Top PDF Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

In order to detoxify stress-induced ROS, plants have evolved a complex antioxidant system, in which several enzymes play essential roles such as scavenging ROS and protecting cells against oxidative stress [70–72]. In the present study, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT were enhanced in one- (Fig. 8C and D) and three-week-old transgenic tobacco plants (Fig. 7B and C) under drought/osmotic stress, indicating that overexpression of TaAQP7 effectively improved the antioxidant defense system, which in turn protected transgenic lines against ROS-mediated injury under drought/osmotic stress. Similarly, BjPIP1-overexpressing plants showed higher activities of antioxi- dant enzymes under Cd stress than WT [66], implying that antioxidant system may be involved in AQPs conferring abiotic stress in plants. Here, we have provided physiological evidence that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance by enhancing SOD and CAT activities. In addition, the transgenic lines had higher Figure 5. Osmotic tolerance analysis of TaAQP7 -overexpressing plants. A total of 200 surface-sterilized seeds of each transgenic line, WT or VC germinated on MS medium containing 0 (A, a) or 300 mM (B, b) mannitol for 12 d, and the germination rate was calculated. A, B are photos of the first 12 days after germination on mediums. The WT, VC and transgenic lines were cultured in MS medium under a 16 h light/8 h dark cycle at 25uC for one week, and then the seedlings were transplanted to MS or MS supplied with 150 or 300 mM mannitol for one week. The photographs were taken (C, D, E) and root length was calculated (F). Vertical bars indicate 6SE calculated from four replicates. Asterisks indicate significant difference between the WT and the three transgenic lines (*p,0.05; **p,0.01). Three biological experiments were performed, which produced similar results. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052439.g005
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Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento').

Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento').

not observed in either the drought or salt stress experiments. Fv/ Fm values have been shown to be stable in any given plant species under non-stressed conditions [41], and the changes in Fv/Fm observed in this study may have been a result of altered photosynthetic function. Previous report described that expression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene vhb lead to enhanced accumulation of starch in aspen chloroplasts [13]. Therefore, the increased Fv/Fm suggested that the presence of vgb and its resulting product hemoglobin provide a substantial level of protection for the photosynthetic machinery of transgenic lines against water- logging stress. The enhanced waterlogging tolerance could also be attributed to the oxygen gathering and delivery functions of hemoglobin which, in turn, benefits cell growth and protein synthesis under oxygen-limited conditions [42,43]. In our study, under salt stress multigene overexpression resulted in a higher chlorophyll content, which was also observed in the drought experiments. Higher chlorophyll concentrations may have been related to the slower rate of chlorophyll pigment degradation and/ or an increased number of photosynthetic mesophyll cells, which has been shown to influence transpiration efficiency [44]. Since stomatal behavior and transpiration efficiency were deemed highly relevant to plant WUE [45], the relationship between these two factors and WUE in multigene tranformants will be explored in future research.
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Overexpression of EcbHLH57 Transcription Factor from Eleusine coracana L. in Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Salt, Oxidative and Drought Stress.

Overexpression of EcbHLH57 Transcription Factor from Eleusine coracana L. in Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Salt, Oxidative and Drought Stress.

Arabidopsis we showed that the target genes which do not have specific binding cis-elements of the overexpressed TFs may be upregulated by other TFs [47]. Further, the transcript level of PP2C was also upregulated in EcbHLH57 transgenic plants. In response to stress, under high ABA levels, PP2C interacts with ABA receptor to activate SRK2D/E/I which upregulates sev- eral downstream genes such as LEA proteins [78]. The Arabidopsis co-expression network analysis also indicated the association of AtILR3 with ABA signalling pathway genes. The upre- gulation of PP2C in EcbHLH57 transgenic plants indicates its positive role in improving stress tolerance via ABA signalling. Although EcbHLH57 showed a marginal increase in transcript levels under drought, EcbHLH57 being an early stress inducible gene, its constitutive overex- pression in tobacco resulted in upregulation of several stress responsive target genes under drought stress such as LEA14, rd29A which help in stabilizing proteins, SOD, APX, ADH1 scav- enge stress induced ROS thereby aid in the maintenance of cell metabolic activities. Hence the physiological parameters like electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and relative water content were maintained in the transgenic plants resulting in improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions.
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Heterologous expression of wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2) gene in Arabidopsis delays flowering and enhances freezing tolerance.

Heterologous expression of wheat VERNALIZATION 2 (TaVRN2) gene in Arabidopsis delays flowering and enhances freezing tolerance.

to the third generation. Homozygous plants of the fourth generation were analysed (Fig. 4). The flowering time was measured by the number of rosettes of leaves when flowering occurs. The results show that this number was 10 leaves for control plants, and 15, 13 and 12 leaves for line1, line2 and line3 respectively (Fig. 4C). This flowering time was delayed by 7 days (P,0.01) in line 1 and 5 days in line 2 and 3 when grown under long day conditions confirming that the strength of delay of flowering was consistent with the transgene expression level (Fig. 4). Effect of TaVRN-B2 expression on flowering initiation and development is shown in Fig. 4A. All control plants initiated flower buds and flower formation after 24 and 28 days respectively compared to the three transgenic lines. After 35 days the midflower formation is completed in control plants while the trangenic lines still at stage of flower formation. This demonstrates Figure 3. Promoter analysis and transcripts level of TaVRN2 in response to various abiotic stresses. A) Putative regulatory cis-elements in TaVRN2 promoter (MBS: MYB binding site involved in drought-inductibilty, ABRE: cis-acting element involved in abscisic acid responsiveness, HSE: cis-acting element involved in heat stress responsiveness, ACE: cis-acting element involved in light responsiveness, DRE: cis-acting element involved in cold stress and TATA-box). The plant CARE and PLACE programs were used for the promoter analysis. B) Transcripts abundance in winter wheat exposed to various stresses. Seven days old plants were exposed to different stresses: Non-acclimated (NA), cold acclimated (CA), wounding (W), heat shock (HS), salt (NaCl), water stress (RWC), abscisic acid (ABA). Data shown represent mean values obtained from independent amplification reactions (n = 4), experiment was repeated three times with similar results. A statistical difference between each sample and the expression observed in non acclimated plants is indicated by an asterisk on top of each histogram columns. The threshold for statistical significance was: *: p,0.05; **: p,0.01; ***: p,0.001; ns: P.0.05.
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Construction of 35S- GmDREB2- c- myc

Construction of 35S- GmDREB2- c- myc

amino acid sequence. The cultivar DT2008 had the most difference compared to DQ054363 and other local cultivars. There was no difference in the amino acid sequence in the AP2 domain of these six local cultivars. However, this study did not identify any correlation between the difference in nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DREB2 and the drought tolerance of soybean plants. This could be interesting idea and should be studied further to clarify this correlation. It was found that AP2 domain was highly conserved, and the modification in this domain could alter protein properties. According to previous reports, DT2008 has the highest drought tolerance among these local cultivars (Mai et al. 2010; Ha et al. 2012; Sulieman et al. 2015). Thus, the GmDREB2 gene isolated from the DT2008 was used to design recombinant structures and generate transgenic tobacco plants, which resulted five transgenic lines expressing the recombinant DREB2 protein. These transgenic tobacco lines had higher proline accumulation than WT plants from 211.17 to 332.44% after five days of drought stress, and from 262.79 to 466.04% after nine days of drought stress. In higher plants, proline is synthesized from glutamate or ornithine. The synthesis of proline from glutamate is the most important cycle with the participation of the pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) (Delauney and Verma 1993). The increase of the proline content in the transgenic tobacco compared to WT under drought stress conditions is possibly due to the overexpression of GmDREB2 transgene, which enhances the transcription of P5CS and P5CR gene, leading to the increase in proline content in transgenic plants and in turn improves the drought tolerance. The present results from the overexpression of GmDREB2 in the transgenic tobacco plants provided the basis for generating drought-tolerant transgenic soybean cultivars by GmDREB2 overexpression.
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A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

Wheat is the dominant crop for human food and livestock feed. Current and future concerns include improving wheat yield and quality under hostile environments [29]. Considering the diverse roles of WRKY transcription factors under complex environmen- tal conditions, clarifying the functions of certain WRKY members in the abiotic stress response remains a challenge. Overexpression of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis [30], rice [31] and soybean [32] conferred tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially oxidative stress [33,34]. However, whether WRKYs confer drought and salt stress tolerance through reducing ROS accumulation is not yet to be determined in wheat. In the present study, based on the conserved protein sequence of WRKY transcription factors, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with high similarity to the WRKYs in wheat genome sequence database were analyzed, collected and assem- bled into several unigenes. Ten of the TaWRKYs, designated TaWRKY1–TaWRKY10, were successfully identified. Among these genes, TaWRKY10 was observed to confer drought and salt stress tolerance by regulating osmosis and reducing ROS accumulation.
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

1. INTRODUCTION In the period prior to 2003 Polytechnics in Zimbabwe had a mix of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), varying from one institution to the other. There was no uniformity as to what ICTs individual institutions invested in, so while some institutions had several computer laboratories of clone desktops, some did not have even a single lab. While some had connected to the internet through the dialup system which came through telephone lines, some had no idea what internet was.A breakthrough came in 2003 when a non- governmental organization called VVOB, a Belgian abbreviation which translates in English to Flemish for Technical Assistance, came in with a project called the College Information Technology Enhancement Programme (CITEP), which helped to finance, train personnel and equip polytechnics with standard computer and network infrastructure (VVOB project document, 2003). They conducted training workshops for personnel, procured standard desktops, and installed fibre internet connectivity and setup Ethernet networks in these institutions. This project became the basis for mobile computing in Polytechnics. When the project ended in 2008, the institutions were now coordinated and some managed to go a step further by installing wireless access points within institutions using the fibre backbone. This allowed staff and students who had WIFI enabled devices to be able to access internet and research
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services and of the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Chebyshev acceleration method [10] has been one of the favorite Krylov space methods for solving large sparse linear systems of equations in a parallel environment, since, unlike methods based on orthogonalization (such as Conjugate Gradient) it does not require computing computation-intensive inner products for the determination of the recurrence coefficients. The Chebyshev method, which in earlier literature has often been referred to as Chebyshev semi-iterative method, requires some preliminary knowledge about the spectrum of the coefficient matrix A, The concept of spectral radius allows us to make a complete description of eigenvalues of a matrix and is independent of any particular matrix norm [12]. Chebyshev acceleration method can be applied to any stationary iterative method provided it is symmetrizable. It requires the iteration matrix to have real spectrum. Given a nonsingular matrix Q, we define a basic
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Sugarcane yellow leaf virus Infection Leads to Alterations in Photosynthetic Efficiency and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Sugarcane Leaves

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus Infection Leads to Alterations in Photosynthetic Efficiency and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Sugarcane Leaves

high irradiance (Salisbury and Ross, 1992). This feature is possible due to the capacity of sugarcane and other C 4 plants to use the CO 2 from decarboxilation of malate and aspartate in the bundle sheath, facilitating the production of 3-PGA (3- phosphoglyceric acid) by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO). Several photosynthetic enzymes depend on light and energy as ATP and NADPH for CO 2 assimilation and reduction, which are less abundant in infected cells due to their mobilization during virus replication. The enzyme malate desidrogenase, which converts oxaloacetic acid to malate, is located in the chloroplasts, whose structure and organisation are supposedly impaired by the virus. The imbalances in the pigment contents and in the ratio Chla/Chlb indicate such alterations in these organelles may have influenced the gas exchange rates besides interfering in the filling up of the PQ pool.
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Byzantine Fault Tolerance In The Distributed Environment Using Markov Chain Technique

Byzantine Fault Tolerance In The Distributed Environment Using Markov Chain Technique

ABSTRACT: The abstract of this paper is to tolerate the byzantine fault by providing the predefined constraints of the Nodes in the distributed environment. The nodes in the distributed environment automatically generated their constraints using Markov chain. The distributed environment predefined constraints and the member nodes predefined constraints can be updated periodically. According to this update, if the member nodes predefined constraints may not matches with the distributed system predefined constraints then using Breadth First Search technique the membership service discards the service of the node in the distributed environment . The new node having constraints wants to communicate with the distributed environment. These constraints can be compared with the distributed system constraints using probability of random matching technique.
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A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

The use of genetic cell ablation through the expres- sion of RNases, toxic genes or antisense mRNA along with promoters directing the expression to different cell types has aided in the molecular dissection of plant develop- mental processes. The cell ablation techniques have been used to study male gametogenesis, by visualization of the developmental events in the absence of specific cells, and can be used as a tool to produce male sterility (Mariani et al., 1990; McCormick, 1991; Nasrallah et al., 1991; Denis et al., 1993; Goldberg et al., 1993; Roberts et al., 1995; Twell, 1995; Zhan et al., 1996; Beals and Goldberg, 1997). Male gametogenesis occurs in the sporophytic tissue of the anther and begins with the meiotic division of a diploid sporogenic cell (pollen mother cell) into a tetrad of haploid microspores, which later undergo an asymmetric mitotic di- vision, resulting in pollen grains. These pollen grains contain a small generative cell within a larger vegetative cell. The pollen grains mature and undergo another mitotic division, before or after germination, giving rise to two sperm cells that complete the process with the double fertilization of the egg and the central cell (Bedinger, 1992; McCormick, 1993). The genes expressed during male gametogenesis have been classified as “early” genes, which become active soon after meiosis is complete, or as “late” genes, when become active after microspore mitosis (Mascarenhas, 1990). About 75% of the mRNAs present in mature pollen of Trades- cantia occur in two or more abundant classes, compared to only 35% of mRNAs in shoots (Mascarenhas, 1988). This, and the fact that the late pollen-specific cotton gene G9 was isolated by differential screening (John and Petersen,
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Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regula- tor SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides), to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two- hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ter- nary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1) and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in trans- genic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhanc- ing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR) and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS), but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expres- sion of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or desta- bilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that
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Relationship between disease resistance and rice oxalate oxidases in transgenic rice.

Relationship between disease resistance and rice oxalate oxidases in transgenic rice.

the leaves of 01-7, 01-18 and 01-27 but not in those of WT (Figure 2A). Expression of OsOxO2 was not affected by overexpression of OsOxO1 as the transcript of OsOxO2 was not detectable in the leaves of the three transgenic lines as well as in those of WT (Figure 2A). The OxO activities in the leaves of 01-7 and 01-18 were substantially higher than that in the leaves of WT while that in 01-27 was several folds lower than the other two overexpressing lines but still higher than that in WT (Figure 2B). Overexpression of OsOxO4 had no effect on the expression of OsOxO1 and OsOxO2 as their transcripts were not detectable in the leaves of 04-9, 04-29 and 04-54 as well as in those of WT (Figure 2C). The expression of OsOxO3 and OsOxO4 was also not affected in 04-9 but was strongly elevated in 04-29 and 04-54 (Figure 2C). This correlated with the lowest level of OxO activity found in the leaves of 04-9 which was similar to that in WT (Figure 2D). The levels of OxO activity found in the leaves of the three overexpressing lines were in the following decreasing order: 04-29, 04-54 and 04-9. In the palea and lemma of i-1, the transcript levels of OsOxO1-4 were apparently the same as those of WT (Figure 2E). In i-5, the expression of OsOxO1 and OsOxO4 was inhibited more strongly than that of the other two gene family members and expression of all four OsOxO genes but that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited in i-12. It was also confirmed that the OxO activities in the palea and lemma of both i-5 and i-12 were greatly reduced in comparison to that in WT (Figure 2F). By contrast, the levels of OxO activity in the palea and Figure 1. Expression of OsOxO1-4 in rice leaves in response to pathogen inoculation. When Zhonghua 11 seedlings were grown to the booting stage, leaves were wounded without Xoo SCX1-6 cultures (mock inoculation control) (A) and inoculated with Xoo SCX1-6 (B). Three-leaf stage Zhonghua 11 seedlings were spray inoculated with water (C) and M. oryzae GDO8-T13 (D). Then total RNA was extracted from the treated leaves at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation for analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
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The ER luminal binding protein (BiP) mediates an increase in drought tolerance in soybean and delays drought-induced leaf senescence in soybean and tobacco

The ER luminal binding protein (BiP) mediates an increase in drought tolerance in soybean and delays drought-induced leaf senescence in soybean and tobacco

It has previously been demonstrated that overexpression of a BiP gene from soybean confers drought tolerance in tobacco. It is now shown that the same gene (soyBiPD) confers drought tolerance in soybean. The BiP-mediated drought-tolerant phenotype and the possible mode of action of BiP in conferring drought resistance is characterized further here. The role of this gene on drought-induced senescence in soybean and tobacco is also investigated. In soybean plants subjected to drought, the overexpression of BiP resulted in the maintenance of shoot turgidity. Un- expectedly, this improvement of leaf water relations was associated with less stomatal closure during drought, and less reduction of photosynthesis and transpiration. The increase in drought tolerance was also not related to some parameters of other short-term or long-term avoidance responses. For example, overexpression of BiP did not result in the accumulation of proline and sucrose, and did not result in the normal increase in root growth under drought condi- tions. Taken together these results show less drought stress in the drought-treated plants. This was also inferred from the lower (or very much lower) induction of typical drought- induced genes, in drought-stressed BiP overexpressing plants. Fig. 5. Drought-induced accumulation of some osmolytes in
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Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae)

Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae)

restrictively used, selection and diversification of stress tolerant cultivars should be a priority for contemporary ornamental horticulture (Niu, Rodriguez & Wang, 2006). In addition, on many occasions, potted plants for home or garden decoration suffer from drought stress due to a lack of regular watering by customers. Traditionally, selection of drought tolerant cultivars was done by directly growing plants under water stress (WS) conditions and comparing their growth and reproductive parameters with those measured in plants in the control treatments. Although this approach is reliable and has been successfully applied, it requires a long period of experimentation. Nowadays, faster screening methods are available (Mantri, Patade & Pang, 2014). Several of these have been already applied in Tagetes, such as testing the capacity of seeds to germinate in conditions of osmotic stress, simulated by PEG (Cicevan et al., 2015), or the in vitro selection of drought tolerant clones (Mohamed, Harris & Henderson, 2000). A tool of remarkable utility, quick and detectable in very early stages of plant growth is the use of stress biochemical markers. This wide category comprises numerous compounds, easy to be quantified (Ashraf & Harris, 2004; Schiop et al., 2015), which after a brief exposure to stress suffer a change in their concentration in the plants, either increasing or decreasing with respect to the values registered in the controls. Optimal markers for screening the drought tolerance of crops are those related to degradation of
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The effects of overexpression of histamine releasing factor (HRF) in a transgenic mouse model.

The effects of overexpression of histamine releasing factor (HRF) in a transgenic mouse model.

inhibitor cocktail, BD BioSciences, San Jose, CA) and then centrifugated at 10,0006g at 4uC for 30 min to obtain the cellular proteins in the supernatant. The protein concentrations were determined by BCA Protein Assay (Pierce Biotechnology Inc., Rockford, IL), and 20 m g of total protein from each sample were boiled for 5 min and electrophoresed on 4–20% Tris-Glycine gels (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), transferred to nitrocellulose mem- branes, and blocked in blocking buffer (150 mM NaCl in 10 mM Tris, pH 7.5 containing 5% non-fat dry milk) for 1 hr at room temperature. The membranes were blotted with anti-EGFP (1:200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA) or anti-HRF (in house prepared monoclonal antibody [27]) at 4 uC for at least 16 hours, washed three times (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 137 mM NaCl, and 0.1% Tween 20), incubated with HRP-conjugated goat anti- mouse IgG secondary antibody (1:5000 dilution, GE Healthcar- e,UK) for 1 h at room temperature, washed three times, followed by the detection of signal with SuperSignalH West Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL, USA). The density of each protein band was scanned using the Bio-Rad Gel Doc system and the Quantity One 4.4.1 software (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and compared by densi- tometry to positive control.
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Genetic parameters for drought‑tolerance in cassava

Genetic parameters for drought‑tolerance in cassava

In the WD experiment, six out of the 10 best genotypes with higher NR bear the GCP code, which refers to segregating populations derived from the crossing of tolerant and susceptible MCol1734 x MVen77, respectively. In contrast, in the FI experiment, only four genotypes of GCP population were observed. In addition, only four genotypes (BGM0815, BRS Formosa, GCP-046 and GCP-190) were sorted in both treatments (Table 4). This may indicate that one of the drought-tolerance mechanisms refers to the maintenance of the number of roots per plant, whereas most of drought-sensitive genotypes showed low NR. The average NR values for WD and FI were 29.37 and 41.80, respectively (Table 3). In contrast, selection and recombination of the 10 best genotypes for NR in WD and FI allow to obtain selection gains of 27.86 and 38.48%, respectively. Thus, the predicted average for NR after one selection cycle would reach 37.6 and 57.9 roots per plot, in the WD and in the FI treatments, respectively (Table 4).
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Introgression of the SbASR-1 gene cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiate enhances salinity and drought endurance in transgenic groundnut (arachis hypogaea)and acts as a transcription factor [corrected].

Introgression of the SbASR-1 gene cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiate enhances salinity and drought endurance in transgenic groundnut (arachis hypogaea)and acts as a transcription factor [corrected].

Halophytes belong to half of the higher plant families, but contribute only 1% of the total plants species. The Chenopodiaceae or Amaranthaceae family constitutes highest number (total 281) of halophyte species and Salicornia brachiata Roxb (Amaranthaceae) is a leafless succulent annual halophyte that grows along coastal marshes. The plant has the capability to grow in a wide range of salt concentrations (0.1–2.0 M), accumulates salt up to 40% of its dry weight, and requires NaCl essentially for its in vitro regeneration [19]. Furthermore, the plants contain sulfur-rich seed storage proteins [20], unique oligosaccharides, and metabolites [21– 22], and have proven to be a source of potential stress responsive genes for developing stress- tolerant transgenic plants [23–30]. Previously, the SbASR-1 gene was cloned from S. brachiata and characterized by overexpressing in transgenic tobacco under salinity stress [12]. Ground- nut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important cash crop with high nutritional value and many industrial uses. Groundnut is cultivated in the arid and semiarid region, and its
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ارزیابی تاثیر تنش شوری بر تجمع املاح و عملکرد کمی و کیفی ارقام بهاره ی کلزا

ارزیابی تاثیر تنش شوری بر تجمع املاح و عملکرد کمی و کیفی ارقام بهاره ی کلزا

Dry land salinity is one of the major problems affecting agricultural products. The main consequences of plant exposure to salt stress are water deficit and ion excess, which lead to several morphological and physiological changes. In order to evaluate the effect of Salinity on some physiological characteristics of 8 spring rapeseed cultivars, an experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at Yasouj University as a factorial in a complete randomized design with three replications. The first factor includes four salinity levels ( 1.92 (as control), 9.87, 19.6 and 21.94 dSm -1 (NaCl and CaCl 2 with ratio 20 to 1 in Hoagland solution) ) and the second one includes eight
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