Finally, there is a strand of models within monetary economics that studies how the addition of an intrinsic utility to money may help to reduce the set of equilibria. In overlapping generations models, the focus is on the elimination of monetary equilibria that exhibit in‡ationary paths (Brock and Scheinkman (1980), Scheinkman (1980)). In search models ofmoney, the objective is to characterize the set of …at money equilibria that are limits of commodity-money equilibria when the intrinsic utility ofmoney converges to zero (Zhou (2003), Wallace and Zhu (2004), Zhu (2003, 2005)). A result that comes out of this work is that if goods are perfectly divisible and the marginal utility is large at zero consumption, autarky is not the limit of any commodity money equilibria. This result critically depends on the assumption of a su¢ciently high probability that the economy reaches a state where money acquires an intrinsic utility. In contrast, our results on coordinationintheuseofmoney hold even if the probability that money ever acquires intrinsic utility is arbitrarily small and the probability it ever acquires intrinsic disutility is equal to one. Thus, coordinationintheuseofmoney is not simply the result of working backwards from a distant future where money is sure to acquire a positive intrinsic utility. What matters to determine whether agents will coordinate or not are the primitives ofthe environment, i.e., the gains from trade and the rate at which agents meet.
Development of information technologies and communication in a public sector have to pay more attention to the complexity in its implementation rather than focusing on best practice and strategies which are universal to prescribe how successfully applied Electronic Government program. As a result of advanced civilization for conducting residents ofthe state of being high-profile figures inthe service inthe era of democracy. Due to existence of interaction inthe form of consultations will find a pattern, approaches such as what is appropriate to the needs ofthe community in exercising the functions of participation to the state. Based on the results of research on public services inthe context of democratic consultation. Look about how the process of consultation with citizens. At the end result appears that the consultants who holds the project activities which implement electronic government that coupled with the community members who said that if the process of consultation having no democratic value. Certainly, it is negative inthe development of democracy inthe region licensing office, where community involvement not be used as reference to build an understanding together in achieving common interests in accordance with the concept of new public service. Criticism ofthe statement above , delivered by George (2002) that the failure ofthe process ofthe interaction between citizens with the government is located on the level of bureaucracy that is not acceptable to open direct communication. Given only communication with theuseof symbols and an intermediary. Statement above supported by Robbins (2005) that stiff of a bureaucracy that has become part the past, of communications for interaction are the dominant choice for inthe success of a form of service. All stiffness will perish along
The research model is designed to examine the impact of customers’ perception of e- commerce security, and national environmental factors on their acceptance of Internet banking in Malaysia and Singapore. Several models have been used to explain factors determining consumer acceptance of Internet banking (Straub et. al., 1997; Liao et. al., 1999; Sathye, 1999; Tan & Teo, 2000; Pavlou, 2003; Suh & Han, 2003; Brown et. al., 2003; Venkatesh et. al., 2003). For example: technology acceptance model (TAM) devices by Davis (1986) was used by Suh and Han (2003). According to Suh and Han (2003), one ofthe most widely used models for explaining the factors that affects user acceptance of information systems or information technology is TAM. Another model is Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1989) theory of reasoned action (TRA), which is based on Davis’s (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM). TRA model asserts that attitude towards a behavior is determined by relevant beliefs (Davis et. al., 1989). Other theories are the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) by Taylor and Todd (1995) and the diffusion of innovation theory, Rogers (1983). The decomposed TPB model, according to Tan and Teo (2000), uses constructs from the innovation literature such as relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control by decomposing them into more specific dimensions. While, Venkatesh et. al.’s (2003) unified theory of acceptance and useof technology (UTAUT) on the other hand posits four core determinants (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition) and four moderators (gender, age, experience and voluntariness ofuse) ofthe key relationships of intention and usage of information technology.
is the customer who gives the technical specification ofthe prod- uct and it is the customer who has to decide whether he can or cannot accept the price dictated by the manufacturer. Based on these restrictions, it is now the manufacturer who must decide whether he is able to execute the order (within the deadline ap- pointed and using the available facilities) and what will be the price ofthe product as dictated by the cost of production. Improv- ing the procedure of production costs estimation should improve the contract negotiations and make them more efficient. On the other hand, estimating the cost of production involves, among others, also the need to determine the type of material and treat- ment. The manufacturer can choose what materials he will use for the product and at what price, providing he can check which
When should EVA be suspected? One approach is to consider a positive family history of early onset of obesity, hypertension, T2D, and CVD, and to screen relatives. Another approach is simply to use clinical skills and look for general signs of early biological ageing (facial appearance, gait, skin turgor, etc.), as was tested in a Danish study of identical twins which found that older-looking twins (as judged by lay people provided with facial photos) displayed a higher risk-factor burden, shorter telomere length, and a worse prognosis during follow-up. 22 A limitation of this study was
Another challenge is multiple classii cations when the customer belongs to more than one category. h ere is the case of web mining.h e Internet is get- ting the primate as a new channel for the goods dis- tribution, product promotion, transaction manage- ment and coordinationof business processes and it becomes a valuable and suitable source of data about customers. More information on management can be seen in (Draker, 2003). However, multiple formats of data and distributive nature of knowledge on the Web are the challenge for collecting, revealing, organizing and knowledge management inthe way that is suitable for providing support to business decision making. More information on decision support system can be seen in (Kotsiantis, 2011).
We use data from the National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios – PNAD/IBGE) from 1995 to 2009, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 3 . The worker sample consists of men from 25 to 60 years old, with strictly positive principle job income and workweek. We split the sample into 1980 cells, defined by the survey year, worker age (in years) and education, grouped into four categories: zero to three; four to seven; eight to 11 and 12 or more years of study. To measure labor income we usethe logarithm of real hourly wages, at 2005 prices (lw) 4 , and our measures of inequality will be the variance of (log) wages, which is perfectly decomposable. Table 1 presents the basic descriptive statistics of this variable.
Abstract : Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The country’s system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence ofthe patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The country’s ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on theuseof these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives ofthe study were: to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH, to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare, to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial Gener al Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts, percentages, and measures of central tendency
technique was employed in sample selection. Inthe first stage, the three agricultural zones inthe state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. Inthe second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each ofthe agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While Inthe third stage two communities was randomly selected from each ofthe local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result ofthe objective ofthe study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves theuseof Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) ofthe responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) ofthe product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially inthe segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management ofthe Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island inthe area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance ofthe Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one ofthe forms ofthe sovereignty ofthe Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. Inthe Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people intheuseof resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures inthe area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
The increasing demand of coal for meeting the requirement ofthe country paved to exploit the coal by opencast mechanized mining at ever increasing stripping ratio. While shovel has been the most widely used equipment, increasing useof dragline is being made in view of high capacity and lower operating cost of a dragline. The replacement ofthe teeth in shovel and dragline has been a matter of serious concern for the mine operators due to its associated cost and the idling of these equipment. Every Ground Engaging Tool (GET) manufacturing company claims good life of teeth, but such data relates to ideal condition and generally far from the actual condition ofthe mine. In actual conditions the life of a tooth is much less than what the manufacturing companies claim. Bucket teeth require replacement under the following two conditions:- i) Breakage of tooth
I construct a model in which money and bond holdings are consistent with individual decisions and aggregate variables such as production and interest rates. The agents are inﬁnitely-lived, have constant-elasticity preferences, and receive a fraction of their income inmoney. Each agent solves a Baumol-Tobin money management problem. Markets are segmented because ﬁnancial frictions make agents trade bonds for money at diﬀerent times. Trading frequency, consumption, government decisions and prices are mutually consistent. An increase in inﬂation, for example, implies higher trading frequency, more bonds sold to account for seigniorage, and lower real balances.
A theory ofmoney needs a proper place for financial intermediaries. Intermediaries create money by taking deposits from savers and investing them in productive projects. Themoney multiplier depends on the size of intermediary balance sheets, and their ability to take risks. In downturns, as lending contracts and themoney multiplier shrinks, the value ofmoney rises. This leads to a Fisher disinflation that hurts borrow- ers and amplifies shocks. An accommodative monetary policy in downturns, focused on the assets held by constrained agents, can mitigate these destabilizing adverse feedback effects. We devote particular attention to interest rate cuts, and study the potential for such policies to create moral hazard.
Cultural tourism is the fastest growing segment ofthe tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increased specialization among tourists. This trend is evident inthe rise inthe volume of tourists who seek adventure, culture, history, archaeology and interaction with local people. The expectancy-disconfirmation theory provided a conceptual framework for this study. The expectancy-disconfirmation theory holds that consumers first form expectations of products or service performance prior to purchasing or use. Subsequently, purchasing and use convey to the consumer beliefs about the actual or perceived performance ofthe product(s) or service(s). The consumer then compares the perceived performance to prior expectations.
Nowadays, magnesium alloys are used for casting into sand moulds of huge dimensional castings, high-pressure castings and precise casings. In castings of magnesium alloys defects or inconsistencies often appear (like casting misrun, porosities and cracks) particularly inthe huge dimensional castings. Such defects are mended with theuseof padding and welding. The welding techniques can be applied by using weld material consisting of magnesium alloy, as well as for regeneration of alloys after excessive wear. Nevertheless, the number ofthe repaired castings, which were permitted for use, is not satisfactory for a profitable production. The main reasons for wear are the cracks appearing during welding in brittleness high-temperature range.
manufacturing can be exemplified make instant noodles for 5 people inthe restaurant, but chef only cook once and split the 5 then the waiter gives the customer. Everyone has the desire to taste like spicy, salty, sweet it is inthe table provided the spice seasoning. So here chef do cook only once even though tastes different flavor. Or the other exemplified usethe concept of lean manufacturing is, if the someone want to buy and pant inthe supermarket for their necessary. Only pants so it’s very waste for their, from time, fuel, pay parking place, cost, reduce energy. If their inthe supermarket. They should buy other necessary such as clothes, jacket, sock foot, style t shirt, neck. And other exemplified from lean concept like is if there’s parents have four daughter want to study inthe same town. The parent should rent home for their daughter better then their daughter rent room inthe boarding house. So it’s reduce finance to pay a room. And also the other benefit, if the parent want to visit their daughter can meet once time in one place without wasting time. So they can keep each other to study, until the can achievement target to be bachelor. For seeking the concept lean manufacturing some expert view from dimension same thing but there’re different main point such as:
The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with theuseofthe FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage ofthe electric arc I = 100 A, speed ofthe electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours inthe temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) ofthe tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time ofthe load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
Rebonding of sand mix is a common practice in foundry engineering. The sand mix contains used sand whose grains are already coated with the rebonding material. Rebonding ofthe used sand [3,4] involves disintegration of grain agglomerates and uniform distribution ofthe rebodning agent inthe entire volume ofthe sand mix batch, coating of sand grains with the rebonding agent and activation of thus formed coating. Turbine (rotor) mixers are now in widespread use as they feature high efficiency and short mixing cycles.
Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors ofthe studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making useof a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.