"Theneed for publicdebtmanagementinthecontextofsustainabledevelopmentwithintheEuropeanUnion” presents the main theoretical issues related to publicdebtmanagement and its importance inthe effective managementofpublicdebt, over the objectives and risks associated with publicdebtmanagement. Moreover, the main objective ofpublicdebtmanagement is to ensure that the government’s needof funding and its payment obligations are met at the lowest possible cost, on medium and long term, consistent with a prudent degree of risk . The issues ofpublicdebtmanagement often start from the lack of attention of decision- makers regarding the benefits of a cautious debtmanagement strategy and the costs of a weak macroeconomic managementof excessive levels ofpublicdebt. Inthe first case, public authorities should pay attention to the beneficiaries resulting from the use of a prudent publicdebtmanagement strategy and ofpublic policies that are coordinated in a complete macroeconomic framework. Inthe second case, fiscal-budgetary policies, monetary policies and exchange rate policies that are inappropriate to the economic situation generate uncertainty inthe financial markets regarding the future returns of investment expressed in local currency, which will lead investors to request higher risk premiums. Particularly in emerging or developed markets, debtors and creditors alike, applying long-term commitments can suffocate thedevelopmentof financial markets and they can severely impede publicdebt managers’ efforts to protect the government from refinancing and currency exchange risks.
In order to measure thesustainabledevelopmentin Romania, there are 85 indicators, classified according to theEuropean system. In turn, indicators are grouped on 10 subjects: economic development, poverty and social exclusion, ageing society, public health, climate change and energy, production and consumption models, ecological efficiency, managementof natural resources, good quality governance and global partnership. Withinthe category of indicators used to assess thesustainabledevelopment, the indicators for material flows are also included, indicators which put pressure on the environment because their action is related to the diminishing of renewable resources and the ecological damage. The material flows may be analysed through the domestic material extraction, direct and total material inputs, domestic and total material consumption, direct and total material outputs, material productivity, material efficiency, dependency on domestic natural resources, material imports etc.
Abstract. European integration is not just a goal ofthe foreign policy ofthe Republic of Moldova, but also a natural aspiration of an European nation to join theEuropean family and the signing ofthe Association Agreement between Moldova and theEuropeanUnion is an important step in achieving this goal. The Republic of Moldova has developed and continues to promote rigorous reforms inthe area ofpublic finance management. In this article we have analyzed the main reforms and achievements inthe field ofpublic finance managementinthe Republic of Moldova, their importance by reference to good European practices, but also theneed to continue them inthecontextof signing the Association Agreement. The authors argue that until now, thepublic finance management reform had been focused mainly on the planning and execution phases of National Public Budget, nonetheless the main problems lay in poor budgetary reporting and control. Corruption and fraud are the main risk areas for all the promoted reforms. The conclusion of this paper is that the most urgent actions that should be undertaken consist in improving public procurement procedures, enhancing the internal control, financial inspection and external audit. Only in such a way trustful relation with EU could be created and this is particularly important as it could permit to absorb more European funds to invest inthe economic and social developmentin our country.
The key element in supporting a sustainable economic growth is depicted by the human capital. Only through investments in education, healthcare and social services we can fight poverty and unemployment amongst minority groups, people from rural areas and the youth. Also, the urban scenery must be revitalized. It is a known fact that city centers are great polluters, therefore imposing such investments with the purpose of lowering greenhouse gases emissions, regenerating green spaces or better waste management. Taking into consideration the fact that urban centers are the biggest polluters by the number of people living in cities, the number of enterprises and the number ofpublic and private means of transportation, a series of measures targeting the reduction of polluting agents like taxing for access to crowded areas, developing bicycle lanes, blocking car access to city centers and transforming them into pedestrian areas should be implemented.
Our research on a group of eight EU member states from the South-East Europe highlights their strong comittment to be partners in transnational partnerships for sustainabledevelopment. Different kind of organizations (e.g. ministries, other governmental institutions, municipalities, universities, public or private companies, research institutes, NGOs) are involved a significant number of transnational projects (partnerships) covering a wide range of topics directly related to sustainabledevelopment, such as: managementof natural assets and protected areas, biodiversity, prevention of environmental risks, energy and resources efficiency, promoting a balanced pattern of attractive and accessible growth areas, promoting the use of cultural values for development, tackling crucial problems affecting metropolitan areas and regional systems of settlements, sustainable transport, sustainable production and consumption, sustainable agriculture, civil society for sustainability. Each partnership includes at least 5 partners, sometimes reaching about 25 partners or even more, coming from different regions, countries and areas. This great diversity in terms of approached topics, number of partners and types of organizations (partners) is the premise of successful stories. The merit of this paper, in spite of some limitations previously mentioned, is to contribute with an original research regarding transnational partnership for sustainabledevelopment, setting a focus point on the way to further research.
Other statistics on the educational policies oftheEuropeanUnion are provided by the OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, an international organization of those developed nations that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy Each year the report "An overview of education." The report provides data on education in 34 OECD countries, including 21 EU Member States. Six EU Member States are not part ofthe OECD (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Romania) and therefore not included inthe report. Report 2013 presents the following situation for EU countries:
During the past two decades, Romania had introduced several reforms inthe health sector inthecontextof political, social, and economic changes[ ]. The reforms have focused on the financing of health system, provision of health services, management, and resource development Anton & Onofrei, . Relative to other new EuropeanUnion EU member states, the results of these reforms were poor Anton, . As a result, the performance ofthe Romanian health system measured in terms of outputs/outcomes and the access to health care services is still low compared to that reported for other
- unlocking the touristic potential: a developmentof cross-border partnerships with the resorts from the Bulgarian coast line – in order to organize touristic circuits both to visit Bulgaria and the Danube Delta; b developmentof partnerships between the Romanian seaside resorts; c expanding the touristic offer – developmentof activities to attract tourists in all seasons, d improving the quality of touristic services, e sustainable unlocking ofthe natural potential. - Unlocking the human potential of Constanţa, one ofthe biggest countries ofthe country: increasing the number of workplaces, ensuring facilities required for professional conversion – specializing in touristic and travel-related services, ensuring social inclusion. - Reducing the natural and industrial risks.
Culture has a strong economic dimension if being planned properly from the beginning. It might be a trigger for urban renewal and creating the image ofthe city, where it should not be used as a temporary instrument - goods aimed at external needs, but as the internal strength and long-term potential that will be recognizable symbol of urban centers. As a counterpoint to the ‘cultural economy’, Bianchini introduces the concept of ‘cultural planning’ (Bianchini, 1999) which represents ‘a strategic and integral use of cultural resources for urban and community development’ (Mercer, 2010). Cultural planning presents an alternative to traditional cultural policies (based on the aesthetic interpretation of culture as art) and renewal (based on cultural policy, which often has a sectoral focus). The classic approach to cultural policy implies a culture as a resource for achieving economic effects, without seeing the outcome of social and cultural development, and their essential value for urban renewal. Cultural planning considers cultural resources as urban resources that play a strategic role in planning and inthe new economy (ibid). Cultural planning means an overall strategy of urban and community development, which must be associated with spatial planning, economic and industrial development objectives, initiatives that promote social justice, and the planning ofpublic spaces for recreation and entertainment. In that way ‘a diversity of offer and mix of functions withinthe architectural context would be achieved, which could lead to thesustainable city renewal, together with a strong national or local support and with participation of local population’ (Vaništa Lazarević and Đukić, 2006).
)n thecontextofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, thedevelopmentof capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective oftheEuropeanUnion – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing thepublic‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments inthe human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices withintheEuropeanUnion.
Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon . High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating ofthe alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
The Galois encoder generates the encrypted data that can be used for transmitting the Galois encrypted message. At the receiver 4 bit of encrypted data is decoded using the Galois decoder .Multiplier as private key & look up table at the Rx end is used for decryption ofthe original message signal. The same pseudo random algorithms used at the Galois transmitter side are used at the Galois receiver side to find the M and E, which are the pixels used for matching the data and embedding the 2BCs based on password. The location where the first bit ofthe 2BC is embedded in E can be obtained from the password. Then, depending on the technique used to embed the second bit ofthe 2BC, the second bit can be read directly, read from position 3, or read from different positions in a particular order according to techniques 1, 2and 3, respectively. The extracted bits are then combined to obtain the different 2BCs. The data bits are extracted from the M pixels based on the locations obtained from the 2BC‟s. When the location is „5‟, the receiver will check if the bits in locations 8, 7, 6 and 5 are the same. If they are the same, then this case corresponds to a “no match” and hence the complement ofthe bit in position 5 is taken as the data bit, else the same bit is
Economic theory prescribes a (pigouvian) congestion tax in order to alleviate the negative effects of traffic congestion. It is simply a matter of internalizing a negative externality. However, traffic congestion is a pervasive problem in cities across the world, and a congestion tax is seldom applied. This paper tries to understand why this is the case. In order to do so, we estimate the welfare and traffic effects of alternative policies to be applied to the city of Sao Paulo; a congestion charge and a rotation system (or license plate restriction). With a dataset containing information on origin, destination and mode choice, we estimate a individual demand model for transportation mode. These demands are in turn used to run counter-factuals to evaluate the welfare costs of both policies. The results show that the congestion tax performs better than the rotation system in terms of aggregate welfare, but the distribution of these losses are very distinct. The congestion tax negatively affects a larger number of people with lower intensity than the rotation. Plus, the rotation system concentrates the heavier losses in an even smaller group, and thas little or no effect on driving decisions of those who owns more than one car. These results support the argument that the rotation system is chosen since it affects less people and causes little or no welfare loss on the richer portion ofthe population.
The terrorist attacks of 2011 inthe USA, of March 2004 nin Madrid and of July 2005 in London, the economic crisis, the global spread of diseases and the energetic problems have revealed the vulnerability of modern societies to asymmetric threats. As a result, national interest and the adoption of measures towards identifying and protectin critical infrastructures have become of prime importance. The state that coined the phrase of critical infrastructure in 1995 and took the ﬁ rst steps in this direction was the USA by establishing a Critical Infrastructure Committee to deal with border security and the prevention of attacks from outside. Important legal and institutional initiatives inthe deﬁ nition of critical infrastructurees were also developed aby NATO and by EU member states. In this respect, at NATO level, the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committtee was established to ﬁ nd and identify integrated strategies to analuze and protect critical infrastructures. At the EU level, especially after the 2004 and 2005 terrorist attacks in Madrid and London, a set of measures was adopted in oredr to shape the legal and operational framework needed to protect critical infrastructures.
Optimisation ofthe turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations ofthe sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques ofthe system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.
One potential explanation for finding no impact of Pro-Gavião is that there were other rural development programs taking place in Bahia at the same time, and these might have differentially affected the control AMCs. The World Bank, for example, invested heavily in rural poverty alleviation programs throughout the Northeast of Brazil in this period. Because IFAD was investing in these 13 municipalities, other programs might have left these locations alone and targeted other —almost as needy—municipalities. This would imply that our control group based on non-neighbors would not have represented the counterfactual of zero program intervention, but rather the counterfactual of no PG intervention. This would alter the interpretation of our results. To address this issue, we were able to gather administrative data from the state government of Bahia on spending in PG and neighboring locations. Although it was not possible to verify this hypothesis for the complete set of 54 municipalities analyzed, we did succeed in obtaining information from 25 municipalities inthe River Gavião region (13 PG municipalities and 12 ofthe closest neighbors). This can help to provide evidence about how important PG was in relation to the other programs.
regard to patient selection, current developmentof surgical techniques, and current chemotherapy combinations, though there is a major impact on overall survival in responders who show complete response (pT0 N0). However, no techniques are available to choose patients who have a higher probability of beneitting from NAC. Consequently, the guidelines and meta-analyses on the treatment of MIBC recommend using NAC (cisplatin-based combination therapy) for patients with T2-T4a, cN0 M0 bladder cancer. Despite the recommendations associated with the use of
The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium inthe amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed ofthe specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements withinthe presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon inthe charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results inthe decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon inthe charge cast iron should be maintained withinthe range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content inthe charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.
Developmentof information technologies and communication in a public sector have to pay more attention to the complexity in its implementation rather than focusing on best practice and strategies which are universal to prescribe how successfully applied Electronic Government program. As a result of advanced civilization for conducting residents ofthe state of being high-profile figures inthe service inthe era of democracy. Due to existence of interaction inthe form of consultations will find a pattern, approaches such as what is appropriate to the needs ofthe community in exercising the functions of participation to the state. Based on the results of research on public services inthecontextof democratic consultation. Look about how the process of consultation with citizens. At the end result appears that the consultants who holds the project activities which implement electronic government that coupled with the community members who said that if the process of consultation having no democratic value. Certainly, it is negative inthedevelopmentof democracy inthe region licensing office, where community involvement not be used as reference to build an understanding together in achieving common interests in accordance with the concept of new public service. Criticism ofthe statement above , delivered by George (2002) that the failure ofthe process ofthe interaction between citizens with the government is located on the level of bureaucracy that is not acceptable to open direct communication. Given only communication with the use of symbols and an intermediary. Statement above supported by Robbins (2005) that stiff of a bureaucracy that has become part the past, of communications for interaction are the dominant choice for inthe success of a form of service. All stiffness will perish along