ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp is a pathogen responsible for severe foodborne infections, can be introduced into the fish productionchain through inadequate handling or hygiene or contact with contaminated water, and is not a biological contaminant originally reported in fish. Fish microbiological safety is a concern for consumers, industries and regulatory agencies worldwide, since fish, an important food category in the international trade and often exported to several countries, can act as a vehicle for Salmonella transmission throughout the productionchain. In addition, concerns regarding the misuse of antibiotics in aquaculture are also an issue, as a result of the increased isolation of resistant and multiresistant Salmonella serovars. In this review, we examined aspects associated with the microbiological risks of the presence of Salmonella spp. in fish and their implication in the aquaculture productionchain. In addition, incidence and antimicrobial resistance data are presented, as well as strategies for Salmonella prevention and control in fish.
The supply/productionchain can be understood as a network that performs the search of material, transforms these materials into intermediate and finished products, and then distributes them to customers. Supply chain is defined as a network of organizations connected downstream and upstream with relations of cause and effect processes and activities; value is attached to the products and services delivered to the consumer (LEE; BILLINGTON, 1993; CHRISTOPHER, 2003). When applying strategic alliances, each company contributes to its core competencies and through the alliance may reach better results than each member alone has to offer, and can still get results that none company alone is capable of achieving (TICHY et al., 1979; CHURCHILL; PETER, 2000). Supply chain networks involve several linked actions between market segments and governmental bodies, which can be considered similar to a social network, and it may be considered within the principles of SNA. Initially developed to describe social structures, SNA has its origins in the studies of patterns of communication, influence and interactions within social groups (SCOTT, 2000; RICHARDSON, 2009). Furthermore, a method of drawing on graph theory was developed for describing and analyzing the relationships amongst members of a group with explicit links and interactions (CARPENTER; WESTPHAL, 2001).
country’s economy, since the Livestock Branch represents 6.8% of Brazil’s GDP, as well as being a source of income for a large portion of producers, in addition to providing jobs and guaranteeing raw material for their derivatives (CEPEA; ESALQ-USP; CNA, 2019). Also is the productive profile of Goiás state, in which the agricultural activity has been highlighted, especially concerning economic growth in the last ten years. Based on this context, is the dairy productionchain in Bela Vista de Goiás municipality, object of study in this paper, which has an outstanding dairy production, where farmers are associated to Mixed Agricultural Cooperative of Bela Vista de Goiás (Cooperbelgo), installed in this municipality that composes the region of Estrada de Ferro.
the price transmission in the productionchain of cereals, and using the impulse-response analysis the exploration of the long-term dynamics of the chosen system. With regard to the complexity of the whole productionchain of the cereals, the analysis has been carried out in the part of the productionchain focusing on fattening of farm animals. For this reason, as the basic variables entering into two price transmission models being analyzed the following have been defined: prices of industrial producers of fodder mixtures in CZK/t (differentiated according to the farm animals categories to fodder mixtures for broilers in model 1 – PIPFMB - prices of industrial producers of fodder mixtures for broilers), for pigs in fattening above 65 kg in model 2 – PIPFMPF/price of industrial producers of fodder mixtures for pigs in fattening above 65 kg) and the price of agricultural producers of meat in CZK/t (differentiated according to the animal categories to the price of agricultural producers of a table chicken in model 1 – PAPCM /price of agricultural producers of chicken meat/ , slaughter pig in model 2 – PAPSP /price of agricultural producers of slaughter pig/). The source data with monthly periodicity have been drawn from the database of the Czech Statistical Office for the period of 1995 – 2007.
Abstract – The objective of this work was to standardize and validate an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-Elisa), as a low-cost tool, to monitor the presence of aflatoxin in common and blanched peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea) in the productionchain. The presence of aflatoxin B1, moisture content, and water activity were analyzed in 60 samples of the peanut cultivar Runner IAC 886, from the 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 harvests of the region of Alta Paulista, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The validation showed an adequate linearity (R 2 = 0.999), and limits of detection and quantification of 1.13 and 3.59 μg kg -1 , respectively. Recovery
When dealing with the epidemiology of Salmonella infections, determining how humans acquire the infection is essential (Dhillon et al., 2001). Therefore, when monitoring the health quality of poultry meat used for human consumption, it is important to identify which Salmonella serotypes are present in the productionchain. Aiming at developing a more robust assessment of intraspecific diversity within Salmonella species using genetic markers, some techniques based on PCR were devised (Tindall et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2009).
Value aggregation, creation of trademarks and ad- vertising of the product do not exist at the area and should become priorities for the local shrimp culture. Trademarks, for instance, identify products, simplify choices and reduce risks for the consumers. All pro- ducer interviewees said that their produced shrimp are only sold fresh, without any aggregated value. This limits their final price and does not support the grow- ing demand for different products and the implemen- tation of various health procedures required by several importer countries. For instance, shrimp classified as headless, wrapped and frozen would be sellable in only about 40% of the North American market (Ormond et al. 2004). Such setback pointing in the local produc- tive chain is also beginning to be solved by the Coper- camarão initiative.
O conceito de “information productionchain” complementaria o conceito de “regime de informação”, delimitando o domínio específico de sua operacionalização. Se bem a exposição de Braman da cadeia de informação varia, conforme a finalidade com que é incluída em seus trabalhos, porém certos momentos e componentes seriam constantes: a) criação de informação, entendendo como tal a criação do novo, ou a geração de valores informacionais a partir de fontes pré-existentes, textuais, factuais ou de dados – como as séries estatísticas; b) procedimentos de processamento de informação, diferenciando aqueles que se realizam através de algoritmos, usando linguagens matemáticas e computacionais e os processos cognitivos, que usam linguagem natural e códigos especializados; d) mobilização da informação, diferenciando o transporte (mobilização de mensagens em ações pontuais, incluem uma mensagem), da distribuição através de canais regulares (fluxos de informação); d) armazenagem e preservação da informação; formação e consolidação de memórias sociais e culturais; e) A destruição de informações, o que inclui informações sem inscrição, inscrições sem tratamento, documentos sem disseminação; inclui também a destruição de registros organizacionais ou do patrimônio natural e cultural das populações nativas e locais; f) A busca de informações, devendo diferenciar-se o acesso à infraestrutura de informação (acesso à Internet de Banda Larga, por exemplo), do acesso intelectual e pleno às próprias fontes e conteúdos.
Fresh-cut or minimally processed fruit and vegetables have strongly increased their market share all over the industrialized countries. For that reason this market is currently very competitive, and forces the specialized industry to develop improved sustainable techniques in order to satisfy new consumers’ requirements, and guarantee safety as well as nutritional and sensory quality. The most important goal for keeping overall quality of these commodities is the control of microbial spoilage flora improving safety. Every step in the productionchain will influence the microbial load. In this way, the implementation of a proper disinfection program should be the main concern. Washing and disinfection is the only step that reduces microbial load throughout the productionchain and chlorine is commonly used as an efficient sanitation agent, but the undesirable byproducts generated when it reacts with organic matter, force to find alternatives. Moreover, efficacy of chlorine is limited on some products. For that reason, several ecofriendly innovative techniques as alternative antimicrobial washing solutions (peroxyacetic acid, ClO 2 , acidified sodium chlorite, O 3 , electrolysed water, etc.), pre-treatment with UV-C radiation or packaging under high O 2 or non conventional gas mixtures (N 2 O, noble gases, etc) alone or combined, seem to be promising to preserve overall quality. However, industrial changes for replacing conventional with innovative techniques request a fine knowledge of the benefits and restrictions as well as practical outlook. This work review some recent results obtained with these emergent techniques on quality changes of fresh-cut horticultural products. Keywords: ecoinnovative techniques, minimal processing, noble gases, ozone, sanitizers, superatmospheric oxygen, UV-C
The general concept established at this meeting was the idea that food safety is a shared responsibility, which means it belongs to all of us. Among the biggest challenges facing food safety, some points were highlighted: transparency throughout the whole food productionchain, international norms and standards harmonization, ability to grow and deal with emerging risks. Among those risks, allergenic products, aluminum in additives, water footprint in the food production, food frauds, food supply chain management and validation were considered the most relevant ones (Global Food Safety Initiative, 2015b).
ABSTRACT: Milk is among the most important foods, being one of the main protein and nutrients source for human consumption. It is considered an essential food for human diet. In Brazil, the population expenses with this product are significant and range from 9.4% to 13.3% of family expenses with food. Rio Grande do Sul is the second state with the largest dairy production in Brazil, surpassed only by Minas Gerais, which is responsible for 26.8% of the national production. Milk production in Brazil and Rio Grande do Sul state shows a steady growth, despite great challenges faced to attend consumers’ demand. Milk quality is dependent on the efficiency of all veins in the productionchain, with points that should be optimized regarding the profile of different dairy from the Erechim - RS dairy basin, which require higher investments regarding product quality control and distribution.
origin, such as cattle, swine and poultry, which contribute heavily in the contamination of humans, with a subsequent issue for public health, even in developed countries which are also responsible for FBDs. According to Maldonado (2008), FBDs, especially those caused by Salmonella spp., currently represent one of the main concerns of health authorities due to the difficulty in controlling the productionchain and in accessing the number of people affected by the pathogen.
Although the seafood sampled from boats was ranked “Average” in only 0.4% of the cases, this initial link in the marine seafood productionchain is a critical point, in contrast to the results found by PEREIRA and TENUTA-FILHO (2005), who observed reduction of seafood quality throughout the productionchain, presenting the highest quality in boat seafood. Present research suggests the occurrence of inadequate practices on board, indicating a need to create and implement Good Onboard Practices, as used daily in the activities of properly operated fisheries (MACHADO et al., 2010).
This paper’s objective is to analyze the Brazilian aluminum productionchain. We define productionchain as the structured set of operations necessary to transform raw materials into a related group of finished products. The study of such a chain aims at increasing the competitiveness of its elements, focusing on their problems and devising solutions. The methodology adopted consisted in defining the basic production steps; visit plants and factories; interview executives; and analyze the wealth of data gathered. Some principles of productionchain dynamics are proposed. The aluminum industry offers today, in Brazil, acute problems, due to currency devaluation, cost and scarcity of electrical energy, invoicing taxes and lack of economies of scale, which threaten its survival.
ABSTRACT: Rice is the basis of diet for almost half of the world population, and its culture is one of the strategic agroindustrial production chains in the agribusiness environment, in both economic and social levels. Thus, the comparative analysis between the production chains of rice milled in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and Uruguay was mainly motivated by the interest in knowing the differences in the business environment and public policies that impact the competitiveness of this chain in both study regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the economic efficiency, competitiveness, and effects of public policies of the rice productionchain of milled rice in RS (Brazil) relative to Uruguay. The data collected in this study are from the 2011-2012 harvests and indicators were calculated by applying the concepts of the policy analysis matrix (PAM). Results showed that the chains in both study regions were competitive under the existing market and policy conditions, revealed comparative advantage, transferred a high load of resources to other sectors of the economy, and satisfactorily remuneration of the domestic production factors. However, the competitiveness and comparative advantage shown in this study were not due to the encouraging intervention policies, as both production systems pay high taxes.
production (OLIVARES-PALMA et al., 2013). Additionally, a higher gas production was observed at the 30% replacement, although this can be justified by the presence of lower levels of coproducts. For the sunflower and castor bean byproducts, the total gas production could have been influenced by the high amount of NDF, thereby increasing the production of gas. The data for the sunflower byproduct are consistent with those presented by Mizubuti et al. (2011), who analysed the byproducts of the biodiesel productionchain and reported a gas production of approximately 72 mL g DM -1 . In this study, a higher total gas was
The most common applications of RE are as follows: permanent mag- nets, electrical and electronic circuits, exhaust gas catalysts, laser equipment, mobile phones, dyes in glasses and ceramics, high-refraction lenses and metallic alloys. Although abundant, the RE element-bearing minerals are dificult to extract, which increases their cost of production.
To continue production development it is vital that the production resources are controlled allowing for buffers to be reduced and the variation ranges to be narrowed, in turn providing a more robust production system, i.e. insensitive to disturbances. Production system design encompasses the organisation of resources for efficient production (Tolio et al., 2010), i.e. production system design does neither entail product development nor process design. In all production it is essential to find balance between costs and quality (Söderberg, 1994). Overcapacity is a cost, which has to be harmonized with customer focus; for business-to-business manufacturing this often translates to delivery according to schedule. Systematic Production Analysis (SPA) is a comprehensive tool that investigates production costs coupled to available resources and production loss derived from scrap and downtimes (Jönsson et al., 2008a, 2008b). The purpose of SPA is to enable systematic production system development.
The same combined interpretation of Part III also allows for an interesting conclusion regarding the need to jointly value the three attributes. Chapter 12 includes a long discussion on the joint valuation of the attributes, namely due to the expected presence of very significant interaction between those attributes. However, what must be noted is that the joint valuation of attributes was already somewhat present – and most importantly in a spontaneous way – during focus groups discussions. Chapters 9 and 10 include the data showing that consumers soon showed preferences for bundles of these three attributes, namely because in their perceptions those attributes are associated in the production process. The spontaneous reactions even included the idea of value for money associated with these “attributes’ packages”, which is reflected in the existence of negative interactions between the attributes, as those estimated in chapter 12. For consumers adding up the attributes cannot imply a linear price increase due to the existence of substitution relationships between the attributes.