inevitably distort market forces and undermine inefficiency . Nevertheless, after an exhaustive comparison between the two models, he recognizes that the Unites States fell behind and conclude that any serious effort to address these problems would inevitably involve the introduction of social democratic elements into economic and social policy and may, over the long run, entail the build up of institutional arrangements that resemble, in some aspects, those of the social market economies . Considering only the United States and Sweden, theeconomy of the first is now less regulated by thestate than the Swedish economy, and its per capita income is higher. Thus, given the neoliberal hegemony up to 2008, one could conclude that the United States’ economy is more successful than the Swedish economy. That is not my conclusion. The United States is not a more developed society, progress or human development is not more advanced in this country than in Sweden, and, more broadly, not more advanced than inthe more developed countries of Europe. If we look at the American economy from a historical point of view, stateintervention was strong inthe past and today continues stronger than generally admitted. Inthe nineteenth century, the United States ’ growth was extraordinarily benefited by favorable material, social and political conditions, and therefore was probably the country that least made use of state support to the industrial revolution, but even then the state's role was decisive inthe protection of their industry; since the beginning of the twentieth century, the huge state expenditures supporting military technology were essential in maintaining the United States’ technological leadership. The protection of the manufacturing industry is a policy practically since the Independence; one of the founding fathers, Alexander Hamilton (1791), when secretary of the Treasury, classically demonstrated the need and the logic of the protection of the infant manufacturing industry. The import tariffs were extremely high until 1939. Only on the eve of World War II, when the American industry was already highly developed and the competition coming from Europe had collapsed, President Franklin D. Roosevelt drastically reduced import tariffs. That was not in conflict with the fact that, after the 1929 crisis, under the New Deal and the Fordist class coalition, the United States adopted a developmental policy, as did Western Europe inthe 30 Golden Years of Capitalism, with the difference that in Europe developmentalism was social democratic.
Kosovo has very limited programs of labor market intervention, with correspondingly limited budgets. It has a Centre for Professional Training providing professional training, an Employment Office proving services and assistance for those who are unemployed and in search of entering the labor market, and provides early pensions for two particular groups; former Kosovo Protecting Troops members and former employees of Trepca (Budget Law 2013). Understandably, Kosovo is unable to finance further such programs, given its economic instability and the situation discussed above. Moreover, Mr. A. Demi asserts that Kosovo has no economic foundation to finance the current social programs, let alone extend them – targeting his critique at the recent law that ensures pensions for war veterans and invalids. According to this law, all former members and contributors to the Kosovo Liberation Army who participated inthe war and who are currently unemployed are entitled to pensions provided by the government. The number of beneficiaries who will benefit from these pensions amount to as high as 50,000 people (Interview with A Demi). This law, in its current form, has been met by strong criticism by both domestic and international actors, including the International Monetary Fund, labeled as highly unfeasible and seriously risky to budgetary sustainability (Interviews with A. Demi; Loxha). It has also been subject to manipulations and abuse by individuals who, in their attempt to become eligible for the pension, have resigned from their workplaces inthe formal sector and have urged their employer to unregister them from the official payroll, while making themselves available to keep on working for informal wages, or have searched for new jobs inthe informal sector (interviews with Azemi; A. Demi; Merovci). Such experiences may stir up the assumption that under the current institutional capabilities for control, the introduction of other social programs, as for instance unemployment benefits, may be prone to similar backfiring effects.
D. Maria I eventually entered history as the Mad Queen. In 1785, however, she was still in full shape, defending with all her might the application of the colonial system. The famous decree was a response to the emerging development of some industrial plants in Brazil. When they substituted imports, those Brazilian plants harmed the industries of Portugal and the revenues of the Metropolitan government, which derived customs rights on the entrance in Brazil of textile products from England and from other countries. (Batista Jr., 2005, p.103) Theintervention of the Brazilian State on the economic domain has always been kept through the times, regardless of if we had an eminently agricultural or industrial economy, as demonstrated by Professor Alberto Venâncio Filho (1998), in his classical work called TheIntervention of theState on the economic domain. Unfortunately, the above-mentioned interventionism always had as its trademark, already since its historical roots, the supremacy of the private interests over the social and the public ones.
Classical economists such as Adam Smith viewed theStatein what might be considered today a minimalist fashion, attributing to it a select few roles, namely as Musgrave (1996) put it “the protection of society against foreign invasion and of each member against injustice from others” and, citing Smith, "erecting and maintaining those public institutions and those public works which, though they may be inthe highest degree advantageous to a great society are, however, of such a nature that the profits could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, and which it therefore cannot be expected that any individual or small number of individuals should erect”. Inthe belief that markets are perfectly capable of self-regulating and that economic agents act in a rational manner, Stateintervention beyond its reduced list of objectives would be an unjustified distortion of theeconomy. Musgrave continues: “The mercantilist model with its policy of intervention and enrichment of thestate was rejected. Focus shifted to the individual as the driving force in society and to the promotion of individual welfare. (…) Guided by the discipline of a competitive market, the invisible hand secures an efficient outcome, thereby reconciling self-interest with the common good.”
situations in this regard. Namely during the recession, immigrants from Cape Verde could rely on the support of the family or other informal networks as a source of protection against the risks and needs related with unemployment. They also provided help in job- finding. Despite their potentialities and benefices, the risks of entrapment into “social network closure” can be very stringent (Bourdieu, 1986). Therefore, for instance, when Cape Verdeans activate informal mechanisms of support to find work in a new occupation or location, the social (and territorial) location of the actors involved limits their chances (and choices). This means that, apart from other factors such as the situation inthe origin country, social networks can prevent immigrants’ decision to leave, while their integration inthe lower strata of the occupational structure is reinforced. As for the two other groups, for different reasons, their reliance on social networks in Portugal is generally weaker. Often, Ukrainians would need to send remittances to their families (e.g. women and children) in Ukraine, more than depending on the family for the provision of welfare in a situation of unemployment or economic distress. On the other hand, the political and economic instable circumstances in Ukraine throughout the first decades of the new millennium, and the awareness of the higher living costs and diminishing job opportunities in other EU countries made their decision to return unreasonable. This was not the case with Brazilians within the same period. For them, the effects of the dramatic recession in Portugal (e.g. high unemployment levels, lack of job opportunities, recalibration of welfare policies), alongside more favourable economic circumstances in Brazil (these would gradually start to slow down) stimulated the decision to voluntary return (Reyntjens, 2009). Due to the specific patterns of Brazilian immigration to Portugal, as a result of different immigration waves, the family or ethnic network as “shock absorbers” were not a collective, alternative strategy.
as Brazil, all means are coupled for the message to be captured and understood and the ultimate goal is accomplished. This communication strategy ensures a significant vaccination coverage and hence it in- creases the chances of a public policy fulfill its role. The communication plan for DUBDH proposed herein provides for the dissemination of ideas, ex- amples and practical cases inthe agenda format for articles in newspapers, television, radio and maga- zines. National States and UNESCO, in partnership with civil society, business sector and professional associations would have the role of involving both public and private communication companies in this current in favor of citizenship and a more socially fair and sustainable world.
According to the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping navigation across Russian Arctic territory should be carried out on ice class ships (at least Arc4 ice class on Russian classification). There are several recognized classification societies around the world; among them the best known are: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Bureau Veritas (BV), Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd (DNV GL), Lloyd's Register (LR), Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS). Matching between several classifications is given in . Correspondence of critical ice thickness to the Russian ice __________________________
This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large- scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies.
Shiga toxins (stx) 1 and 2, encoded by the genes stx1 and stx2, respectively, correspond to the major virulen- ce factor of STEC and are responsible for blocking pro- tein synthesis in eukaryotic cells (Gyles et al. 2010). The stx1 toxins have an amino acid sequence that is similar to that of the cytotoxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, though antigenically different (Beutin et al. 1997, Djordjevic et al. 2001). Epidemiological data indica- te that stx2 is more often associated with severe diseases and HUS development than stx1 (Orth et al. 2007, Kawa- no et al. 2008). Although the production of stx1 and/or stx2 and variants represents the main virulence factor of STEC, the ability of adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathogenicity factor. The eae gene, which encodes intimin, is a 94-kDa membrane protein involved in intestinal cell adhesion that triggers attaching and effa- cing injury (AE) (Jerse et al. 1990, McDaniel et al. 1995). Another important adhesin in STEC that do not encode the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE-negative) is the STEC autoagglutinating adhesin (SAA) responsible for the adhe- sion and colonization of the bovine and ovine intestinal epithelium (Jenkins et al. 2003, Zweifel et al. 2005, Kumar et al. 2012).
This paper supply subsidies for Quaternary geological reconstruction of the southeastern State of Santa Catarina coast in Brazil, being based on detailed geological mapping supported by a series of drilling data, which allowed to establish a stratigraphical hierarchy of the sedimentary deposits. Among the mapped geological units stand out the extensive Pleistocene shallow marine sandy sediments, which are commonly referred as a barrier island – lagoonal depositional system. A drilling campaign done inthe domain permitted the sampling of material for 14 C datings, and the obtained data confirmed some previously assumed ages. The sequence of events, that originated the Holocene deposits, has been also reconstructed through drilling and 14 C dating of the collected peat and shell samples. Finally, the main characteristics of the most promising mineral prospect of the area, represented by voluminous calcareous shell deposits associated with Holocene sediments, are also presented.
For data in table 2 we can see that the European area is a “magnet” to foreign labour force even of it is an intercommunity flow or an extra-community flow. Furthermore, we notice the influence of the economic and financial crisis that actually increased in 2008 the net migration rate face to 2007 and then because of the political and social tensions inthe European area made the indicator to plunge to just 0,88 in 2010. If we were to analyse the data state by state we will find another interesting aspect. Thus, even if the UE-28 is a “magnet”, there are states that inthe analysed period (2006-2012), actually throughout the entire period, have negative average net migration rates – Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Estonia, Bulgaria – and the registered levels are getting higher because of the crisis (Lithuania) or because of the adhesion process to the UE-28 (Romania, Bulgaria). Opposite to these economies, there are states like – Luxembourg, Belgium, Hungary, Cyprus, Great Britain – that present a positive average net migration rate throughout the analysed period. Lithuania is thestate that has the highest negative average net migration rate – is the most “unlike” state - and Luxembourg is thestate with the highest positive average net migration rate – the most “liked” state - inthe analysed period – but we do have to consider that both countries are relatively small – Luxembourg has approximately 650.000 citizens and Lithuania has less then 3.000.000 citizens and s o the results can be subject to distortions.
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government inthe function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government inthe context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
Our study has several limitations common to administrative databases. Residual confound- ing could account for some of the observed associations. However, this is minimized to the extent that we are using a good instrument for coiling. The F statistic in our analysis suggests a strong instrument. In addition, coding inaccuracies will undoubtedly occur and can affect our estimates. However, several reports have demonstrated that coding for aneurysm and cerebro- vascular disease has shown nearly perfect association with medical record review [19, 20]. Although SPARCS includes all hospitals from the entire New York State, the generalization of this analysis to the entire US population is uncertain. SPARCS does not provide any clinical information on the structure, size, or location of the aneurysms, which are important factors in cerebrovascular neurosurgery. However, the use of the instrumental variable analysis is attempting to control for unknown confounders such as these.
Universities act on an interesting market where competition is increasing year by year. We assist of several changes regarding the candidates’ options for higher education not necessarly from a domain to another, but from an university to another, even if it is located far away from the first one. In addition many ranking system classify faculties and Universities according to specific criteria which absolutely affects the near future of the institution (eg. Times Higher Education Supplement).
A specifi c characteristic of the Brazilian fi nancial system is the low de- gree of transmission of the monetary policy, which uses the basic inter- est rate to stabilize infl ation. This implies that the basic interest rate has limited power to affect the economic activity through the credit channel. Considering that the organization of the fi nancial system responds to par- ticularities of the banking sector, we investigate elements of market power and concentration which are compatible with the idea of low competition inthe Brazilian banking sector. Financial data from Central Bank of Brazil reveal that, in June 2012 and following periods, over 80% of the total de- posits were distributed among only fi ve fi nancial institutions. Even though most of the deposits are concentrated in such a small number of banks, this does not necessarily mean that there is no competition inthe fi nancial market. To analyze bank competition in this environment, one should ap- ply an unbiased method to investigate the banks’ market structure and fi nd out the degree of concentration within this market.
The aim of the article is to justify the priorities of thestate policy of unshadowing the national economyinthe system of basic characteristics of thestate economic security at the present stage of development. There made a conclusion about the perspectiveness of aligning the policy of economy unshadowing with forming a viable system of economic security of Ukraine, which allows to achieve a synergistic effect oriented both towards counteraction to the shadowing of economic relations and comprehensive enhancement of key parameters of thestate economic security, including through theeconomy unshadowing. Consequently, the strategic priorities are defined inthe following areas: (1) self-sufficiency of economic development and provision of the policy of economy unshadowing (forming the environment of perception of the shadow economy, resource support and an information and analytical system of economy unshadowing; introducing effective foreign technologies; increasing the efficiency inthe regulatory sphere); (2) stability of the economic system and high capacity of the policy of economy unshadowing (legalization of the national economyinthe branch-sectoral as well as spatial and structural aspects by structural elements of thestate security, inthe financial system and the internal market); (3) ability of theeconomy to develop and realize the potential of the policy of economy unshadowing (building the infrastructure; introducing «fuses» of control, human and intellectual, investment and innovation support of theeconomy unshadowing).
Micro extrusion is a new production method for metallic small items with two dimensions less than 1mm  by forming technology. Reducing sizes of manufactured objects to micro scale, some of process parameters, such as for example grain size or surface roughness remain unchanged, that cause appearing so- called size effect . Top layer texture depends on sort of surface treatment which has been subjected to adaptability or obtain the intended structure. It should be also keep in mind, that its quality is related to material grain size . Because of the fact, that the surface roughness is part size independent and does not decreases with miniaturization , numerical simulations processes should be adapted to the requirements of level micro. During the forming of small details by extruding, fundamental issue is to precise friction conditions between the material and the tool. Size effect should be considered.
The preparation of the casting process included heating the mould in 70°C, which caused water to evaporate. Next, the mould parts were joined together and filled with an aluminum alloy. After the alloy solidified, the mould was broken and the cast cooled (fig. 3).