Top PDF Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

In this study we compared fertilization and embryo development of sibling frozen-thawed and fresh oocytes. This comparison will highlight the impact of cryo-injury during slow cooling-rapid thawing on oocyte ultrastructure and developmental poten- tial. In our study, we achieved a live birth rate of 3.3% per oocyte thawed, 7.1% per oocyte injected and 12.5% per ET. Our results are comparable with the meta-analysis of 26 published studies in 2006 where the live birth rate per oocyte thawed was 1.9%, per injected oocyte was 3.4% and 21.6% per ET. Pregnancy rates with vitrification appear to be improved and superior to slow freezing and further studies will determine the efficiency of this tech- nique (13). The survival rate in this study was 51.6 % which is similar to 60% reported by Fabbri et al. (14). Until recently, a poor survival rate has been the major hurdle to the application of oocyte cryo- preservation. Methodological improvements have made egg freezing more efficient with an increase in survival, fertilization and pregnancy rates. One approach involves a slow cooling/rapid thawing method using propanediol (PrOH) and sucrose as cryoprotectants, similar to the methodology used for embryo cryopreservation. On the other hand, some investigators have reported improved surviv- al and fertilization rates as well as live birth rates using vitrification which is less expensive and less time consuming (12, 15). Despite interest in the potential benefits of vitrification as an alternative laboratory approach to long-term oocyte preserva- tion, there is little agreement on how safe and ap- plicable this procedure is. High concentrations of cryoprotectants used in vitrification and their toxic effects on oocytes and resulting embryos have been questioned. Nevertheless, the recent improvements in this approach, including increased cooling and warming rates using very small volumes and de- creasing toxicity by reducing cryoprotectant con- centrations, have allowed for very high results of vitrification in terms of oocyte survival, fertiliza- tion rate, embryo development rates and clinical outcomes (13). Rienzi et al. have found that oocyte vitrification procedure followed by ICSI is not inferior to the fresh insemination procedure, with regard to fertilization and embryo developmental rates. Although they found some, non-significant differences in pronuclear morphology; embryo quality was similar in the two groups. The percent- age of top quality embryos per fertilized oocyte was about 52% in the fresh and vitrified group of oocytes (15). Moreover, when vitrified oocytes are compared simultaneously with fresh counterparts, in an oocyte donation program, similar laboratory
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Produção in vitro de embriões caprinos pré-púberes: efeito da melatonina nos meios de maturação in vitro e cultivo in vitro embrionário

Produção in vitro de embriões caprinos pré-púberes: efeito da melatonina nos meios de maturação in vitro e cultivo in vitro embrionário

This study have presented none beneficial effects of melatonin on in vitro prepubertal goat embryonic development. It demonstrate that melatonin did not improve the in vitro development of parthenogenetic embryo as much adding or not in vitro maturation medium. An important and interesting result brought from our study was that using oocytes from prepubertal goat did not influence directly in the parthenogenetic activated embryo development. Moreover, in this study was observed that prepubertal oocytes irrespective of their follicle size origin represented optimal embryo development. Our results showed that using prepubertal oocytes was capable to complete meiotic maturation and get a cleavage average rate of 90% demonstrating that the development of these oocytes were equivalent or better than adult oocytes and the parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin associated sequentially with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) was a method considered similar to FIV for the development of blastocysts (Susko-Parish et al. 1994; Rho et al, 1998; Ongeri et al., 2000; Ongeri et al, 2001; Lan et al., 2005). In common, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been used mainly for oocytes from adults females that represent normal reproductive age. It is implicated that female fertility get better with increasing age until reach the sexual maturation which include normality of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Armstrong (2001) demonstrated in his review that the age of oocyte donor is a limiting factor influencing development competence of the oocyte. It can be involved with meiotic incompetence or inability to complete meiotic maturation that results in oocytes impossible of fertilization, meiosis errors that can be fertilized but occurs genetic abnormalities that affect embryo viability and cytoplasmic incomplete developmental. Although these results and studies using IVF with oocyte of adult females and our be of oocytes from prepubertal goats and parthenogenetic activated this was not considered distinct when compared with the rates in the production of embryos in vitro.
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Optimization of in vitro fertilization using cryopreserved sperm of Crassostrea angulata and establishment of a cryopreservation protocol for Chamelea gallina

Optimization of in vitro fertilization using cryopreserved sperm of Crassostrea angulata and establishment of a cryopreservation protocol for Chamelea gallina

The development of methods that allow the conservation of genetic resources as sperm cryopreservation are necessary to avoid the pressure on the natural populations and the risk of extinction of Crassostrea angulata and Chamelea gallina, improving the reproductive strategies for eventually restocking programs and even aquaculture production with commercial purposes. Therefore, this work aimed to optimize the cryopreservation protocol for C. angulata testing different combinations of cryoprotectants, to assess the fertilization conditions for oyster and to assess the sperm quality parameters before and after exposure of C. gallina sperm to cryoprotectants solutions, determining the best cryopreservation conditions in terms of freezing rates. For optimization of a cryopreservation protocol for C. angulata, motility, viability and DNA integrity analysis were performed for cryopreserved sperm with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), DMSO+trehalose and DMSO+sucrose. Fertilization trials with different sperm- to-egg ratios and volumes were tested and the success of fertilization trials was determined. For the assessment of sperm quality parameters of C. gallina, toxicity tests and cryopreservation assays were performed. For toxicity tests, fresh sperm was exposed to cryoprotectants (DMSO, ethylene glycol and methanol) and motility analysis were recorded. For cryopreservation assays, the same cryoprotectant conditions and two freezing rates were analysed. Motility and viability analysis were performed in post-thaw sperm. Supplementation of DMSO with sugars did not optimize motility, viability or decrease DNA fragmentation in Crassostrea angulata sperm. In fertilization trials, the best sperm-to-egg ratio using post-thawed sperm was 50,000 spermatozoa per egg. Trehalose did not improve the fertilization rate and no effect of fertilization volume was seen between different volumes. For Chamelea gallina, the toxicity trials demonstrated that DMSO was the most suitable cryoprotectant. However, post-thawed sperm showed no motility but DMSO showed the higher viability results, being the best conditions for sperm cryopreservation achieved with the fastest freezing rate. More studies are necessary to develop successfully a cryopreservation protocol for C. gallina.
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Selection of Sperm Based on Hypo-Osmotic Swelling May Improve ICSI Outcome: A Preliminary Prospective Clinical Trial

Selection of Sperm Based on Hypo-Osmotic Swelling May Improve ICSI Outcome: A Preliminary Prospective Clinical Trial

men samples, rather a significant correlation was observed when the degree of DNA fragmentation was evaluated in sperm that had normal morphol- ogy in each sample. Therefore, they have con- cluded that "the evaluation of DNA integrity in morphologically normal spermatozoa after sperm selection is a better approach to examine sperm DNA fragmentation and any potential impact on ICSI procedure" (2). Thus, we assessed the per- centage of DNA fragmentation in the normal and abnormal sperm populations of each sample. We observed a significant correlation between the per- centage of sperm with normal morphology that were TUNEL negative with fertilization in sibling oocytes, this correlation was not observed in the HOST group. Because sibling oocytes were used, the reasons for the absence of correlation between fertilization rate with percentage of normal mor- phology that were TUNEL negative in the HOST group could be attributed to the sperm selection procedure. DNA fragmentation in sperm could re- sult in failure to mature, particularly incomplete chromatin packaging that caused sperm to be more prone to DNA fragmentation induced by ROS or other possible sources (23- 27). Therefore, selec- tion of healthy sperm in this procedure might ac- count for improved embryo quality. These results have agreed with the previous study that evaluated the potential for HOST to select healthy sperm in terms of intact chromatin and apoptosis.
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Effects of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Semen Parameters and ICSI Outcome Determined by an Improved SCD Test,Halosperm

Effects of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Semen Parameters and ICSI Outcome Determined by an Improved SCD Test,Halosperm

stimulating hormone. When the dominant follicle reached 17 mm size, 5000 or 10000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection were administered. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved 36 hours after the administration of hCG by the guidance of transvaginal ultrasound. Microinjection procedure was performed as de- scribed previously by Van Steirteghem et al. 1993 (22). Sequential media of Sage is used for the cul- ture of oocytes and embryos. Presence of two pro- nuclei (2PN) and two polar bodies in the oocyte cytoplasm 16-18 hours after ICSI were defined as fertilization. Fertilized oocytes were checked 48 and 72 hours after ICSI for embryonic develop- ment. The cleavage status and the quality were assessed with an inverted microscope (Olympus IX71, Japan) according to the scoring criteria of Ziebe et al., 1997 (23). Embryos having frag- mentation levels of <10%, 10-20% with uneven blastomeres, 20-50% and >50% were classified as grade A, B, C and D respectively. Grade A and B were classified as good-quality embryos, grade C and D were classified as poor-quality embryos. Embryos having 2-6 cells on day 2 were defined as normally cleaved embryos, otherwise defined as abnormally cleaved. Embryo development rates were defined as the percentage of cleaved embryos fertilized normally.
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Effect of cortisol on bovine oocytes maturation and further embryonic development after in vitro fertilization

Effect of cortisol on bovine oocytes maturation and further embryonic development after in vitro fertilization

being an useful indicator as a biomarker to detect stress on the animals (Martínez-Miró et al., 2016). Besides, cortisol plays an important role during the catabolic phase and it negative effect on several metabolism has been well described, it is not yet clear the role of this hormone in ovaries and particularly on oocyte nuclear maturation and further embryo development after fertilization (González et al., 2010a). The immature oocytes begin to develop in the ovaries, possessing a large nucleus referred to as germinal vesicle (GV), in which a sequence called germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), initiates the process of nuclear oocyte maturation, finishing at the stage of metaphase II just before ovulation (Chen et al., 2010). Brunet and Maro
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Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

In 1978, the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby, Louise Brown, was born in the UK following a natural IVF cycle. However, normally one mature egg is produced from a natural menstrual cycle and success rates are hampered by high cancellation rates arising from unsuccessful oocyte retrieval and having no embryos available for transfer. To increase the pregnancy rates of IVF, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was introduced in the early 1980s to stimulate multiple follicle development. This strategy enabled the retrieval of multiple oocytes at pick-up and the selection of one or more embryos for transfer. The implementation of COH has also caused significant complications, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and high incidences of multiple pregnancies. To strike a balance between harvesting too few oocytes and reducing a couple’s chance of taking a baby home with harvesting too many oocytes and risking
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Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

Evaluating the Role of First Polar Body Morphology on Rates of Fertilization and Embryo Development in ICSI Cycles

(RF), wide previtelline space (wPVS), central and general granulation, bull’s eye, vacuole, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cluster (SERc), debris in PVS, shape and dark oocyte were checked. For verifying of fertilization, about 18-19 hours post-ICSI, oocytes were checked for two-pronuclear. Assessments of embryo quality, development and embryo transfer were done at day two. Chi- square, Fisher’s exact and independent sample t tests were chosen for statistical analysis.

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Implementation of immature oocytes by cryopreservation technique and subsquent in vitro maturation and fertilization post-thawing

Implementation of immature oocytes by cryopreservation technique and subsquent in vitro maturation and fertilization post-thawing

25 the knowledge about the physiology of the blastocyst would come through the co- culture. Both basic knowledge (effect on maternal and paternal) and applied knowledge (how to handle a program of IVF blastocysts in large scale, such as freezing blastocysts...) was based on the co-culture. The effects of these embryotrophics mono- layers of cells are known as epithelium more than hormone-dependent (Papaioannou and Ebert, 1986), and are not specific to species (Boland, 1984) or from organs (Ménézo et al., 1990). The mechanism by which the co-culture cell embryotrophic exerts its effect, an effect that allows increasing the formation of blastocysts is still not completely known. The mechanism of action of the cells may be to remove toxins from the environment, culture, or to help dilute the effect of any potential inhibitor compound in the microenvironment of the embryo. According to several studies, it is also known, that during its development and proliferation, these cells produce somatic embryotrophics substances which are beneficial to the embryo (Ménézo et al., 1990; Desai et al., 2000).
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Effect of Somatic Cell Types and Culture Medium on in vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Early Development Capability of Buffalo Oocytes

Effect of Somatic Cell Types and Culture Medium on in vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Early Development Capability of Buffalo Oocytes

free Tyrode medium. Fertilization was carried out in four types of media: i) Tyrode lactate albumin pyruvate (TALP), ii) TALP+BOEC, iii) modified Ca ++ free Tyrode and iv) modified Ca ++ free Tyrode+BOEC. Fertilized oocytes were cultured for early embryonic development in TCM-199 with and without BOEC. Higher maturation rates were observed in the granulosa (84.24%) and cumulus cells (83.44%) than BOEC co culture system (73.37%). Highest fertilization rate was obtained in modified Ca ++ free Tyrode with BOEC co culture (70.42%), followed by modified Ca ++ free Tyrode alone (63.77%), TALP with BOEC (36.92%) and TALP alone (10.94%). Development of early embryos (8-cell stage) improved in TCM- 199 with BOEC co culture than TCM-199 alone. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that addition of somatic cells (granulosa cells, cumulus cells) results in higher maturation rates of buffalo follicular oocytes than BOEC co culture system, while fertilization rate improved in modified Ca ++ free Tyrode with and without BOEC. Addition of BOEC to TCM-199 improved the developmental capacity of early embryo.
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Pré-incubação dos espermatozoides suínos diminui polispermia e aumenta a produção embrionária em oócitos de baixa qualidade Cláudio Francisco BrogniI Lain Uriel OhlweilerI Norton KleinI Joana Claudia MezzaliraI Jose CristaniI Alceu MezzaliraI

Pré-incubação dos espermatozoides suínos diminui polispermia e aumenta a produção embrionária em oócitos de baixa qualidade Cláudio Francisco BrogniI Lain Uriel OhlweilerI Norton KleinI Joana Claudia MezzaliraI Jose CristaniI Alceu MezzaliraI

The main cause of low efficiency of in vitro produced porcine embryos is the high polyspermic penetration rates at fertilization, which is aggravated in low quality oocytes. Experiment 1 evaluated the embryo development in high and low quality oocytes. Experiment 2 evaluated the embryo development and quality of low quality oocytes fertilized with sperm pre- incubated during 0h (control), 0.5h, 1h and 1.5h. Experiment 3 investigated fertilization and monospermic rates of the same groups of Experiment 2. Experiment 4 evaluated embryo development, cell density, fertilization and monospermic rates of high quality oocytes using semen pre incubated during the best time observed in the previous experiments. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were analyzed by chi-square test, and remaining data by ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤0.05). The cleavage (74.8 vs 51.7%) and blastocyst (33.7 vs 9.8%) rates were greater in oocytes of high versus low quality, with no differences in cell density. Fertilization rates (65.6 to 79.5%) were not influenced by pre-incubation time. However, semen pre-incubation during 1.5h increased monospermic penetration (53.3%) and cleavage rates (92.5%) in low quality oocytes. Blastocyst rate was improved with 1.5h of semen pre incubation; however they were still lower than that observed with high quality control oocytes. Ultimately, pre-incubation did not influence fertilization, monospermic penetration, embryo development rates, nor cell density in oocytes of high quality. Low-quality porcine oocytes resulted in better rates of embryo development if in vitro fertilized with sperm pre-incubated for 1.5 hour.
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The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

In this regard we attempted to investigate the ef- fect of P4 in concentrations similar to that of preo- vulatory follicular fluid (10 and 38 μM) on devel- opmental competence of mouse GV oocytes and subsequent fertilization potential. Our experiments showed that P4 could not increase the fertilization rate and development of the embryo to the blasto- cyst stage (62). The result of this experiment was inconsistent with other studies (73-75). Silva and Knight (76) have shown that the addition of P4 to bovine oocyte in vitro maturation medium reduced the rate of blastocyst formation.
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The oogenic germline starvation response in C. elegans.

The oogenic germline starvation response in C. elegans.

typically showed shrinkage in the oogenic germline arm only (Figure 3C). (We define ‘shrinkage’ as furrowing of the exterior surface of the germline. See Materials and Methods for more detail.) Moreover, the initial location of germline shrinkage coincided with the initial location of oocyte growth: Shrinkage was first observed at the bend of the germline, the same location where oogenic material first accumulates (Figure 3E). As oogenesis Figure 3. All hermaphrodites starved from L4 shrink their germlines once oogenesis begins. (A) Germline shrinkage in non-bagging animal. The embryo in utero looks viable. (B) Germline shrinkage in a bagging animal. The uterus contains a 4-cell embryo and 3-fold embryo. A hatched L1 is out of focus but visible. (C) Correlation between germline shrinkage and the onset of oogenesis. Starved adults across all ages at food removal (Figure 1A) were classified according to (i) the onset of oogenesis in each germline arm and (ii) the presence or absence of germline shrinkage in each arm. Presence or absence of shrinkage is indicated by check-marks and X-marks, respectively. Percentages sum within columns, with the total number of animals scored indicated at the bottom (n). (D–F) Germline shrinkage begins in the same location as oogenesis. In schematic diagrams, pink indicates oocyte material, light blue indicates spermatocytes, and dark blue indicates sperm. Furrowed outline of the germline indicates shrinkage. (D) Adult germline that has not yet begun oogenesis. No shrinkage is visible. (E) Adult germline in early oogenesis. Oocyte material is visible in the bend of the germline and just proximal to the bend. Shrinkage is present in these locations as well, visible as a furrowing of the exterior surface of the germline. (F) Adult germline containing a mature-sized oocyte and no embryos. This germline is shorter than the germline in panel (E) (i.e. more shrunken). A constriction is visible behind the single oocyte. (G) Regenerated germline in an animal starved for 10 days then re- fed for ,48 h. (H) Germline in a fed adult that had never been starved, shown for comparison. This image was acquired on day 2 of adulthood. (A–B, D–G) All images are the shown at the same magnification; starved animals are shorter and thinner than fed adults. For each animal, the vulva and distal tip of the germline are marked by a caret and an arrowhead, respectively. For starved animals, the age at food removal is indicated to the right of each panel; the day of starvation on which the image was acquired is indicated on each image.
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An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

An Analysis of Student Evaluations of Native and Non Native Korean Foreign Language Teachers

ment at Brigham Young University. Unfortunately, because of the scarcity of non-native female TAs, the analysis dropped all evalua- tions of non-native females. TAs for this study team-taught Korean courses with a professor; the professor taught the class on Tuesday and Thursday and the TA had full responsibility for the class on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. All non-native TAs were native English speakers of traditional college age and had all spent at least two years in Korea and were taking upper level Korean language clas- ses at the time of their TAship. All native speaking TAs were stu- dents at the university in various degree seeking programs. Their ag- es ranged from eighteen to thirty-five. All of the native Korean TAs had graduated from high school in Korea. All of the TAs, both native and non-native, had been through a two day training program and attended occasional in-service training meetings throughout the se- mester with the same professor, but none of them had been through rigorous, formal TA training. The purpose of the study was to deter- mine the strengths and weaknesses of each category of TAs from the perspective of their students. Several of the systematic biases of stu- dent evaluations described by Wennerstrom and Heiser (1992) are of little relevance in this research because (1) the students attending Ko- rean language classes spoke English as their first language, and (2) all language classes followed a similar curriculum. However, the system- atic bias of students according to language level potentially influenced the student evaluations.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

describe and understanding the evaluated of customer and customer behavior (Tuu & Olsen, 2011:29). Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (Bauer, 1960) and sacrifice to obtain a product (Zeithaml, 1988). Value of risk often in empirical study on customer behavior in foods (Knight et al., 2007:794), considering food is basic needs of customer every day. Perceived risk is not only related to consumers’ information acquisition and processing activity but to post- decision processes as well, where people will seek out information that confirms the wisdom of their decision (Horvat & Dosen, 2013:273). Consumer risk perception and its impacts on purchasing behavior are a critical component of the management of food safety (Yeung et al., 2010:306), perceived risk can be explained as consumers’ doubt on the results of their buying decisions (Arslan et al., 2013). It can be interpreted that perception of risk is sacrificed value of customer when buying products as result from selection until interpretation from alternative product. Described of organic product can be measure with financial risk, performance risk, physical risk and social risk (Yee et al., 2011:54). Research on the same years is delivered of measure of risk, especially food include health risk, performance risk, psychosocial risk, and financial risk (Tuu et al., 2011:368). Perception of risk have negative relationship with perception of quality (Kim & Lennon, 2013:33), and on last research found that perception of quality have negative relationship with perception of risk received by customer (Chen & Chang, 2005:521). Based on theoretical study which has been discussed, next determined research hypothesis.
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Health And Wellbeing Impact And Treatment of Nocturia – A Review of The Literature

Health And Wellbeing Impact And Treatment of Nocturia – A Review of The Literature

It is now recognised that the volume of nocturnal urine produced is a critical aetiological factor in many individuals with nocturia. Global polyuria (GPu) is the overproduction of urine occurring over 24 hours (>2.8 litres of urine/24 hr or >40 ml/ kg). A common cause is diabetes mellitus, where high circulating glucose levels lead to an osmotic diuresis. In diabetes insipidus (DI) the kidneys are unable to suiciently concentrate the urine due to a lack of arginine vasopressin (AVP) (or anti-diuretic hormone) production in the posterior pituitary gland (cranial DI), or loss of renal sensitivity to the hormone (renal DI). Other causes include excessive drinking (either habitual or due to psychiatric causes) and an excessive intake of protein drinks, causing an osmotic diuresis.
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Calorimetric and Mössbauer spectroscopy examinations of ADI

Calorimetric and Mössbauer spectroscopy examinations of ADI

The study presents a new approach to the mechanism of isothermal transformation in ADI. The discussion was based on the results of calorimetric analysis of the thermal effects that take place in the specimen when heated after austempering and on the results of analysis of the phase composition of cast iron examined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The examinations were carried out on specimens taken from casting of 60 mm diameter subjected to austempering at 280, 330 and 380 o C. Upon heating, on the DSC diagram, a strong exothermic effect of about 20 o C range was observed to take place (it was not observed in the common cast iron), and its beginning, depending on the austempering temperature, fell to the range of 469 to 490 o C. The heat of this effect was proportional to the austenite content in matrix. The Mössbauer examination of phase composition in a specimen „frozen” from 650 o C revealed the decay of austenite and the appearance of products of its decomposition, i.e. α 3 ferrite and Fe 2,4 C type carbides. So, it has been concluded that the exothermic effect present upon
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Analysis of Structure and Abrasion Resistance of the Metal Composite Based on an Intermetallic FeAl Phase with VC and TiC Precipitates

Analysis of Structure and Abrasion Resistance of the Metal Composite Based on an Intermetallic FeAl Phase with VC and TiC Precipitates

The resulting carbide is thermodynamically stable and saturates carbon in the liquid solution. The degree of bath saturation is dependent on the amount of vanadium added. From reaction (1) it follows that 1 g of vanadium binds 0.236 g of carbon, which gives 1.236 g of VC. In this way, with the appropriate addition of vanadium, all carbon in the solution can be bound into VC, which will make the crystallisation of aluminium carbide hardly probable. Then, the material is obtained which after solidification can be treated as an "in situ" composite consisting of an FeAl matrix reinforced with vanadium carbides.
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The Impact of Different Forms of Foreign Capital Inflow on GDPpc in CEE Countries during the Crisis up to 2012

The Impact of Different Forms of Foreign Capital Inflow on GDPpc in CEE Countries during the Crisis up to 2012

This paper represents further analysis of the authors of previous research on the impact of foreign capital inflow on GDPpc. The analysis includes nine countries of Central and Southeastern Europe - CEE-9 in the period 2005-2012. The previous research has shown that foreign capital inflow (foreign direct investment /FDI/, portfolio investment /PI/, remittances /REM/ and cross-border credits/CBC/) had an impact on an increase in GDPpc and that CBC inflow had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc in the period 2005-2012. In this paper, we use correlation and panel regression in order to determine the cause and impact of the available source of financing on the level of GDPpc. Research showed that the influence of the crisis was evident from 2008 onwards and that CBC had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc in the period 2005-2012. Under conditions of a lack of financial resources from domestic sources, coupled with an insufficiently attractive business environment, CBCpc inflow had the greatest impact on an increase in GDPpc. Such a high significance of CBCpc is the result of the fact that CEE-9 failed to create a sufficiently attractive business environment. In an attempt to catch up with advanced EU economies, CEE-9 had to finance the increasing amount of investment from the relatively most expensive sources, such as CBCs, during the crisis. The problems related to the quality of the business environment and underdeveloped institutions contributed to a weak relationship between FDIpc and GDPpc. A weak indirect relationship also exists between PIpc and the level of GDPpc. A strong indirect relationship between REMpc and GDPpc was also observed. The correlation analysis showed that GDPpc was directly and strongly related to CBCpc.
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Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC) Countries

Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC) Countries

From onset the ECB had a clear mandate in Article 105 of the Maastricht treaty in that their primary goal was to maintain price stability (Blair, 1999), however it was argued that although this mandate may be beneficial towards the goal of long- term credibility, but it did not address how future conflicts between national interests may be resolved, because of the imbalance of power in the structure of the ECB (Wynne, 1999). Research carried out on the Maastricht treaty`s ambiguousness in exchange rate policy revealed that the instability in the policies adopted, as there was a loophole that left abundant room for conflict to arise between price stability and exchange rate stability meaning that the independence of the ECB would be threatened (Goodfriend, 1999; Wynne, 1999). Some critics questioned the success of the ECB and the Euro in the long run as it depended on whether employment opportunities would be accessible across national borders and whether wages and prices would be flexible (Eudey, 1998). Prior to the formation of the currency area, it was argued that Western Europe did not have a conducive environment that would be suitable for a common currency (Meade, 1957; Eichengreen, 1993), as the mobility of labor was nonexistent as such a more effective way to promote internal stability and balance of payment system would be to have a system of flexible exchange rates. It was believed that the flaws in the architecture of the ECB was comprised of policy mistakes that were made by an ECB executive board that did not have the essential experience to begin with and this was seen through the ECB`s failure to release inflation forecasts and they brushed over policy disagreements between the ECB officials (Eichengreen, 2000).
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