA levels in inguinal adipocytes showed a tendency to increase during the Zn-depletion period and decreased back during the Zn-repletion period. However, change in leptin mRNA in abdominal adipocytes during Zn-depletion and Zn-repletion periods had a different pattern (Lee et al., 2003). It is proposed that the relationship of serum concentrations of leptin and Zn may be different between healthy individuals, and individuals that are affected by different diseases (Taghdir et al., 2010). On the other hand, the relationships may be different among species.
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The Role of Trace Elements in the  Malignant-Benign Differentation of Pleural Effusions

The Role of Trace Elements in the Malignant-Benign Differentation of Pleural Effusions

In a study from Iran, although not any signiicant diference has been found between the heavy metal accumulation in the samples taken from diferent sites of cancerous tissues of the patients with breast cancer, Se concentration in the tissue has been found maximum as compared to the other elements [22]. Zn takes place in approximately 100 enzyme activities such as polymerase, carbonic anhydrase, superoxide Cu-Zn dismutase. In the genome there exists DNA associated Zn-inger structure. In the human body there is 2-3 g of Zn. Zn deiciency is a com- mon phenomenon in underdeveloped countries. In its deiciency, the immune system, wound healing, the senses of taste and smell and DNA synthesis may be negatively afected [3]. The superoxide dismutase enzyme, of which Zn is the cofactor, plays a key role in the protection of body against free radicals thus inhibiting the initiation and progression of neoplastic phenom- ena [23].
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São FranciscoeCongo Craton break-up delimited by UePbeHf isotopes and trace-elements of zircon from metasediments of the Araçuaí Belt

São FranciscoeCongo Craton break-up delimited by UePbeHf isotopes and trace-elements of zircon from metasediments of the Araçuaí Belt

Zircon grains were handpicked from heavy mineral separates of crushed and panned metasediment samples. Subsequently the grains were mounted in 25 mm-diameter circular epoxy mounts and polished to expose their cores. Prior to analysis, zircons were imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using a JEOL 6510 equipped with a Centaurus cathodoluminescence (CL) detector at the Geoscience Department of the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP) (Brazil), to obtain information on their internal structures. Zircon UePb isotope analyses were performed by LA- ICPMS at UFOP using a Thermo-Fisher Element II sector field ICP- MS coupled to a CETAC LSX-213 G2 þ ( l ¼ 213 nm) Nd:YAG laser. A detailed description of the method is given by Gerdes and Zeh (2006, 2009). Ablation was carried out in a low-volume cell with helium as carrier gas; laser beam parameters used were a spot size of 20 m m, a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and a fluence of w3 J cm 2 . Time-resolved raw data were corrected offline for background signal, common Pb, laser-induced elemental fractionation, instru- mental mass discrimination, and time-dependent elemental frac- tionation of Pb/U using the GLITTER Ò
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Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair

Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair

concentrations of 5.34±0.76mg/kg dry mass when compared to 8.146±3.361mg/kg dry mass obtained in our studies. They also obtained slightly lower concentrations of silicon. Results of our studies showed lower concentrations of silicon in spring and autumn but higher levels during summer and winter. Similar levels of this element were in hair collected in autumn from cattle kept on organic farms (Dunnett and Lees 2003). Asano et al. (2005a), in analyzing mineral concentrations in various breeds of horses noted the highest concentration of silicon in pure-breed horses as well as in geldings. While higher concentrations of the mineral was observed in males (Asano et al. 2002), its level also increased with the age of the horses (Asano et al. 2002). Similarly, Biricik et al. (2005) indicated a change in the level of minerals depending on the season. With the exception of copper, higher concentrations of minerals were noted in all hair samples collected in winter with changes in diet having no significant impact on the level of the elements covered by the research (Biricik et al. 2005). In concluding, it should be emphasized that in the studies undertaken, the season was noted to have had significant impact on the concentration of selected trace elements in the hair of Hucul horses. Moreover, while a positive correlation was demonstrated between levels of chromium and silicon as well as molybdenum and nickel, that of between iodine concentration and molybdenum / nickel was negative. In addition, the good health, fitness and reproductive performance of mares covered by the studies suggest that meeting the demand for trace elements in animals kept in conditions similar to what obtains in nature is proper.
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Evaluation of raw soapstone (steatite) as adsorbent of trace elements present in Brazilian spirits

Evaluation of raw soapstone (steatite) as adsorbent of trace elements present in Brazilian spirits

The contents of the elements under investigation were analyzed by means of emission spectrometry in duplicate, by direct aspira- tion from the cane spirit samples and simulant, mineralized with nitric acid. The equipment used was an emission spectrometer with a plasma source and inductive coupling (ICP OES) (Vista MPX Varian, Mulgrave, Australia), with axial vision and equipped with a 40 MHz radio frequency source (RF), a charged coupled device (CCD) solid state simultaneous multi-element detector, a peristaltic pump, nebulization chamber and sea spray nebulizer. The system was controlled by the ICP Expert software and used 99.996% pure liquid argon (Air Liquid, SP, Brazil) as the plasma gas. The optimized experimental conditions for operation of the equipment were: RF power (1000 W); nebulization gas flow rate (0.9 L min 1 ); principal argon flow rate (15 L min 1 ); auxiliary
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A study on trace elements in fingernails and toenails from adult individuals by instrumental neutron activation analysis

A study on trace elements in fingernails and toenails from adult individuals by instrumental neutron activation analysis

The Ethics Committee of the Department of Public Health of the University of São Paulo approved this research. The nail sample donors were adult subjects considered healthy and living in São Paulo city, SP, Brazil. They were informed about the aim of the study and a written consent was obtained from each donor prior to sample collection. Those who agreed to take part in the study had to answer questions concerning residential and medical history, gender, age, eating and smoking habits, use of drugs, mineral supplement intakes and occupation. The answers of these questions were used to select the population group for this study. Subjects were excluded when they were pregnant and drug users, had mental diseases, apparent infections in their nails or hands or feet, when they did not have sufficient quantity of nails for analysis and patients with systemic or metabolic disorders.
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Econometrics of Ascending Auctions by Quantile Regression

Econometrics of Ascending Auctions by Quantile Regression

of ones, denotes the quantile of order τ of the matrix of auction covariates X, i.e. X (0.50) represents median auctions. Figure 2a gives the private value conditional quantile estimates for a median auction and their 95% confidence intervals. In a median auction, the volume is 967 thousand of board feet and the appraisal value is about $68 per thousand of board feet. Figure 2b presents the quantile estimates for several quantile levels of X (τ ), where τ = {0.15, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 0.85}. In particular, it shows how the shape of the private value quantiles change due to variations in the quality and size of the timber tract. This effect becomes clearer when comparing a high with a low quantile of the private value conditional distribution. Consider in particular α = 0.12 and α = 0.80 for X(τ ), τ = {0.15, 0.50, 0.85}, that is, auctions with low, median and high quality and size. The relative increase in the private value is of about 600% in auctions with low quality and size, whereas it reduces to 172% and 142% in median and high quality and size auctions, respectively.
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Effects of organic/inorganic amendments on trace elements dispersion by leachates from sulfide-containing tailings of São Domingos mine, Portugal. Time evaluation

Effects of organic/inorganic amendments on trace elements dispersion by leachates from sulfide-containing tailings of São Domingos mine, Portugal. Time evaluation

In general, the concentrations of cations in leachates were vari- able and dif ficult to predict and explain, due to the complexity of solid-phase trace element composition and concentrations, aqueous solution characteristics, rates of acid generation relative to neutralisation, and the possible existence of various physico- chemical conditions (Sullivan and Yelton, 1988). In the present work, a decrease in the concentrations of the hazardous chemical el- ements was evident with time, but Pérez-López et al. (2007) found an increase in Pb concentration from 3 to 35 mg/L in leachates from pyritic sludge. Rodríguez-Jordá et al. (2012) also observed an increase in As concentrations, with time in leachates from São Domingos sediments amended with sugar foam + biomass ash. Cao et al. (2003), Forsberg et al. (2008), Pérez-López et al. (2007) and Rodríguez-Jordá et al. (2012) reported, as in the present work, de- creased concentrations of several chemical elements in leachates fol- lowing the application of amendments. However, Forsberg et al. (2008) reported that adding sewage sludge to mine tailings from Aitik copper mine did not lead to the immobilization of Al, Cu, Mn and Pb during all leaching cycles. The different results obtained with differ- ent amendments could be attributed to the elemental chemical com- position as well as to the physico-chemical properties of the amendments and substratum (soils and/or mine wastes) (McBride, 2003). Systems with different chemical compositions promote dif- ferent behaviours.
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Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de terras raras, Th, U e Y em rochas, solos e sedimentos por ICP-MS

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de terras raras, Th, U e Y em rochas, solos e sedimentos por ICP-MS

XIII In this work, the introduction of dissolved geological certified reference materials in the plasma through pneumatic (PN) and ultrasonic (USN) nebulizers was studied, in order to compare both nebulizers’ performances in connection to the determination of rare earth elements (REE), U, Th and Y in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The best conditions for the nebulizer gas flow rate and the radiofrequency power were investigated for standard and samples solutions. The nebulizer gas flow rate was 1.05 and 1.10 L min -1 for PN and USN, respectively. The RF power was 1100 W for both nebulizers. Determinations and calibration curves were carried out with aqueous standards using 10 g L -1 of Rh as internal standard for pneumatic nebulizer and without internal standard for ultrassonic nebulizer. The calibration curves correlation coefficients were better than 0.999 for all studied analytes, employing both nebulizations. Better detection power was obtained with the USN, whose LODs were between 0.01 ng L -1 , for U, and 1.4 ng L -1 for Ce, while with the PN were between 0.2 ng L -1 , for Lu and Tm, and 7.4 ng L -1 , for Y. Slurry sample introduction with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) has been applied to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the direct determination of Dy, Sm, Eu, Tm and Yb in geological samples. The best conditions for sample preparation, the furnace temperature program, the nebulizer gas flow rate, the RF power and the amount of NaCl used as carrier were determined. The detection limits for 164 Dy, 152 Sm, 153 Eu,
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Geochemical behaviour of trace elements during fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation of the felsic alkaline magmas of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Geochemical behaviour of trace elements during fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation of the felsic alkaline magmas of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

This paper presents geochemical behaviour of trace elements of the felsic alkaline rocks of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with special attention of fractional crystallization and continental crust assimilation. Fractionation of leucite and K-feldspar increases Rb/K and decreases K2O/(K2O+Na2O). Primitive nepheline syenite magmas have low Zr/TiO2, Sr, and Ba. On the Nb/Y vs. Zr/TiO2 diagram, these rocks are projected on the field of alkaline basalt, basanite, and nephelinite, instead of phonolite. Well-fractionated peralkaline nepheline syenite has high Zr/TiO2 but there are no zircon. The diagrams of silica saturation index (SSI) distinguish the trends originated form fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. In the field of SSI<-200, Zr/TiO2 and Ba/Sr have negative correlations to SSI in consequence of fractional crystallization. In the field of SSI>-200, they show positive correlations due to continental crust assimilation. Total REEs (Rare Earth Elements) is nearly 10 times that of granitic rocks, but LaN/SmN and LaN/YbN are similar. REE trend is linear and Eu anomaly is irrelevant. The pegmatitic liquid generated by country rock partial melting is SiO2-oversaturated and peraluminous with high Ba, Sr, Ba/Sr, Zr/TiO2, and SSI, with high content of fluids. This model justifies the peraluminous and SiO2-oversaturated composition of the rocks with relevant effects of continental crust assimilation.
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The role of the seagrass <i>Posidonia oceanica</i> in the cycling of trace elements

The role of the seagrass <i>Posidonia oceanica</i> in the cycling of trace elements

ica compartments (Fig. 1; Tables 2 and 3). All trace elements showed significant (p < 0.01) differences on trace element concentrations among plant compartments, while there were no significant temporal variations for Cd, Cr, Ga, Ni, Rb, Tl and Zn. For Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Pb, Sr, and V; the main effect time could not be tested because there was an interaction between the two factors (compartment of

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Elevated trace elements in sediments and seagrasses at CO2 seeps

Elevated trace elements in sediments and seagrasses at CO2 seeps

Trace elements, as the term suggests, normally occur in very low concentrations. At low levels they are not toxic, and some are essential for cellular process that support life (Avelar et al., 2013). At higher concentration, trace elements such as arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) can be harmful to coastal biota (Stumm Morgan, 1995). Element toxicity depends on the chemical form. Arsenic, for example, is toxic in its metalloid form, Hg and Pb are toxic as free ions, and Cu is toxic when reduced to Cu (I) (Tchounwou et al., 2014). Ocean acidification is expected to exacerbate the harmful effects of metal pollution in coastal ecosystems (Ivanina and Sokolova, 2015; Lewis et al., 2016) because lower seawater pH can increase the bioavailability and toxicity of metals both in sediments (Roberts et al., 2013) and in the
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