Economicefficiency is the measure of success ofproduction based on comparison of produced effects and consumed elements ofproduction. Using market prices, coefficient ofeconomicefficiencyintreatments T1 and T2 was above 1, with tendency of significant growth, while treatments T3 and T4 were uneconomi- cal. The values ofeconomic indicators - productivity, economicefficiency and profitability, show that appleproduction through treatment T2 was economically the most efficient during the three-year period where the economy coefficient ranged from 1.12 to 3.37. The eco- logical benefit compensates lower economicefficiencyof treatment T1 while the treatment T2 was more eco- nomically efficient, but because of the bad influence on biodiversity, it is not allowed in integrated protection. Fruit growing, as labor, and capital-intensive branch of plant production, takes place under the influence of biological, ecological, technological and organizational- economic factors and is exposed to numerous risks. The economicefficiency must respect and follow the trends and new regulations on the environment and bio- diversity. Development ofappleproductionin the future will depend on the application of modern technology, business networking of producers in particular for more efficient market investments, establishment of adequate market infrastructure and marketing activities in order to increase competitiveness in the appleproduction.
This study aims at analyzing the difference in the level ofeconomic development between China’s counties from the two perspectives of industrial policy and production eficiency. Based on panel data of 1830 Chinese counties, this study employs the new classical economic growth theory framework to analyze the counties’ economic growth by the perpetual inventory method, Malmquist index, among others. The results show that the economy of the counties exhibits δ convergence since 2004, and the absolute differences in the different counties are expanding. Industrial policy ensures the additional deepening of the level of capital in the county. Additionally, a substantial difference was observed between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, whereby the total factor productivity and the technical eficiency are on the rise, resulting in the phenomenon of dual paths of technological progress. In summary, the capital deepening difference between the sectors, production eficiency, and dual paths of technological progress owing to the counties’ industrial policy are the basic reasons for the regional differences in the level ofeconomic development in China. Key words: county economy, δ convergence, industrial policy, dual paths of tech- nological progress
Abstract: Tillage practices have often been considered as limited factor to crop productionin heavy clay soil. Experiments were conducted for two seasons (1998 and 1999) to investigate the effects of six tillage methods on sorghum and maize establishment and yield, weeds control and some soil physical properties. The technical performance of chisel plow and disc harrow was also investigated. Tillage methods comprehend chisel plow, disc harrow, disc plow and minimum tillage. Minimum tillage was significantly higher in all weed parameters compared to other methods. No significant differences were observed for crop establishment, plant population, total dry biomass, thousand seed weight and grain yield for both crops. Increasing the depth of chiseling and harrowing from 10 cm to 20 cm significantly (P<0.01) increased draft and drawbar power. Travel reduction under harrowing to 20 cm resulted in highly significant differences (P 0.01) compared to other treatments. The effective field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption rates of chisel and harrowing at different depths of operation showed no significant differences. However, minimum tillage (ridging only) was the lease in fuel consumption and cost, 3.5 l ha-1 and 2 US$ ha-1, respectively. The above findings indicate that although all tillage methods gave fairly similar results in all tested parameters, minimum tillage could be recommended and adopted for sorghum and maize productionin Gezira Vertisols as it was less expensive implement.
It is well known that substrate is one of the most im- portant contamination sources for green mold disease, es- pecially if it has a high level of carbohydrates (Fletcher et al., 1986). Different species of Trichoderma can contami- nate the substrates; this may be due to the use ofdifferent substrates, the origin, and manufacturers (Komon-Zela- zowska et al., 2007). Contamination is the result of the inoculum potential plus the ability to rapidly grow in the substrate. The treatmentsof the substrates are generally used to affect the inoculum potential with the objective of eliminating all the spores of Trichoderma spp present in the substrate, but they do not deal with the colonization ability if a new inoculum is introduced after heat treatment. Ar- rival of inoculum during spawning is frequent, and in a sub- strate without competitors, this inoculum may develop rap- idly. It is very common for South American mushroom growers to spawn substrate with their hand, without any mechanized help and in absence of care to avoid contami- nation. Thus, many of the contaminations that bags suffer with Trichoderma sp could occur during spawn phase. To learn more about the conditions that promote Trichoderma sp growth on lignocellulose substrates during spawning phase we designed a number of experiments in which sub- strates were treated with different methods commonly used to eliminate contaminations and then were inoculated with Trichoderma sp previous to the inoculation with the mush- room spawn. To standardize the experiment, we firstly de- signed a method to inoculate the substrates with a spray of a suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp. We used two mushroom species: P. ostreatus, widely worldwide culti- vated (Lechner and Albertó, 2011) and Gymnopilus pampeanus a species which, at present, is being studied for mushroom production (Colavolpe and Albertó, 2012, 2014). The latter can easily grow on sawdust of Populus and Eucalyptus but not on wheat straw. In our first experi- ment, results showed that sterilized substrates favor Trichoderma sp growth (+). This result is in agreement with previous works (Velázquez-Cedeño et al., 2004; Ve- lázquez-Cedeño et al., 2006). It is really interesting to ob- serve that T treatment on NS did not produce the growth of
lignin, hemi cellulose and cellulose and are thus sometimes called lignocelluloses materials. One of the primary functions of lignin is to provide structural support for the plant. Thus, in general, trees have higher lignin contents then grasses. Unfortunately, lignin which contains no sugars encloses the cellulose and hemi-cellulose molecules, making them difficult to reach. Cellulose molecules consist of long chains of glucose molecules as do starch molecules, but have a different structural configuration. These structural characteristics plus the encapsulation by lignin makes cellulosic materials more difficult to hydrolyse than starchy materials. Hemi cellulose is also comprised of long chains of sugar molecules; but contains, in addition to glucose (a 6-carbon or hexose sugar), contains pentose (5-carbon sugars). To complicate matters, the exact sugar composition of hemi cellulose can vary depending on the type of plant. Since 5-carbon sugars comprise a high percentage of the available sugars, the ability torecover and ferment them into ethanol is important for the efficiency and economics ofthe process. 2.2 Sugarcane bagasse:
Ozone application in wastewater treatment is a promising technology and its efficiency depends on optimisation of several operating conditions: (i) ozone distribution in the liquid phase using specially designed diffuser systems; (ii) ozone concentration in the gaseous phase (O 2 /O 3 ); (iii) nominal ozone dosage, and (iv) contact time. The optimal conditions for ozone applications can be achieved in practice by means of an automated system using devices that permit maintaining rigid control of the residual ozone leaving the effluent. This experimental approach provides an optimum balan- ce between the ozone production rate and the costs associated with the total energy dispensed in the whole process. As a consequence, it is hoped that ozone losses may be considerably minimised, thus making Ozone Technology very attractive from an economic point of view for several different applications.
The estimated stochastic frontier function shows that all the coefficients had the expected sign, indicating that an increase in these variables will lead to an increase of the output. It is also evident from the analysis that the estimate of gama (ϒ) is large and significantly different from zero, indicating that a good fit and the correctness of the specified distributional assumption. Moreover, the estimate of gama, which is the ratio of the variance output was 0.8756. This means that more than 87% of the variations in output among the cowpea farmers are due to differences in technical efficiency. The variable farm size had a coefficient of 0.6651 and is statistically significant at 1% level, meaning that a 1% increase in the use of land will increase output by about 6.6 %.similarly, the variable family labour, fertilizer and chemicals are statistically significant at 5% level. This observation is in line with a priori expectation and implies that the output of the farmers in the study area would be expected to increase with the increasing use of such production inputs. Amaza et al. (2005), and Ebong (2005) also reported a positive and significant relationship between these variables and technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS) which is the summation of all the estimated elasticities ofproduction was 0.9904 and showed decreasing return to scale.
Groen et al. (1998) developed a deterministic model for the economic evaluation of broiler production and the derivation ofeconomic values in broiler breeding. Four production stages were distinguished in their model: multiplier breeder, hatchery, commercial grower, and processor. Faridi et al. (2011) tested three Narushin-Takma (NT) models for their ability to describe different curves obtained from broiler breeder flocks, whereas Yassin et al. (2012) developed a management information system to evaluate the tactical management of a breeder flock using individual farm analysis with a deterministic simulation model (IFAS). Despite the considerable difficulty of obtaining information from the genetic companies and dealing with a great number of variables, Yassin et al. (2012), Faridi et al. (2011), and Groen et al. (1998) were able to evaluate some data obtained from industry and found consistent results.
ABSTRACT - This study aimed to determine the doses of maximum agronomic and economicefficiency as a function ofdifferent amounts of roostertree [Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.] biomass added to the soil, that results in the maximum yield of green grains of cowpea in the semi-arid of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted at the “Rafael Fernandes” Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Alagoinha, RN, from August to November 2013. In the experiment was used a randomized completely block design with 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of 20, 35, 50, and 65 t ha - 1
De fapt, în ansamblu, corela ţia dintre eforturi şi efecte din punct de vedere : cantitativ se exprim ă prin indicatori de eficien ţă care de regulă îmbracă forma unui raport matematic. Dat fiind caracterul s ău complex, eficien ţa economică a investiţiilor nu poate fi exprimat printr-un singur indicator. Este necesar s ă se folosească un sistem de indicatori de eficien ţă pentru a eviden ţia toate corelaţiile posibile. Calculat pe baza uneia sau a dou ă caracteristici ale mijlocului fix care realizeaz ă eficienţa economic ă, un anumit indicator va reflecta doar o parte a eficien ţei economice a investi ţiei. Oricât ar fi de explicit şi de condensat, un indicator nu poate cuprinde sau reflecta întreaga eficien ţă economică a investi ţiilor, aceasta datorită caracterului complex al eficien ţei. Desigur, calcularea tuturor rezultatelor unei investi ţii şi compararea lor cu eforturile necesare pentru
Табела 1. Резултати поређења потреба за заштитом од УВ зра че ња на основу графикона с потребама према прогнозама Table 1. Results of the comparison of the need for UV radiation pro tection based on graphical presentation and the need based on forecasts
DaMatta (2007) observed that the reduction inproduction is associated to a decline in photosynthesis rate. This decline, mostly, is induced by low water availability in the soil, either by a direct dehydration effect on the photosynthesis apparatus or by an indirect effect through stomata closure, restricting CO 2 absorption. It can be observed in Figure 4 that photosynthesis rate in the leaves of T5 and T2 plants present smaller values than the other treatments, mainly in the fruit set phase. T3 showed lower photosynthesis rate in the fruit expansion phase. When verifying yield in T5, T2 and T3 significant reductions were noticed, which can be explained by low photosynthesis rate, according to DaMatta (2007).
On the basis of conducted analysis of studies results was affirmed, that rotate electromagnetic field generated by induction coil fed with frequency of supply voltage larger than power network, influences on liquid metal in time of its solidification in mould, guarantees refinement of structure of pure Al without necessity of application of inoculants sort Ti and B. This method of inoculation is important, because Ti and B decrease the degree of purity and electrical conductivity of pure aluminium. Moreover Ti and B are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots. This method of inoculation was been possible to apply in conditions of continuous casting because allows on producing of ingots from aluminium about purity 99,5% with structure without columnar crystals, which are unfavourable from point of view of usable properties.
ABSTRACT: Milk is among the most important foods, being one of the main protein and nutrients source for human consumption. It is considered an essential food for human diet. In Brazil, the population expenses with this product are significant and range from 9.4% to 13.3% of family expenses with food. Rio Grande do Sul is the second state with the largest dairy productionin Brazil, surpassed only by Minas Gerais, which is responsible for 26.8% of the national production. Milk productionin Brazil and Rio Grande do Sul state shows a steady growth, despite great challenges faced to attend consumers’ demand. Milk quality is dependent on the efficiencyof all veins in the production chain, with points that should be optimized regarding the profile ofdifferent dairy from the Erechim - RS dairy basin, which require higher investments regarding product quality control and distribution.
treatment option is very limited. Secondly, the reviewed economic evaluations used different comparators which make comparisons between treatments options difficult. Thirdly, effect measures employed in the economic evaluations varied and were sometimes difficult to interpret. While there are different rules of thumb to interpret or classify incremental cost per QALY ratios, there are no useful threshold values for incremental costs per unit of other effect measures such as avoided parasuicide events or recovered patients. Fourthly, even if studies apparently employed identical effect measures they turned out to differ substantially when regarded more carefully: The six studies that employed avoided parasuicide events for measuring effects used three different definitions for this effect measure. Moreover, of the six studies that employed QALY based on the EQ-5D, three studies did not apply the EQ-5D in a direct patient interview but used a mapping algorithm to transform scores from other instruments into EQ-5D values. Yet, the validity of mapping algorithms is inferior compared to the direct application of the EQ-5D . Addition- ally, the validity of the employed mapping algorithm was further limited as it was neither developed in a BPD population nor based on a BPD-specific instrument . Fifthly, it is arguable whether the EQ-5D is valid in BPD patients. Van Asselt et al  found that ICER calculated based on recovered patients (defined by BPDSI score) and QALY (based on the EQ-5D index) led to contradictory results. This means that the improvement of symptoms of BPD as measured by the validated BPDSI  had no positive effect on HRQL as measured by the EQ-5D. In contrast, Soeteman et al found in their cost-effectiveness analysis of psychotherapy for cluster B personality disorders –which incor- porated a great proportion of BPD patients (78%)- that the EQ-5D is sensitive to changes in the health status of cluster B patients . Based on this one may assume that the EQ-5D is applicable in BPD population. Nevertheless, a validation study is needed which assesses validity, reliability and responsiveness of the EQ-5D in this population to prove the psychometric properties in a formal way.
Although the analysis outlined in section 2 provides us with important hypotheses for our analysis, we can also develop the model by incorporating adjustment costs for environmental regulation policies in order to analyze the consequences on the the environmental Kuznets curve’s dynamics. This is an important advance once we better describe the choice of regulation policies given an optimal path. Also, as is made clear by the evidence presented in Grossman and Krueger (1995), it is probable that those countries that have reached the ”end” of the environmental Kuznets curve will once again manifest environmental misuse trends as per capita income increases. In other words, the relation between the environment and growth seems to display cyclical behavior in the long run.
decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division of the entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on the whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement of the figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (indifferent curves of the body), through which the aesthetic sides of the structures were emphasized. Monumental characters of the structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale of the monument, the height of the walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics of the interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills of the artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
Zimmerman (1999) in his article titled ―Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Benefits, and the Mobile fra mework‖ defined mobile computing as ―the use of computing devices, which usually interact in some way with a centralised information system while away from the normal fixed workplace‖. He went on to say that, Mobile computing technology enables the mobile person to create, access, process, store and communicate information without being constrained to a single location. It is on the above basis that this researcher views mobile computing as embracing a host of portable technologies the can access internet using wireless fidelity (WIFI). These range from notebook computers to tablets, to smartphones and e-book readers. Such devices have brought about Mobile learning (m-Learning) in Zimbabwe Polytechnics, enabling staff and students to share academic resources, be able to research and develop applications from wherever they are. Zimmerman (1999) went on to identify mobile computing hardware, software and communications in use then. He identified hardware as palmtops, clamshells, handheld Pen Keys, pen slates, and laptops. The characteristics of such devices in terms of screen size was small, processing capability was limited and supported a few mobile applications. Over the years mobile devices have improved in such characteristics to make mobile computing easy, fast and user friendly. Great improvements also came with the associated systems software, with the modern devices now running on Android, Symbian and windows 8 mobile, as compared to then when MS DOS, Windows 3.1, Pen DOS were used. In communications Zimmerman talked of internet speeds in kilobytes per second (Kbps), while today’s communications devices have speeds of gigabytes per second (Gbps
Abstract: Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT) to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as part of a comprehensive EconomicEfficiency Analysis (EEA) of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) based on EconomicEfficiency Analysis (EEA) was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach). The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV), even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing countries which can not simply be resolved by the introduction of IT projects, but rather require more comprehensive solutions.