the Image and ATV Lab at Columbia University. The demo system at the Columbia University website (http://www.ctr.columbia.edu/VisualSEEk) has an archive of 12,000 images that also includes videos. Searches are con- ducted by specifying both color and spatial locations on a grid. New search- able features recently added tothe system include texture, shape, motion, and embedded text. Yet another system, or approach, is Toshikazu Kato s Query by Visual Example. While this system dates to before 1990 when it was first described by Kato, it seems most useful today as software in retrieving Trademark logos for graphic designers and probably lawyers. QBVE functions on the basis of retrieving all images in a database that look similar tothe one in question. Finally, there is Visual Information Retrieval (VIR). These systems are on the verge of providing significant user help in tracking down appropriate visual information, especially in the complex area of videos (Gupta and Jain, 1997). The real beneficiaries of these systems are likely to be the scientists and health care professionals, but VIR might also benefit the art historians who are searching for appropriate research images without knowing in advance what those images should be, especially in the realm of Modern and Post-Modern art whose subject matter is often difficult to discern.
In Benin where the school results in particular those ofthe past years make proof of a mediocrity regarding the quality ofthe educational offer, it is more than necessary to put an end tothe dullness in the pedagogic action based almost exclusively on the exploitation of documentary supports which no more arouse either the enthusiasm, or the excitement of learners in the active construction of knowledge. This happens in spite ofthe availability of audio-visual equipment in many high schools. Theproblem arises in terms of educational innovation by reconciling the image and the sound omnipresent in the daily environment of students and pedagogy in order to improve the performances of teachers and raise the level of learners by re-evaluating their efficiency.
Another conclusion of Lundeland’s study , is connected tothe fact that the persons with dyslexia and with learning disabilities would rather read the DAISY format books on the computer than on the mobile devices. Tollefsen’s results indicate that the DAISY users are mainly persons who don’t have accessto classic printed materials and there- fore they develop an option for DAISY books. In the same time, this study stresses out the small amount of research concerning the use of printed black / braille format and DAISY format by visually impaired persons. The conclusions ofthe mentioned studies are about the lack of information held by stu- dents, teachers and parents concerning the use of DAISY. The problems encountered by these categories regarding the learning me- thods and the teaching aids were also men- tioned.
This article presents a methodology used in creation of a knowledge base for CAPCAST system, based on different types of input data under the conditions specified by theproblem do- main, that is, selection ofmaterials for the designed cast products. The database structure and, as a consequence, also the structure ofthe knowledge base are strongly determined by the availability of data on this particular subject and by the adopted relational mod- el. Under these circumstances, and bearing in mind future expan- sion ofthe system in subsequent iterations, which cannot be pre- dicted in advance, the decision tables were chosen as a formalism for recording the conditional knowledge ofthe toughening processes. It also gives prospects for creation of a universal, from the viewpoint ofthe reasoning systems, tool to generate rules in a particular language of logic based on rules encoded in an attribute decision-making table.
For a highly qualified person well familiar with HTML and looking for a world-class carrier in ecommerce, these positions opens unparalleled opportunities to work closely with a wide range of international scholars, to learn the modern online publishing ropes, to develop familiarity with the style guides and establish useful academic and industrial connections. It provides an excellent opportunity to hone your editing and time management skills, to gain experience in academic publishing, and to actively develop an understanding of issues considered of great import tothe electronic banking and commerce.
Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon . High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating ofthe alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass ofthe batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.
All the patients underwent radiographic evaluation in anteroposterior (AP) view ofthe pelvis and Judet 45° oblique view (wing and obturator), and 53 pa- tients also underwent tomography. The criterion used for indicating surgery was the presence of an unstable and/or incongruent hip. The criterion for instability was hip misalignment associated with displacement ofthe wall or the anterior or posterior column. The cri- terion for incongruence was a deviation greater than 3 mm in fractures ofthe acetabular roof, transverse fractures, “T” fractures or fractures ofthe two col- umns. To evaluate the displacement, the Matta criteria were also taken into consideration in measuring the arch ofthe acetabular roof in the three Judet views (8,9) .
In a study parallel tothe one presented in this dissertation, and extending the superpixel model described in the previous section, Rasmussen et al. [Rasmussen et al., 2009] proposes the use of appearance contrast for trail detection. The main idea behind this method is to look for a triangular region which contrasts with the surroundings. The basic framework for trail finding is to generate trail hypotheses and score each of them with a likelihood function, assum- ing that a trail viewed under perspective may be associated with a triangle shape starting from the bottom ofthe image. Trail hypotheses are generated from a learned distribution of expected trail width and curvature variation. For each hypothesis, two additional triangles are defined in its left and right neighbouring regions. Histograms of k-means cluster labels in a CIE-Lab colour space are computed for the three triangles. The trail likelihood is captured by measuring the dissimilarity between the trail region and the surrounding ones, as well as the symmetry ofthe flanking regions, and the highest scored hypothesis is chosen for trail representation, as can be seen in Fig. 2.7. Several alternatives to measure similarity between image regions in- clude colour and texture histogram measures such as Bhattacharyya or χ 2 [Dunlop et al., 2007],
I believe that by now the reader will understand why full employment and growth do not depend on active macroeconomic policies that neutralize the tendency tothe insufficiency of effective demand; in developing countries, where the exchange rate tends to be chronically overvalued, full employment and growth depend also of an active exchange rate policy. Such a policy has a structural component and a day-to-day component. The structural component is an export tax on the commodities that cause the Dutch disease, because this tax increases the value ofthe exchange rate, so making the current equilibrium and the industrial equilibrium coincide and, for that reason, making the market price exchange rate fluctuate around this equilibrium. The day-to-day exchange rate component is the macroeconomic policy that manages capital inflows and outflows either administratively by the adoption of capital controls, or in price terms by the central bank buying and selling foreign reserves.
The configuration of a gasketed plate heat exchanger (PHE) was represented by a set of six distinct parameters and a methodology to detect equivalent configurations was presented. Theproblemof optimizing the PHE configuration was formulated as the minimization ofthe heat transfer area, subjectto constraints on the number of channels, the pressure drop and channel flow velocities for hot and cold fluids and the exchanger thermal effectiveness as well as the PHE simulation model. Since it is not possible to derive a mathematical model ofthe PHE that is explicitly a function ofthe configuration parameters, a mixed- integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach could not be used. A screening procedure was then proposed to solve the optimization problem. In this procedure, subsets ofthe constraints were successively used to eliminate infeasible and nonoptimal elements from the set defined by the bounds on the number of channels. An algorithm was developed to perform the screening with minimum computational effort. Examples show that this algorithm can successfully select a group of optimal configurations (rather than a single solution) for a given application using a very reduced number of thermal simulations.
Wind power is one ofthe most important sources of renewable energy. Wind -turbines extract kinetic energy fro m the wind and convert it into mechanical energy. Therefore wind turbine power production depends on the interaction between the blade and the wind. The flu id -structure interaction, that means the interaction of some deformable structure with a surrounding or internal fluid flow, belong nowadays tothe most important and challenging mu lti-physics problems which are aimed to treat by numerical simulat ions. The topic fluid-structure interaction plays a dominant role in many fie lds of engineering. Therefore, a strong need for appropriate numerical simu lation tools exists with a variety of numerica l and physical aspects. The present paper takes care about fluid-structure interaction using modern simulation techniques such as coupled field analysis. This work illustrates the use of load transfer coupled physics analysis to solve a steady-state air flow-blade interaction problem, fo llo wed by modal analysis where natural frequency are obtained with two different approaches: deterministic and probabilistic. The numerica l results are deduced from a finite ele ment approximat ion ofthe coupled problem with a non-symmetric pressure/displacement formulation. Determin istic and probabilistic results are given and discussed.
Such mediums are the best cover media to hide messages. Digital images are the most widespread cover files used for SG, due to their high embedding efficiency and the insensitivity ofthe human visual system (HVS) . It is not necessary that the cover and message have a homogeneous structure. For example, it is possible to embed a recording of an audio stream message inside a digital image . The simplest steganographic techniques embed the bits ofthe message directly into the least significant bit (LSB) plane ofthe cover image in a deterministic sequence [5, 6]. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity [7-10]. Our technique is focused on providing high security and high speed operation while maintaining imperceptibility. We are using here Galois Encoder to provide high operational speed while maintaining the security intensively. The 2BC (two bit code) technique is the basic steganography technique we are using with the Galois Operation. Galois field arithmetic has received considerable attention in recent years due to their application in public-key cryptography schemes and error correcting codes. We are here using the 2BC(two bit code) and Galois Field algorithm to achieve the goal ofthe maximum reception ofthe original message signal while maintaining the losses and enhancing the speed of operation. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity. Our embedding technique is focused on providing security while maintaining imperceptibility. Our method can work in any transform domain, but we are illustrating the ideas in the spatial domain for convenience. The rest ofthe paper is divided among the following sections: section 2 explains the existing passcode based technique which involves the matching process and the embedding techniques, section 3 describes the Galois operation, section 4 and 5 explains the data transmission and retrieval process using the Galois Encoder and decoder, section 6 contains simulation result and section 7 summarizes the Conclusion.
The great challenge related to judicial governance is to solve the paradoxical problemofthe Brazilian judiciary: how to increase accessto justice services and, at the same time, meet the demand for these services. That is, how to decongest the courts, increase speed in judicial cases and provide a quality service, while still meeting the additional demand that such improvements will stimulate. It may be more important to understand demand and manage workloads than to improve performance. It may be better to adopt new ways of serving justice or avoid disputes becoming court cases. Future studies could investigate how these issues are embedded in the governance models currently adopted in justice organizations in Brazil.
The blood cultures were analyzed through an automated method for identifying microbiological agents (BACTEC system) in the central laboratory from HSP. The microbiologists processed the samples without knowing how patients were allocated in the study. After incubation under 35 ºC for 18 to 24 hours, the samples (ofthe skin surrounding the catheter) inserted into TSB medium were cultivated on blood agar plate and Manitol Salt Agar (OXOID). After 24 hours, the plates containing skin specimens and catheter tip were examined to evaluate bacteria colonies growth and processed to be identified. Hemolytic colonies gram-positive cocci, catalase producers, “Staphy-latex” positive (coagulase and A protein positive, DIFCO) were identified as S. aureus. If there were no colonies on the plate, the cultures were replated and after 72 hours of incubation the result was considered negative if new colonies were not formed. In positives colonies identification and antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed. Oxacillin susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion test containing 1 µg of oxacillin (9,12) . Identification and performance of
BNDES has adopted policies targeting firms considered to be more financially constrained, namely low-revenue firms. Interest rates as well as collateral constraints were designed to better support this group. The Bank offers subsidized interest rate for long-term investments but benefits were defined as a function of firms gross oper- ating revenue. BNDES offers several credit lines and products. Among those target- ing small and medium size firms are: FINAME, BNDES automático and BNDES card. The first two are designed to finance physical capital accumulation or investments in intangible capital meant to increase productivity, and together they compose the largest outlay. Nonetheless, credit conditions are size-dependent and classification changed over time, which motivates out identification strategy. BNDES card facili- tates acquisition of inputs, but credit conditions are the same for all firms. 2
We review now some material described in detail in Ref. , in particular with reference to information instruments ex- pressed in phase-space parlance. A main tool is that called the semi-classical Wehrl entropy W , a measure of phase- space localization [1, 22] expressed via coherent states |zi [2, 23]. Coherent states are eigenstates of a general annihila- tion operator ˆ a, appropriate for theproblem at hand [23–25], i.e.,
Authors of a recent study report an impaired short- and long- term social memory performance of male 129P2 mice, that was ‘‘rescued’’ by a (genetically engineered) reduced expression ofthe C-terminal Src kinase, reported to be causally involved in the proper development ofthe central nervous system and in the glutamatergic neurotransmission in the adult brain . The authors conclude that social recognition is impaired in 129 animals . In contrast, the data obtained in the first experimental series provide evidence for an unimpaired olfactory long-term recogni- tion memory in both sexes and all genotypes tested in the social discrimination test (Fig. 1A). The main difference between our and the previously published data seems to be the experimental design ofthe behavioural test: The 129P2 mice were tested for their memory performance using the social recognition procedure in which during retrieval (‘choice’) the familiar and novel juvenile are not presented simultaneously, but in separate sessions. We tested using the social discrimination task, which provides a direct compar- ison ofthe investigation duration ofthe familiar and novel stimulus animal in the choice session. It seems that the social recognition procedure detected false negative results concerning the social recognition performance of animals ofthe 129 strain. Indeed, the reported ’abnormality’ ofthe 129 strain in various behavioural parameters [5–6,44–45], which may have also contributed tothe deficits reported for this strain in defined learning and memory tasks [1,46], did not interfere in our paradigm of long-term social discrimination memory in either experimental series. To confirm that the 129S1/SvImJ animals used show a behavioural profile similar to that reported for 129 strains in defined behavioural paradigms, we submitted our animals to an open field test. Compared to C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice both males and females ofthe 129 strain showed the typical decreased motor activity, including a reduced time spent in running, rearing and a reduced number of lines crossed, and an increase in parameters indicating anxiety-like behaviour (see Fig. S1 and Table S1). These observations match with the reported behavioural profile ofthe 129 strain in this test observed by some authors [2,47]. Therefore, we hypothesize that the unimpaired long-term olfactory recogni- tion memory monitored in our sample of 129S1/SvImJ mice represents the parent population of this strain concerning the performance in the social discrimination test.
The cultivating, through different social policies, especially through the ideologization ofthe values , ofthe contempt for the real, productive work represents a major problem. Only one country in the world set the objective – within the constitution – to not spend more
The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with the use ofthe FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage ofthe electric arc I = 100 A, speed ofthe electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) ofthe tested steels were selected according tothe standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time ofthe load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.