Phytochemical analysis of three Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae) revealed presence of phenols and phenolic compounds, acicubin, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid and lignins, leucoanthocyanis, catechol, tannins, quinone, naptho-quinones and coumarin are absence in all the species. The chemical compounds like syringin glycosides, saponin are doubtful in these species.
Some ofthe interesting studies included in the volume are: Potential Beneficial Effects of Dietary Plant Lectins on Health; Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Plants as Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Multipotent Antioxidants from Herbal Drugs to Combat Alzheimer’s Disease; The Role of Natural Products in the Search for a P2X7R Antagonist; Modulation of Death Receptor Mediated Apoptosis by Natural Products; An Overview of Salicornia Genus; A Detail Review on Euphorbia tirucalli; Micropropagation and in vitro Culture of Pyrethrum; Morpho-Anatomy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Anticancer Spike-Mosses; Biological and Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Spices; Protective Effect of Marine Natural Products Against Oxidative Stress Related Disorders; Wound Healing and Ficus arnottiana Miq.; An Overview Description of Two Kalanchoe Species: K. pinnata and K. brasiliensis; A Hidden Source of Natural Products: Endophytic Bacteria; Pterocarpus santalinus: A Wonder Medicinal Plant for Next Generation; Zanthoxylum alatum: A Miraculous Species fromGenus Zanthoxylum; Withania somnifera: An Exhaustive Review on Chemical Profile of Plant of Enormous Medicinal Properties; Natural Products Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens; Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba Oil (Copaifera sp.) and its Compounds; Potential of Plants with Antioxidant Activity for Management of Ischemic Stroke; Morphological, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Lippia nodiflora (L); Compendium of Ficus benjamina Linn.
C. ferrea is a leguminous tree widely distributed in northern and northeastern Brazil, where it is commonly known as “Juca” or “Pau-Ferro”. The aqueous extract of fruits from this specie is used in the treatment of diabetes and coughs and also exhibits antifungal, antiulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. The antitumor effects promoted by the fruit of C. ferrea were tested in vitro by activation ofthe Epstein-Barr-Early Antigen Virus (EBV-EA), which causes mononucleosis and other diseases, such as malignancy. The active constituents were identified as gallic acid (24) and methyl gallate (25, Figure 2). A strong inhibition was reported for 25, which completely prevented the activation of EBV-EA to a concentration of 22 ng/mL . Antiulcer and toxic effects of stem dry extract of C. ferrea were also evaluated. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of 400 mg/Kg ofthe extract in rats resulted in significant reduction of ulcer index in 50 and 29%, respectively. This effect was pointed as a consequence of inhibition of gastric secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat. Moreover, the negative results on analgesia, sleeping time and spontaneous motor activity tests, were indicative of absence of centrally acting components related to ulcer action. Considering the cicatrizant properties of tannins and that phytochemicalstudies revealed 4.7% of saponins and 9.2% of tannins present in composition ofthe stem extract of C. ferrea, these classes of metabolites were considered as the probably acting antiulcer components [32,33].
triterpenes, and Celastraceae family showing which of these compounds are chemotaxonomic markers of this family. The present and previously phytochemical investigation showed that M. gonoclada is a rich source of pentacyclic triterpenes. The ethyl acetate extract from branches and the ethanol extract obtained from heartwood ofthe roots showed substantial antimicrobial activity against bacterial diarrheagenic agents. These results provide a scientific base for the use of species of Maytenus genus as antidiarrheal agents. The search for molecules with antiviral activity in order to find therapeutical antiviral drugs is of great importance. Considering dengue viruses, no drugs or vaccines are available, and the lupeol demonstrated to be a good candidate for this purpose since it was active against DENV-2. Further experiments will be done in order to elucidate the antiviral mechanism of this molecule as well as to search for antiviral activity against other DENV serotypes. This is the first report on the activity of lupeol against dengue viruses.
Both 2n = 48 and AN = 48 seem to be the plesio- morphic chromosomal state. This means that cytotype a should derive from cytotype b, thus leading to two hy- pothesis: either the pericentric inversion is a recent karyoevolutionary process, since cytotype b might corre- spond to a few individuals in the population that have re- tained the ancestral chromosomal state, or cytotype a and cytotype b may correspond to two cryptic species (same morphology and geographic distribution, but genetically distinct). To test the first hypothesis, additional sampling (including other sites in the Amazon) is necessary to check if cytotype a is not yet fixed in the whole population. To test the second hypothesis, molecular biology or other ge- netic tools must be employed in order to look for other differences. Except for Bairdiella chrysoura (Gregory et al., 1980; Le Grande and Fitzsimons, 1988) and M. furnieri (Brum et al., 1996), different karyotypic formulae in the same nominal species is an uncommon feature in the Sciaenidae family.
Many plants belonging to the ginger familyZingiberaceae have a history of medicinal use in systems of traditional medicine. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) had been the subject of substantial pharmacological and clinical investigations over the last three decades. Ginger, the rhizome of Z. officinale, is one ofthe most widely used species ofthe ginger family and is a common condiment for various foods and beverages. It has a long history of medicinal use dating back to 2,500 years in China and India for conditions such as headaches, nausea, rheumatism, and colds. Ginger is native to Southern Asia, but it is now extensively cultivated in Jamaica, Nigeria, China, India, Fiji, Sierra Leone and Australia (Shipra et al., 2012; Toader, 2014). Turmeric on the other hand, is an Indian spice derived fromthe rhizomes ofthe plant and has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions (Jurenka, 2009). Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one ofthe key ingredients in many Asian dishes. Indian traditional medicine, called Ayurveda, has recommended turmeric in food for its potential medicinal value, which is a topic of active research (Jurenka, 2009).
Plants ofthe Drosera genus bear leaves with pin-shaped tentacles covered at the tip with glistering drops of mucilage that resemble drops of morning dew and to which they owe their scientific name (from Greek droseros, dewy) and their common name of sundew (Crowder et al., 1990). Sundews are short-lived perennial (or rarely annual) herbaceous plants which in most cases form prostrate or upright rosettes. In Australia however, many have long aerial stems, a few are bushy and up to 1 m tall, while others have scrambling stems up to 1.5 m long. The mature leaves vary in shape according to species but all are characterized by the above mentioned glandular tentacles that cover the upper part of their laminae. In most parts ofthe world the plants are confined to wet or damp sites, but in Australia many live in seasonally dry sites and perennate as tubers (Crowder et al., 1990). Most species are rather strongly light demanding, but some species with particularly large leaves occur in eucalypt and rain forest in southern Australia and northern Queensland (Australia), respectively (Lavarack, 1979). Many species of sundews are self-fertile and flowers will often self-pollinate upon closing but they also show varying degrees of vegetative reproduction. The seeds of most species germinate in response to moisture and light, while seeds ofthe tuberous species require a hot, dry summer period followed by a cool, moist winter to germinate.
The plant Bauhinia monandra is a leguminous tree with large leaves and pink flowers with red dots (Agbugui et al., 2010), commonly used in ornamental gardens (Anhwang et al., 2005), as nutritional source of vitamin A (Balogun & Fetuga, 1985) and in application to forage (Ilkiu-Borges & Mendonça, 2009). This plant is in general found in West Africa and India (Agbugui et al., 2010; Anhwang et al., 2005), but it also can be found in South America, especially in Brazil where it is indicated among other uses as a natural antidiabetic medicine (Menezes et al., 2007; Macêdo et al., 2008). According to studies disclosed in the literature, the utilization of Bauhinia monandra as well as several other species of this genus (Silva & Cechinel-Filho, 2002) as a hypoglycemic agent was possible because ofthe presence of flavonoids, such as a glycones or glycosides, which have been isolated from Bauhinia species (Cechinel-Filho, 2009; Menezes et al., 2007). The plant hypoglycemic activity of this genus has already been reported over 80 years ago. However, only recently have studies linking the decreasing blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats administered orally with one pure chemical constituent (kaempferitrin)
Inflammatory and bronchial conditions may arise from metabolic processes caused by certain biological molecules. Arachidonic acid metabolism that involves oxidation processes leads to the production of pro-inflammatory mediators which in turn produces leukotrienes. Initiated biological receptors present in the inflammatory cells caused by leukotrienes may induce apparent allergic reactions and bronchial dysfunction. These reactions produced by leukotrienes are catalyzed by lipoxygenase enzymes such as 5, 12 and 15 – Lipoxygenases. These enzymes are found in different organ tissues such as liver, kidney and adipose tissues. Inhibition of lipooxygenase enzymes may prevent such inflammatory conditions . It has been presented by several studies that the 15-lipoxygenase from soybean can be utilized as an in vitro assay model for lipoxygenase inhibition by novel agents synthesized or extracted from natural sources such as medicinal plants. Plants fromthegenus Clerodendrum contain phytochemical compounds such as flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenes and steroids which possess pharmacological properties like anti- inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic. A research study conducted by Srisook et al., 2015 on Clerodendrum inerme proved that its extracts from its leaves have anti-inflammatory specifically its ethyl acetate semi-crude extract . An endemic plant species ofthegenus Clerodendrum in the Philippines is Clerodendrum quadriloculare locally known as Bagawak or Uak-uak and belongs to thefamily Lamiaceae. Phytosterol metabolites such as clerosterols were isolated by Macabeo et al. in 2008 on C. quadriloculare leaves. A recent study
The Annonaceae family consists of approximately 135 genus and 2500 species distributed by tropical and subtropical regions ofthe world. In Brazil, the Annonaceae family comprises 26 genus, among these we find thegenus Anaxagorea, with about 26 species distributed in Central America and South America. Among this species, Anaxagorea dolichocarpa Sprague & Sandwith is the Neotropical Annonaceae most common and well distributed. This work describes the results ofphytochemical study of Anaxagorea dolichocarpa Sprague & Sandwith. The plant material was subjected to extraction processes, and partition chromatography for isolation of chemical constituents. The chemical structures was determined by spectroscopic methods, such as: Infrared, 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, mass spectrometry and comparisons with literature. Ofthe hexane extract were isolated two alkaloids azaphenanthrenes: eupolauramine, described for the first time in the Annonaceae family and imbiline 1, described for the first time in thegenus Anaxagorea. Fromthe chloroform extract was isolated the alkaloid azaphenanthrene sampangine, described for the first time in thegenus Anaxagorea. The results of this work contributed to thephytochemical study of Anaxagorea dolichocarpa Sprague & Sandwith to known chemotaxonomy ofthegenus Anaxagorea and the Annonaceae family.
The analysis was carried out concerning the data gathered in Tables 4-7 and photographs presenting both the shape, the magnitude, and the distribution of graphite precipitates (Figs 1, 3, 5, 7), as well as those showing the microstucture of cast iron (Figs 2, 4, 6, 8). It allowed for the assessment ofthe influence of aluminium added in the quantity falling into the concerned range on both the graphitization of cast iron and its susceptibility to spheroidization with cerium mischmetal. The latter addition was used in the quantity of 0.11 wt% ofthe material subjected to the treatment.
Thefamily Prochilodontidae is considered a group with well conserved chromosomes characterized by their number, morphology and banding patterns. Thence, our study aimed at accomplishing a cytogenetic analysis with conven- tional methods (Giemsa staining, silver staining ofthe nucleolus organizer regions-AgNOR, and C-banding) and flu- orescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S and 5S ribosomal DNA probes in five species ofthe Prochilodus genus (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus brevis, Prochilodus costatus, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus nigricans) collected from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The results revealed conservatism in chromosome number, morphology, AgNORs 18S and 5S rDNAs location and constitutive heterochromatin distribution patterns. The minor differences observed in this work, such as an Ag-NOR on a P. argenteus chromosome and a distinct C-banding pattern in P. lineatus, are not sufficient to question the conservatism described for this group. Future work using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for FISH will be interesting to further test the cytogenetic conservatism in Prochilodus.
Canscora decussata Schult (Gentianaceae), an erect annual plant of height 0.6m, founds use in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India for a variety of purposes. The roots are used as laxative, diuretic, for liver troubles, nerve tonic, in tubercu- losis and fevers, while the aerial portions are used in insanity, epilepsy and nervous debility 27,36 . The extract of C. decussata
Information on where exactly and how dirivultids live is rare, since this often requires direct observations. Up to 10 copepods were counted per shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. They were located on the mouthparts among dense bacteria growth, in the gill chambers, and/or probably were also swimming freely among shrimp swarms . The close-up of a video camera fromthe submersible showed that dirivultids are crawling on alvinellid tubes colonizing sulfide chimneys at the East Pacific Rise (SG, MB pers. obs.). In this habitat type, temperatures among worms are ranging from 40 uC to 100uC, sulfide concentrations can be above 1000 m M and oxygen is depleted [33,34]. Two of those dirivultid species, Benthoxynus spiculifer and Scotoecetes introrsus (both found in association with Paralvinella spp.), were investigated more in detail and exhibited high hemoglobin concentrations, with a very high and temperature sensitive oxygen affinity. This could be one ofthe crucial adaptations to live in low- oxygen environments [35,36].
ABSTRACT: The morphological parameters used to establish close connections among species taxonomically different into the Rubiaceae family is complex, mainly due to the lack of information on habitat and morphoanatomical characters in the lower hierarchic groups, for example, Chimarrhis genus. The micromolecular proﬁ le of delimited species into determined taxa can be useful to establish the boundaries among close taxonomic groups, and to indicate evolutionary phylogenetic trends into the taxa. Several indole alkaloids isolated from C. turbinata showed to be a valuable tool to support the taxonomic classiﬁ cation performed by Robbrecht, who established the most recent taxonomy for Rubiaceae, based on morphological characters, and concluded that Chimarrhis belong to Condamineae, and subfamily Cinchonoideae.
The anti-ulcerogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtained fromthe capitula and scapes of Syngonanthus bisulcatus after ulcer induction with ethanol/HCl was performed according to the method of Mizui and D o t e u c h i ( M i z u i , D o u t e u c h i , 1 9 8 3 ) w i t h s o m e modifications. Mice were fasted for 24h, divided into groups of 7 animals and before receiving an oral dose of vehicle (saline solution 0.9%), lanzoprazole (30mg/ kg) and the Syngonanthus bisulcatus ethanolic extracts (50, 100 and 250mg/kg). Fifty minutes after the treatments, all groups received 0.2ml of 0.3 M HCl/ 60% ethanol solution orally.
considered domestic violence a matter of gender, social status or some male disorder. They showed some disagreement between the idea and the actions they proposed as managers, while their discourse was merely based on rules. However, they cannot come up with specific practices for women victimized by violence. The managers said that “[…] feminist women are the ones who demand actions for women and, specially, for women victims of violence. The demand for those actions is considered an issue ofthe Feminist Movement, and not as referring to a concern ofthe Public Health department or society.”
Rebonding of sand mix is a common practice in foundry engineering. The sand mix contains used sand whose grains are already coated with the rebonding material. Rebonding ofthe used sand [3,4] involves disintegration of grain agglomerates and uniform distribution ofthe rebodning agent in the entire volume ofthe sand mix batch, coating of sand grains with the rebonding agent and activation of thus formed coating. Turbine (rotor) mixers are now in widespread use as they feature high efficiency and short mixing cycles.
Due to difficulties present during machining operations and with segregation of crystals of primary silicon, hypereutectic silumins can be used after modification only. It is why elaboration of effective modification methods is necessary for complete utilization of such alloys for machinery parts made from castings. In the paper are presented test results concerning an effect of modification with phosphor copper and strontium of AlSi21CuNi silumin on change of its mechanical properties (R B m B , A B 5 B ) and its structure. Investigated alloy was melted in
The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with the use ofthe FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage ofthe electric arc I = 100 A, speed ofthe electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) ofthe tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time ofthe load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.