• INSTAGRI - Intelligent Cloud Based Environment for PrecisionAgriculture using Remote Sensing Technology – Project Number CENTRO-01-0247-FEDER-023152. The previously mentioned projects rely on new Portuguese motivational researches of an agricultural change in the country. It has been gradually growing in Portugal for several years, through national companies like Syngenta or Wisecrop, already with creative and eﬃcient developed solutions in the market. They use techniques based on aerial multispectral captured images of the field area, capable to gather information invisible to human eye, in order to advise farmers about their crops growth, indicating possible plagues, diseases or even fields’ malnutrition.
The study was carried out in an area cultivated with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L), on the Amambaí farm (52°37'17.79"W and 18°21'21.40"S), located in the municipality of Chapadão do Céu - GO, Brazil, in the 2013/2014 harvest. The results were obtained in a field of 91 ha of this crop, called precisionagriculture, and sown in the second harvest period. These results were compared to those of another field with similar area, named conventional agriculture. The costs were extrapolated to the total area of 3,500 ha of the farm. The variety cultivated was FiberMax 975 WS, which shows resistance by transgenic to some species of caterpillars, such as Heliothis virescens, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera frugiperda and Alabama argilacea. The sowing was carried out on 01/02/2013 using a John Deere 8430 tractor (Montenegro, Brazil) together with a 15-row John Deere CCS 2115 seeder (Horizontina, Brazil), with row spacing of 0.80 m and a population of 100,000 plants per hectare.
Several studies predict the significant impact of these changes on agricultural lands both in terms of production and in terms of farm income, pointing out that modernization processes are crucial to overcoming these difficulties [9–12]. In this scenario, precisionagriculture, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) techniques and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) appear as feasible options to help solve these issues. In fact, precisionagriculture, a farming management model based on observing, determining and responding to inter and intra-field productive variability enables the definition of a decision support system (DSS) for specific farm management with the goal of optimizing returns on inputs while preserving resources .
Currently, a subject that stands out in the media is global warming, therefore, it is necessary to have alternatives that minimize the effects of it in Brazilian agriculture, making it more sustainable and efficient. Use of new technologies as PrecisionAgriculture (PA), together with good cultivation practices and other technologies, has improved production systems, optimized resources and mitigated effects in the environment. However, there are few researchers who produce content on the topic. In PA there are several options for its development, one of which are Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or Drones. Based on the absence of information and bibliographies on this subject, the present study is important to assist the farmer with new technologies, such as the drone, which has shown itself as a promising tool in precisionagriculture, allowing the optimization of resources and producing more. Through this research it is possible to familiarize farmers about the concepts of PA and Drone, showing that they are beneficial tools for farmers, due to a precise systematization of agriculture, indicating a safer application of agricultural pesticides, and reducing their use.
The perennial nature of grapevines arguably makes PA easier than in broadacre annual crops such as wheat or barley and, because of this, it certainly appears feasible to delineate management zones using fewer data layers than would be considered necessary in grains (e.g. Figure 1). However, and in spite of the demonstrated profitability of PV, adoption rates remain low, with most adoption confined to wine companies or regions in which a leading viticulturist has taken on the role of ‘local champion’ for PV. The main reason for this has been the same dearth of consultant support to assist with data processing and spatial analysis as affects the grains industry (see above); along with a perception that the stability of vineyard zones over time means that less frequent data acquisition is required. Further, yield monitoring is perceived as expensive by comparison with remote sensing (~$30/ha) which can be purchased when required. A recent downturn in the wine industry, associated initially with drought and then more substantially, an oversupplied international market, has also conspired against PV adoption due to the tightening of budgets - a somewhat counter-intuitive response given the enhanced efficiency of resource use which PV promotes and the opportunities to be more profitable (PROFFITT et al., 2006; BRAMLEY, 2010). There have however, been some important recent advances in Precision Viticulture relating to selective harvesting (BRAMLEY et al., 2011c) which should promote more widespread adoption. Recent work on spatial variation in crop phenology, on-the-go sensing of fruit quality and viticultural experimentation (see below), may also assist.
The application of fertilizers is, without a doubt, one of the greatest costs involved in agricultural production, and therefore, determining the best possible cost-benefit ratio for this type of input is very important. In this respect, remote sensing has been shown to be a valuable source of information in soil fertility variability management, especially after the establishment of precisionagriculture.
To test variable rate application of inputs, especially for soil, several arrangements and procedures have been proposed and used as field experiments. In coffee, fertilizers are applied several times during the season and the effects will last for longer periods as compared to annual crops. Coffee is also grown in a two year cycle (RENA; MAESTRI, 1985). In years with low production, fertilizer rates are lower than in the years of high yield. To study the use of precisionagriculture strategies, the objective of this work was to develop and test a procedure of applying variable rates of fertilizers and evaluate yield response in coffee with regard to the application of phosphorus and potassium according to the requirements indicated by grid soil sampling.
was in contradiction with Corá et al. (2004), whostated that the range value can influence the quality of the kriging map, as it determines the number of values used for interpolation. Accordingly, for the estimates based on kriging interpolation, the highest ranges tend to be more reliable, resulting inmore realistic maps. In similar studies in the future, the distance ranges to be used in geostatistical packages to feed the precisionagriculture software should, in general, not be less than 47.0 m. However, in relation to the spatial dependence evaluation (SDE), according to the new suggestion proposed in this study, the properties were classified as: 1) very high: pH2 and Al2, 2) high: OM1, pH1, H+Al1, H+Al2 and Al1, and 3) average: #GY and OM2.
It was concluded that each model met the demands of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Agriculture as well as society is constantly changing to meet the needs of social, economic and environmental factors. Conven onal agriculture is mee ng the global demands of food, but this model faces serious environmental problems that ques on its sustainability. Precisionagriculture is a conven onal agriculture prac ced in a more ra onal way, with greater technological contribu on and, in turn, seeks to be the most appropriate model for the themes men oned: economic, social and environmental issues. However, it is only accessible to large agricultural producers, requiring poli cal support to be made accessible to small farmers. Organic agriculture has emerged as an alterna ve to conven onal agriculture, although its products have be er quality compared to conven onal agriculture, this model alone does not yet compete in produc on with conven onal agriculture, even in the context of local development is the one that has the greatest poten al.
ABSTRACT: Brazilian Cerrado is a perfect region to develop precisionagriculture. However, there is a lack of information about the state of the art of this new technique, already in use by some farmers in this region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to make an analysis of the adoption and use of this technology in the southwest region of the state of Goiás, with real information on the intensity and form of usage and limitations of its adoption. For this purpose, a questionnaire was given to the farmers who used some form of precisionagriculture, analyzing the problems encountered with the technology, sources of information and the difficulties encountered by them. It was used a non-probabilistic sampling method. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and the results presented as graphs. The technique of precisionagriculture in the analyzed region is in initial adoption phase. The most used technologies are soil sampling grid and distribution of fertilizer in variable rate. The use of sensors and precision irrigation technologies are not being adopted yet. The main obstacles are lack of specialized employees and high costs of equipment.
Precision farming or precisionagriculture [11-13] has been proposed for the purpose of saving energy, material, time and labour based on more accurate and precise control in agricultural operation for growing crops. The necessary amount of fertilisers and chemicals can be more timely and precisely applied just on the exact spot where those materials are just needed as compared to the existing operation. The operations can be done under automatic control by machine. The high technology system functions much better in huge scale farming. It is said that precision farming can be effectively introduced to a large scale of farming areas of more than 50 hectares. It seems almost impossible to introduce precision farming in Asian agriculture. But is this true? The author does not think so since, considering the situation human beings are facing, this farming method should be introduced for efficient food and energy production. Needless to say, it does not fit the individual farmer’s farming operations. However, sooner or later, any possibility must be considered in establishing a regional or global level farming for solving the issues of food, energy and environment towards the future. Asian agriculture is characterised by small-scale farming, rice-growing family labour forces, and so on. It is predicted by the author that rapid globalisation may not allow this type of farming. Even for the food and energy production, it will become more difficult to totally depend on the individual farmer’s production. It should be managed internationally or globally apart from individual farmer’s production. Considering the background being faced right now, global partnership is extremely needed for promoting the projects. The above-mentioned Techno Centre is also one of them. Precision farming can make it possible to manage the farm project at the national level with initial focus on food and energy production. Precision farming can be characterised by the following keywords: huge-scale farming, application of space technology such as GPS and GIS, autonomous guidance control of agricultural machinery, bio-technology and genetic engineering application for higher-yield production. Various engineers are required, e.g. mechanical, electric-electronic including tele-communication, chemical, civil, material science, agricultural, genetic and biological engineers. Areas of post-harvest technology, especially in fermentation, distillation and bio-refinery, will be really needed. Through the activities in research and development based on this organisation, the technology transfer and human resource development can be promoted including the training program and education for environmental preservation.
The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes dispropor- tionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat—instead of feeding it directly to humans—involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor coun- tries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health prob- lems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. Key words: diet, environment, health, industrial agriculture, sustainabil- ity, sustainable agriculture. Environ Health Perspect 110:445–456 (2002). [Online 20 March 2002] http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p445-456horrigan/abstract.html
The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop
Terrestrial agricultural activities strongly influence riverine nitrogen (N) dynamics, which is reflected in the d 15 N of riverine consumer tissues. However, processes within aquatic ecosystems also influence consumer tissue d 15 N. As aquatic processes become more important terrestrial inputs may become a weaker predictor of consumer tissue d 15 N. In a previous study, this terrestrial-consumer tissue d 15 N connection was very strong at river sites, but was disrupted by processes occurring in rivermouths (the ‘rivermouth effect’). This suggested that watershed indicators of N loading might be accurate in riverine settings, but could be inaccurate when considering N loading to the nearshore of large lakes and oceans. In this study, the rivermouth effect was examined on twenty-five sites spread across the Laurentian Great Lakes. Relationships between agriculture and consumer tissue d 15 N occurred in both upstream rivers and at the outlets where rivermouths connect to the
The studies selected in this Integrative Literature Review covered two categories, which were occupational risks and occupational diseases in agriculture, based on Brazilian publications, since the working conditions of national farmers and marked by the “high degree of unhealthiness to which workers are exposed, such as hand tools, venomous animals, unsafe attitudes due to lack of training and not using personal protective equipment”. (JESUS, 2009, p. 141).
As part of the Triple Helix system, the sphere of the Academy and R&D (education and science sector) in the region of Beira Interior has been provider of specialized knowledge on stone fruit. The Agriculture School of the Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco provides training in the agronomy areas. The University of Beira Interior is especially engaged within this market providing engineering or technical solutions. This sphere also include the CATAA and CBP. The main mission of CATAA is to promote research, develop and implement new technologies, encourage the modernization and diversification of products and manufacturing processes. CBP is a centre of research and experimental development. This sphere takes a leading role in the regional economic development, as recommended by the Triple Helix model.
The relation between agriculture and energy is very close. Agriculture itself is an energy user and energy supplier in the form of bio-energy. At present productivity and profitability of agriculture depend on energy consumption. For the growth and development, energy demand in agriculture can be divided into direct and indirect energy. Energy inputs are sun and support energy. Support direct energy is required for land preparation, irrigation, harvest, post harvest processing, transportation of agricultural inputs and outputs. Support indirect energy is used in the form of fertilizer and pesticides. Energy use depends on mechanization level, the quantity of active agricultural worker and cultivable land  .
25 The results in this paper are subject, however, to some limitations. In particular we do not take into account full adaptation of the EU agricultural sector to climate changes. We investigate the medium term effect of climate change on the EU agriculture. A long term adjustment may mitigate some of the effects and the sectoral and/or regional impacts maybe different than our results indicate. The climate change scenarios are introduced only for the European countries and crop yields are assumed to be unchanged in the non-EU countries. Finally, the use of stylized template supply modules in CAPRI which are structurally identical and express differences between regions solely by parameters alone might fall short of capturing the full regional diversity of farming systems in the EU and their response to climate change. However, the current structure of the approach gives a good balance between increased detail of represented regions and robustness of the model results for medium term horizon economic analysis of climate changes.
A number of international entities specializing in agriculture and food, especially FAO, have developed specific programs and strategies for combating hunger and malnutrition in different countries and areas of the world, (Cistelecan, 2002). The starting point was determined by the food requirements that must be urgently provided for the reminded regions. But, it appears that the food problem is not regarded in the same terms in all countries in the world, which causes that the default of two poles, diametrically opposed. Thus we have: