Top PDF The attainable spaces and its analogues (in Ukrainian)

The attainable spaces and its analogues (in Ukrainian)

The attainable spaces and its analogues (in Ukrainian)

O. V. Maslyuchenko. The attainable spaces and its analogues, Mat. Stud. 37 (2012), 98–105. In this paper we investigate interplays between several type of the attainable spaces. We introduce the class of discreetly saturated spaces which contains all metrizable spaces and all hereditarily separable perfectly normal spaces and check that a first countable discreetly saturated space has all type of attainability. We also obtain that weakly discreetly attainable spaces are countably resolvable.
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Evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of mitragynine and its analogues using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

Evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of mitragynine and its analogues using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

Next, the potential cytotoxic effects of Mitragynine on hiPSC-CMs were assessed by measuring the expression levels of apoptotic-related genes. As shown in Fig. 6A Top, the expressions of Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Bcl2 and Bax genes were confirmed with human ventricular tissue as well as with hiPSC-CMs by RT-PCR. Moreover, qPCR results showed that Mitragynine (10 mM, 4 hours) did not significantly alter the gene expression levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Bcl2 and Bax (Fig. 6A Bottom). The viability of the cells treated with Mitragynine for 24 hours was examined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay and over 85% viability was observed. In addition, Caspase 3 activity measured in hiPSC-CMs treated with Mitragynine for different time periods demonstrated that there was no significant cell death after treatment (Fig. 6B).
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The study of the influence of ancient Greek rituals and sports and the formation of the architecture of its sports spaces

The study of the influence of ancient Greek rituals and sports and the formation of the architecture of its sports spaces

It was not until after Solon's time, in the early sixth century B.C. that the Athenian Ag- ora became the market place and civic center of the city. Prior to that time, the area was conspicuously lacking public buildings as Ath- ens had no physical trace of a city center or market place. Soon after Solon, however, the character of the area changed, and buildings whose main functions were political in nature began to appear. During the pre-Agora days, as early as the eighth century B.C., the area may have been a regular location for athletic contests. It seems that the site that eventually became Athens' commercial and civic center was intimately linked with athletic activities. This coupled with the prominence of chariot race scenes on the late Geometric vases from Athenian graves, reinforces the belief that chariot races were part of the funeral games in early Athens.
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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.22 número4

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.22 número4

Abstract Decentralization and regionalization are strategic themes for reforms in the health sys- tem. This paper analyzes the complex process of health regionalization being developed in Brazil. This paper identifies that the normative frame- work from the Brazilian National Health Sys- tem, SUS has made advances with respect to its institutionalization and overcoming the initial centrality involved in municipalization. This has strengthened the development of regionalization and the intergovernmental agreement on health but the evidence points to the need to promote a revision. Based on document analysis, literature review and the views given by the authors in- volved in management in SUS as well as generat- ing radically different views, the challenges for the construction of a regionalization that is active, is debated. We also discuss: its relations with plan- ning and the dimensioning of service networks, the production of active care networks and shared management spaces, the inter-federative agree- ments and regional regulations, the capacity to coordinate regional systems and financing and the impact of the political dimension and electoral cycles. Regionalization (and SUS itself) is an open book, therefore ways and possibilities on how to maintain an active form of regionalization can be recommended.
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ULTRASTRUCTURE OF OVARIAN FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM OF THE AMAZONIAN FISH Pseudotylosurus microps (TELEOSTEI: BELONIDAE): MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERCELLULAR DEPOSITS

ULTRASTRUCTURE OF OVARIAN FOLLICULAR EPITHELIUM OF THE AMAZONIAN FISH Pseudotylosurus microps (TELEOSTEI: BELONIDAE): MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERCELLULAR DEPOSITS

In the course of the study of P. microps ooge- nesis our attention was driven to peculiar features of its follicular epithelium. The follicular epithelium around the oocytes between the primary phase of oocyte development and early vitellogenesis accu- mulate in its intercellular spaces numerous poly- morphous bodies, in resin sections, stainable with toluidine blue and other acidic stains (Fig. 1). During the vitellogenic phase of the oocyte, the number and size of these structures is such that can even shade the epithelial cells to the light microscopy examen.
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Antinociceptive effect of novel pyrazolines in mice

Antinociceptive effect of novel pyrazolines in mice

The antinociceptive effect of six novel synthetic pyrazolines (3- ethoxymethyl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-1H-pyrazole (Pz 1) and its corre- sponding 1-substituted methyl (Pz 2) and phenyl (Pz 3) analogues, and 3-(1-ethoxyethyl)-5-ethoxycarbonyl-1H-pyrazole (Pz 4) and its corre- sponding 1-substituted methyl (Pz 5) and phenyl (Pz 6) analogues) was evaluated by the tail immersion test in adult male albino mice. The animals (N = 11-12 in each group) received vehicle (5% Tween 80, 10 ml/kg, sc) or 1.5 mmol/kg of each of the pyrazolines (Pz 1-Pz 6), sc. Fifteen, thirty and sixty minutes after drug administration, the mice were subjected to the tail immersion test. Thirty minutes after drug administration Pz 2 and Pz 3 increased tail withdrawal latency (vehicle = 3.4 ± 0.2; Pz 2 = 5.2 ± 0.4; Pz 3 = 5.9 ± 0.4 s; mean ± SEM), whereas the other pyrazolines did not present antinociceptive activity. Dose- effect curves (0.15 to 1.5 mmol/kg) were constructed for the bioactive pyrazolines. Pz 2 (1.5 mmol/kg, sc) impaired motor coordination in the rotarod and increased immobility in the open-field test. Pz 3 did not alter rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotion, but in- creased immobility in the open field at the dose of 1.5 mmol/kg. The involvement of opioid mechanisms in the pyrazoline-induced antino- ciception was investigated by pretreating the animals with naloxone (2.75 µmol/kg, sc). Naloxone prevented Pz 3- but not Pz 2-induced antinociception. Moreover, naloxone pretreatment did not alter Pz 3- induced immobility. We conclude that Pz 3-induced antinociception involves opioid mechanisms but this is not the case for Pz 2. Correspondence
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Is the Good Polity Attainable? Measuring the Quality of Democracy

Is the Good Polity Attainable? Measuring the Quality of Democracy

expectations. There is a rather difficult balance to strike here in this respect. On the one hand, this raises a problem for QoD measurements that do not take public opinion indicators on board. It is not surprising that a given democracy may score high in the various QoD dimensions as ‘objectively’ measured, but that its citizens may still feel dissa- tisfied with their regime’s performance. Even if we try to explain such discrepancy as a result of the citizens’ low cognitive capacity to understand policies/politics, their vulnerability to media sensational- ism, the diversity of interests and con- cerns (and their variable aggregation) in society and the inherent tendency of citizens to always be unsatisfied with what they get, this does not stop them from judging the quality of their own democracy when confronting its modus operandi with the mechanisms and per- formances of other regimes. As Plattner (2005: 78, 81) alerts us, the selection of standards/indicators for the purposes of measuring or auditing QoD is often biased, because it imposes the particular political preferences of scholars ‘as ob- jective standards of quality’ upon native citizens from those regimes under scru- tiny. Citizens may display partial, dis- torted and less sophisticated notions of democracy, but every single individual has a vision of the regime or society they would like to live in, which may be less ‘democratic’ or expressing a different sort of democracy than the one scholars would have expected. More than being a dis- puted concept, democracy is a process in constant redefinition. Hence the need to establish valid, meaningful, and reliable ways to measure and assess democratic progress is quintessential to both deci- sion-makers and citizens at large to evaluate in which direction their democ- racy is evolving (Diamond and Morlino, 2005).
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Boundedness of the maximal operator and its commutators on vanishing generalized Orlicz-morrey spaces

Boundedness of the maximal operator and its commutators on vanishing generalized Orlicz-morrey spaces

Finally note that there is a close relations between of vanishing Morrey spaces and so called Stummel classes. They are different, but are closely embedded into each other: every vanishing Morrey space is embedded between two very close to each other Stummel classes and vice versa. Such relations were studied in [31] in the case Φ(u) = u p . We do not touch such a study for the general case of Orlicz spaces

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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.19 número1

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.19 número1

In oxy-species 7, 8, 22 and 23 there is no degeneracy of bridged atoms and uniformity of delocalization indexes among them. By comparing oxy-species with bridged carbon atoms (7 and 22) with their analogues 1 and 16, one can see that the magnitude of the DI´s decreases significantly in 7 and 22 due to the higher electronegativity of the oxygen atom. However, this does not happen with oxy-species with bridged silicon atoms (8 and 23) when comparing to their analogues 2 and 17 (Table 1). The effect of oxygen atoms in 22 can be seen in Figure 1 where its bridged carbon atoms are positively charged while in 16 the corresponding bridged carbon atoms are negatively charged. Likewise, it is expected that 22 and 23 have smaller aromaticity with respect to their respective analogues 16 and 17.
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Xanthine analogues and adipose tissue metabolism

Xanthine analogues and adipose tissue metabolism

Obesity has been increasing in the last decades and is one of the most prolific health concern worldwide. Methylxanthines, such as caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine), and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), have demonstrated potential anti-obesity properties. These natural compounds are widely distributed in the human diet, especially food products such as coffee, tea, and chocolate. In fact, caffeine is known to modulate glucose and fatty acid metabolism and its consumption seems to be inversely associated with body weight increase. Based on methylxanthines chemical structure, several xanthine analogues have been synthetized. We hypothesized that one of those compounds, 8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine, may have a promising anti-obesity potential. Our study aims to characterize the modulation conferred by 8-(3-phenylpropyl)- 1,3,7-triethylxanthine in the metabolic and oxidative profile of adipocytes in order to evaluate its potential as a pharmacological option to address obesity and its complications. For this purpose, the anti-obesogenic potential of 8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine was evaluated in mouse preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1, using synthetic caffeine for comparative purposes. Cells were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of caffeine or 8-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3,7-triethylxanthine (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µM) and the cytotoxic profile was accessed spectrophotometrically by reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) and quantification of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The metabolites in culture medium were identified and quantified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) and
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A survey of effective factors on improvement of environmental quality of Tehran book city-Iran

A survey of effective factors on improvement of environmental quality of Tehran book city-Iran

In Tehran metropolis and its north west population texture, the complex site is formed in Shahrak-e Gharb the intersection of two main streets of Ponak Bakhtari and Farahzadi based on Iranian gardens introversion with the difference that in modern plan despite Koshak in which yard includes the garden, the building is around the yard. The building form is with unified cubic image around the linear and sloped circuit with attractive structure with communicative formal of the complex as a gateway for inviting. Here, in four sides, the building guides the visitors with ramp device and it passes from blocks with different height and flexible form and various spaces. In design of this project, public, semi-public and private areas are considered with the aim of creating various qualities for people namely the elderly, children and the youth: it is ranging from directing urban activities beside main street to resting, pause places and central yard in building formed based on initial form and concept for open gathering as theater, music and sale cultural stores. In this yard, some trees are planted and their shadow is beside foundation and cafees are used for attractive places and short pause. Also, close amphitheater exit in block A is leading to central yard. Restaurant and cafee with roof garden are designed on the ceiling of block C as leveled with upper part of complex site. Considering natural topography of site and using it are of great importance in improving green space and design of landscape in idea creation leading to the complex plan. Flexible façade based on plans shows the project performance. To have natural light for book reading, the glasses are transparent and wide. There are four blocks with varied height code around polymer core with special supporting structure. In this complex, maintaining volume integrity is of great importance. In volume composition, the entrance is much emphasized based on network lines of urban design as linking four blocks and brining the urban body into the building.
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An introduction to distribution theory, Fourier transform, Sobolev spaces and its applications to the Black-Scholes Equation

An introduction to distribution theory, Fourier transform, Sobolev spaces and its applications to the Black-Scholes Equation

In this chapter, we introduce the Sobolev Spaces, which consist of functions that fulfill certain integrability properties jointly with their derivatives. Distributions theory and Fourier transform allow us to find solutions of problems that a priori had no solutions. However, we would like to be able to distinguish among these solutions the ones that are smooth. As we saw, the regularity of a distribution is connected with the behaviour of its Fourier transform at high frequencies. Roughly speaking, the more derivatives f has the faster b f decreases to zero at infinity while the faster f decreases to zero at infinity the more derivatives b f has. Quoting [18]: “If doing “ping” to f does “pong” to b f then we should expect that doing “pong” to f does “ping” to b f .”
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Jos´e Luis da Silva

Jos´e Luis da Silva

Non-Gaussian analysis was already introduced in [AKS93] for smooth proba- bility measures on infinite dimensional linear spaces. The method used was biorthogonal decomposition which is a natural extension of the chaos decom- position that is well known in Gaussian analysis. This biorthogonal “Appell” system has been constructed for smooth measures by Yu. L. Daletski [Dal91]. For a detailed description of its use in infinite dimensional analysis and for the proof of the results which were announced in [AKS93] we refer to [ADKS96]. These results are based on quasi-invariance of the measures and smoothness of the logarithmic derivatives. Here we would like to mention that this ap- proach does not cover the important case of Poisson measures, see Chapter 5 for more details of Poisson measures.
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Book of abstracts: ISTAR-IUL Winter School 2018 Applied Transdisciplinary Research

Book of abstracts: ISTAR-IUL Winter School 2018 Applied Transdisciplinary Research

Citizenship is much more than a social issue. In fact, the way each person feels and acts in society is increasingly dependent on participation in the digital worlds and in the realm of new technologies. Digital inequality is particularly significant in a highly technological network society (e.g. Grossi, Costa & Santos, 2013). People in disadvantaged conditions have great difficulty to access technological means. Therefore, there is a clear imbalance not only social, but also digital, between the various strata of the population. In order to combat social inequalities, particularly those related to ICTs, governments created digital inclusion programs, having the main purpose of promoting citizenship. To achieve this goal, governments facilitate the access to information and knowledge among poor populations, promoting training actions, and enabling them to use digital tools and applications, to make them feel better integrated and able to intervene more directly in society at the individual, community, social, political and economic levels (Jambeiro & Silva, 2004). This is why digital inclusion actions are so important. In this sense, since 2005, Brazil has been consolidating its digital inclusion policy with the creation and implementation of various programs, projects and social actions. It should be noted that Telecentres are spaces supported and managed by digital inclusion programs, that offer, free of charge, access to computers, Internet and ICT courses. In this context, the present research aims to investigate how less favored people in Brazilian society (classes C, D and E) 1 , particularly in Belo Horizonte, who participate in social digital inclusion programs,
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MARKOV GRAPHS OF ONE–DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES

MARKOV GRAPHS OF ONE–DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES AND THEIR DISCRETE ANALOGUES

Such a crucial role that Markov graphs play in one–dimensional dynamics stimulating us to study their properties from graph–theoretical point of view. There is a couple of papers [1],[9]–[11] which follow this line. In particular, Pavlenko [10] calculated the number of non–isomorphic periodic graphs with given number of vertices and gave a criterion for arbitrary finite digraph being periodic graph [11]. In [1] Bernhardt proved that the correspondence which assigns to every permutation of the vertex set of a finite tree the adjacency matrix of its discrete Markov graph is an injective homomorphism (i.e. a representation) from S n into Gl(n − 1, 2). One can also show that this representation is irreducible.
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Analogues of the antimicrobial peptide BP214

Analogues of the antimicrobial peptide BP214

Antimicrobial resistance is increasingly a problem for public health and therefore new strategies must be found against this situation. Because of the diversity of functions, antimicrobial peptides have been seen as a viable alternative to conventional antibiotics by researchers. The BP214 peptide was recently investigated, in which it demonstrated a high antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains and a low hemolytic activity. The performance of a D-Alanine scan allowed to identify the most important amino acids for BP214’s activity. Thus, with the approach used, eleven new analogues were synthesized in this work. Subsequently, its antimicrobial and hemolytic activities were determined. Briefly, CF3, CF6, CC2, CC3 and CC6 analogues showed MIC values, as good as, or better than the BP214 peptide. For these it was concluded that lysine and arginine are not crucial for the BP214’s activity and can be altered by another amino acid. On the other hand, the CF1, CF2, CF4, CF5, CC4 and CC5 analogues showed higher MICs than the BP214 peptide, suggesting that leucine, tyrosine, isoleucine and phenylalanine are important for BP214’s activity. However, all analogues which showed improved antimicrobial activity also demonstrated a greater hemolytic activity.
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Analogues of the antimicrobial peptide BP214

Analogues of the antimicrobial peptide BP214

14 Despite their diversity, AMPs have a few characteristics in common. They have an average length of less than 60 amino acids (from 12 to not more than 100 amino acids), are overall positively charged (from +2 to +9) and also possess flexible and amphipathic structures in which clusters of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids are segregated. This latest attribute will allow the AMP to move from the solution conformation to one that will permit membrane interaction. [6, 7] The other characteristics are what ensures the antimicrobial activity. Their ability to possess an amphipathic structure comes from its cationic and hydrophobic amino acids and its primary sequence, creating a membrane bound conformation. These cationic amino acids will create an electrostatic attraction towards the anionic molecules within the bacterial membrane, especially towards the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative and the lipoteichoic acids from gram- positive, therefore creating its specificity towards prokaryotic cells and not eukaryotic ones. As a consequence of this affinity with the bacterial membrane, the AMP will interact with the negatively charged lipids within the cytoplasmic membrane. Since AMPs have the cationic residues, they will stabilize the phospholipids, resulting in the disturbance of the membrane. In addition, its amphipathic structure will allow their insertion inside the bilayer with consequential alterations of the membrane structure. [3]
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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.24 número4

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.24 número4

Endophytic fungi, microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing diseases, have been recognized as prolific producers of novel and bioactive secondary metabolites ( Borges et al., 2009). The endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum SS46, isolated from the host plant Smallanthus sonchifolius ( Gallo et al., 2009), is a producer of the cyclohexadepsipeptide beauvericin ( Nascimento et al., 2012). Beauvericin has antibiotic, antifungal, insecticidal, antimycobacterial, antiplasmodial, and nematicidal properties, and also inhibits angiogenesis, cell migration, and cancer cell proliferation ( Xu et al., 2007; Zhan et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007; Xu et al., 2009; Shimada et al., 2010). Recently, beauvericin displayed promising activity against Leishmania braziliensis ( Nascimento et al., 2012). Thus, this compound has interesting pharmacological properties that suggest its potential as a candidate for drug development ( Tedjiotsop Feudjio et al., 2010). Herein we describe the beauvericin production by F. oxysporum SS46, as well as the PDB experiments by feeding amino acid precursor analogues into the cultures that led to the production of twelve beauvericin analogues analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF/TOF): three beauvericin analogues ( 2-4) previously described in the literature ( Xu et al., 2007) and nine new beauvericin analogues ( 5-13).
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urbe, Rev. Bras. Gest. Urbana  vol.7 número2

urbe, Rev. Bras. Gest. Urbana vol.7 número2

The Pacification Police Units – UPPs – implemented in Rio de Janeiro since 2008 have as one of their stated goals the promotion of the integration between the pacified favelas and the ‘formal’ city, aiming to overcome the view of Rio as a ‘divided city’. Intending to problematize the reasoning behind this stated goal in order to question the UPPs’ very foundations, this article examines the political and sociospatial background in which they were introduced. The implementation and operation of the UPPs is outlined in the context of the militarization of Rio’s spaces, and especially of its urban poor regions, within an analysis of what assumptions about favelas and slum residents the UPPs imply. The UPPs are analyzed in dialogue with Giorgio Agamben’s work as a sovereign act of ‘drawing lines of distinction’ between lives worth living and politically worthless ‘Others’. It becomes clear that they are guilty of articulating and reinforcing what Teresa Caldeira has named the ‘talk of crime’, a Manicheistic discourse through which Brazilians articulate and cope with their daily encounter with violence. The disjunctive nature of Brazil’s ‘inclusively inegalitarian’ democracy, as explored by James Holston, is emphasized. Brazil emerges as a post-dictatorial country, in which neoliberal reforms and democratic opening have simultaneously implied an increasingly authoritarian penal state that targets the urban marginalized as its ‘internal enemies’.
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Nitrofurazone and its nitroheterocyclic analogues: a study of the electrochemical behavior in aqueous medium

Nitrofurazone and its nitroheterocyclic analogues: a study of the electrochemical behavior in aqueous medium

NF and its analogues were reduced in acidic medium using a GCE, producing only one reduction peak involving four electrons due to the hydroxylamine derivative formation. Furthermore, the generation and stabilization of the nitro anion radical in alkaline medium were observed, showing that even in aqueous medium this behavior is possible as the protons low availability make the free radical protonation slower, which allows its detection on the time scale of the cyclic voltammetric technique. Moreover, this work confirms previous results36 showing that the activation of GCE surface through polishing with diamond powder contributed to the kinetic stability of the nitro radical anion due to the hydrophobic properties of the interface, hindering or even suppressing the radical anion protonation in the diffusion layer. The kinetics results found for the analogues showed that NTS presented the lowest values for k 2
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