Quercetin has potent antioxidant action and a hepatoprotective role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of quercetin pretreatment in paracetamol-induced liver damage (PILD) and structural injury resulting from partialhepatectomy (PH). In the first model, Wistar rats received oral quercetin (50mg/kg/day) during 8 days. On the 8 th day, 3g/kg paracetamol were added. In the second model, the same quercetin dose was given during 7 days and rats were submitted to PH on the 8 th day. Blood samples were obtained for determination of enzyme levels. Liver, heart, kidney and lung tissue were also collected for assessment of quercetin biodistribution and/or histological analyses. The results obtained after PILD were more pronounced at 24 hours, as reflected by the reduction of serum ALT levels and by the lower concentration of quercetin in liver at this time point. Quercetin also had a protective effect in groups submitted to PH, as shown by decreased ALT levels after 18 hours, and of AST levels after 18 and 36h. The reduction in serum AST and ALT levels suggest that treatment with quercetin is useful as a preoperative pharmacologic measure and for prevention of liver damage caused by drugs.
All surgical procedures were performed by one person in a standardized fashion. The glycyrrhizin injectable solution (2 mg/mL, >95% purity, free of endotoxin) and lipo- polysaccharide (LPS, O55:B5) were pur- chased from Shenzhen Jianan Pharmaceutic Ltd., Shenzhen, China, and Sigma-Aldrich Co., Shanghai, China, respectively. In pre- liminary experiments, we showed that the effect of 70% partialhepatectomy or LPS treatment alone on rat survival did not differ from the sham operation; thus, these two groups were excluded from the present study. The animals were randomly assigned to sham operation, saline-treated and glycyr- rhizin-treated groups of 24 rats each. The rats in the glycyrrhizin-treated group received an injection of glycyrrhizin solution (20 mg/ kg body weight) via the penile vein three times (at 48, 24, and 1 h prior to LPS injec- tion; Figure 1). The rats in the saline-treated group received the same volume of physi- ological saline at the same times. After anes- thesia with an intraperitoneal injection of 10% chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg body weight), the animals underwent 70% hepa- tectomy (14). Twenty-four hours after sur- gery, LPS was injected into the rats via the penile vein at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (Figure 1). Animals in the sham op- eration group underwent laparotomy and the abdominal cavity was closed without partialhepatectomy or LPS injection. At each of the indicated times shown in Figure 1 (1, 3, 6, and 9 h after LPS injection), the rats (6 per group) were randomly sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min to collect serum which was stored at -80ºC.
Further progress through the cell cycle is dependent on activation by growth factors including HGF. During the priming phase (from 0 h to 20 h after hepatectomy) and proliferation phase (from 20 h to 5 days), we observed a significant increase in IL-1ra level and HGF in WT mice. These increased levels were observed until 48 h post-hepatectomy (proliferation phase) and then progressively decreased. These results are in accordance with Molnar et al. demonstrating in vitro that HGF induces its anti- inflammatory effects by upregulating the production of IL-1ra Figure 7. Measurement of alanine aminotransferase. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was analyzed on peripheral blood of WT mice treated with anakinra (n = 3) compared to WT mice without treatment (n = 3). Our results showed that alanine aminotransferase increase at 4h after partialhepatectomy and returned to normal levels after 72h. The levels of alanine aminotransferase of WT mice without treatment was significantly higher at 24h after partialhepatectomy compared to mice treated with anakinra (5 or 50mg/kg). For treated mice, there was no difference for the protective effect of anakinra between 5 and 50mg/kg. * = Statistical significance p,0.05. WT = wild type.
day). The control group was not treated before partialhepatectomy and recovered under normal ambient conditions after the procedure. Groups postHBO and postHB were treated after partialhepatectomy with HBO and HB, respectively, three times (45 min/day). The preHBO group presented a significant increase in the initiation of the regenera- tion process of the liver 54 h postoperatively. The liver/body weight ratio was 0.0618 ± 0.0084 in the preHBO compared to 0.0517 ± 0016 g/g in the control animals (P = 0.016). In addition, the preHBO group showed significant better liver function (evaluated by the lowest serum ALT and AST activities, P = 0.002 and P = 0.008, respectively) and showed a significant decrease in serum albumin levels compared to control (P < 0.001). Liver lipid peroxide concentration was lowest in the preHBO group (P < 0.001 vs control and postHBO group) and light microscopy revealed that the composition of liver lobules in the preHBO group was the closest to normal histological features. These results suggest that HBO pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partialhepatectomy.
Liver regeneration is a well-orchestrated phenomenon essential for both acute restoration of liver volume after resection and maintenance of its volume during chronic liver injury. A regenerating liver, after partialhepatectomy (PH), requires the formation of a complex net- work of liver sinusoids through which the blood flows. Thus, the angiogenic phase is a funda- mental process of LR, occurring predominantly in the later phase . Among the seven members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-E, VEGF-F, and PlGF), VEGF-A lies at the forefront of blood ves- sels formation[2, 3]. VEGF-A is known as the most potent and specific growth factor for both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis[4, 5]. Importantly, VEGF-A holds a regulatory role in differ- entiation and growth of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) . VEGF-A has been con- sidered as a central angiogenic player of LR.
Previous studies have implicated lncRNAs in the regulation of cell proliferation . To fur- ther understand the roles of lncRNAs in cell proliferation, we analysed lncRNA expression in a mouse two-thirds partialhepatectomy (PHx) liver regeneration model . Liver regeneration after PHx is a very complex and well-controlled process, and requires participation of all mature liver cell types with hepatocytes being the main players [19–23]. Immediately following surgery, growth factors and cytokines work together to induce mature hepatocytes to re-enter cell cycle, which in turn triggers cell proliferation of the other cell types in the liver. Within 72 hours, hepatocytes complete 1 to 2 rounds of synchronized proliferation, and liver mass and function is fully restored in approximately 10 days. Liver mass is precisely controlled, as there is no over growth of the liver in response to PHx. A cascade of robust transcription regulation triggered by cytokine and growth factor signalling regulates this well orchestrated biological process [22, 24]. We performed genome-wide gene expression profiling to identify lncRNA expression changes during liver regeneration after PHx. We found that approximately 400 lncRNAs were differentially expressed after PHx. Interestingly, one lncRNA, LncPHx2, whose expression is induced after PHx, was shown to negatively regulate hepatocyte proliferation through inhibition of the genes that promote cell growth.
In total, 41 Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (230 ± 20 g) provided by the Animal Center of Henan Normal Univer- sity, were randomly separated into nine partialhepatectomy (PH) groups, nine sham-operation (SO) groups, and one normal control (NC) group. The PH and SO groups included two rats(male:female = 1:1) for each time point; the normal control consisted of five rats. Partial (2/3) hepatectomy was performed according to Higgins and Anderson (1931) with surgical removal of the left and me- dian lateral liver lobes. The rats were sacrificed by cervical vertebra dislocation at 2, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 72, 120 and 168 h after PH, and the regenerating livers were obtained at corre- sponding time points. Rats composing the SO control group received the same treatment as the PH group but without liver removal. The Laws of Animal Protection of China were strictly followed. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the liver tissue following the method of Sambrook and Russell (2001).
An omphalocele is a defect in the closure of the abdominal wall during the embryonic stage, preventing the return of some abdominal organs to the cavity. In stillborn animals, the involvement of the liver in the omphalocele has been reported. The aim of the present study is to report the success of a partial liver resection in a female bovine at two days of age which presented an omphalocele at birth. Surgical intervention was indicated to reduce and suture the abdominal wall. During the surgical procedure, the presence of hard, reddish tissue was noted inside the sac covered by the amniotic membrane, with characteristics consistent with hepatic parenchyma. Due to the impossibility of reducing the contents added to the suggestion of tissue infection, we elected to perform a partial resection. The histopathological examination confirmed that the resected tissue was of the hepatic parenchyma. Antibiotic and systemic anti-inflammatory therapies were performed post-surgery. Fifteen days after surgery, infection was detected at the surgical site in addition to abdominal wound dehiscence; surgical reintervention was performed. On physical examination, carried out 4 months after the second operation, the heifer presented normal development for the species. In conclusion, omphalocele may contain liver. Ectopic liver is an extremely rare condition. Surgical treatment in the presented case focused on umbilicus with exploration of the abdominal cavity appeared to be sufficient.
subdivided into six groups, five to seven animals per group, that were sacrificed at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 hours after surgery to determine the best time to evaluate the stellate cell population. Four to five animals from the experimental groups were sacrificed under ether anesthesia at 36 hours after partialhepatectomy.
It is known that hepatic fibrosis may regress following partialhepatectomy, since the hepatic parenchyma regenerates very rapidly, but not the excess of fibrous tissue. The present study evaluated this hypothesis by observing the behavior of systematized septal fibrosis induced by either 30 or 90-day-old Capillaria hepatica infection, in rats subjected to partialhepatectomy. The results revealed that the morphology of the fibrosis was unaffected, but its relative quantity within the microscope field appeared significantly decreased, as a consequence of the increased liver tissue mass following regeneration.
It is known that age is an important factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and the patients with POCD suffer from the impairment of multiple brain regions and multiple brain functions. However currently animal studies of POCD mainly focus on hippocampus region, therefore in this study we performed partialhepatectomy in young adult and aged rats to test the questions (1) whether POCD in animals involves other brain areas besides hippocampus; (2) how age influences POCD of young adult and aged animals. We found that (1) in young adult rats, the memory was not significantly affected (P.0.05) 1d, 3d and 7d after partialhepatectomy, but was significantly impaired (p,0.001) in aged rats 1d and 3d post-surgery; (2) in young adult rats, the surgery did not significantly affect the densities of dendritic spines of neurons at CA1, dentate gyrus (DG) and cingulate cortex (P.0.05, respectively) 1d and 3d post-surgery, but the spine densities at CA1 and DG of aged rats were significant reduced 1d and 3d post-surgery (p,0.001, respectively), however this didn’t happen at cingulate cortex (P.0.05); (3) In young adult rats, surgery didn’t affect the activation of microglia and levels of TNF-a and IL- 1b at hippocampus (P.0.05), but significantly activated microglia and increased levels of TNF-a and IL-1b at hippocampus of aged rats (P,0.05). Our data suggest that (1) partialhepatectomy-induced POCD mainly involves hippocampus impairments, and (2) differential loss of neuronal dendritic spines and neuroinflammation at hippocampus are most likely the mechanism for the formation of POCD in aged rats.
In the experimental model used in this work we did not include induction of colon cancer, because our objective was to examine the repercussion of colectomy associated partialhepatectomy without carcinogenesis. After the standardization of the technique in the pilot study, the morbidity was low and there was not mortality during the 30 days of observation of all rats. Despite the great surgical trauma, the animals progressed well
RESULTS: Mortality rates of the newborn and weaning groups were 30% and 0%, respectively. There was a significant decrease in liver mass soon after partialhepatectomy, which completely recovered on the seventh day in both groups. Newborn rat regenerating liver showed marked steatosis on the second day. In the weaning rat liver, mitotic figures were observed earlier, and their amount was greater than in the newborn. CONCLUSIONS. Suckling and weaning rat models of partialhepatectomy are feasible and can be used for studies of liver regeneration. Although similar, the process of hepatic regeneration in developing animals is different from adults.
Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most common malignant neoplasm in the West. About 50% of patients develop liver metastases throughout the course of the disease. hose are res ponsible for at least twothirds of deaths. Advances in surgical techniques and improve ment in chemotherapy regimens have allowed ofering treatment with curative intent to an increasing number of patients. his article reviews recent advances in the treatment of liver metastases, including strategies to increase resection (e.g., portal vein emboliza tion, radiofrequency ablation, twostage hepatectomy, conversion therapy and reverse treatment strategy) and hepatectomy in the presence of extrahepatic disease. Finally, the results of surgical treatment of liver metastases at the Hospital A.C. Camargo are briely shown.
We used a 20G needle to promote a partial obstruction of the portal vein; for this purpose, both the vessel and the nee- dle were tied with silk 3-0. The immediate vasodilation of the splanchnic territory was observed and then the needle was gently withdrawn, leaving only the portal vein partially occluded. Next, intestinal loops were replaced into the abdom- inal cavity of the animals, and an infusion of 10 mL of saline was administered, and the peritoneum was sutured with con- tinuous points. The epithelial layer was closed with individual sutures. The above-described model features a pre-hepatic portal hypertension. 7
benign lesions and minor resections show selection and should not be a parameter for comparison with open surgery. Randomized prospective studies have never been done, perhaps given the great diversity of liver procedures and the obvious preference of patients for minimally invasive surgery and, therefore, probably will not be carried out. Therefore, in the presence of impending hepatectomy, provided there are no contraindications to the method, laparoscopy must be the technique of choice.
This paper suggests the crystal clear concept behind the social engineering attack. Basically social engineering is a non technical attack. But social engineering attack is an attack on human psychology to get the information, but by using what? Basically it is an attack on human psychology by using some technical skills or technology. Social engineering attack has many types of attacks like fake mail, telephonic cheat etc. which are impossible without any technical skills, so in this paper we suggest that, it is a partial technical attack and can be divided in human based and typical computer based social engineering attack.
Increasing numbers of revision pro- cedures have been made in large ortho- pedic centers, thereby increasing the number of complications, primarily in- fections. In response, simpler and longer lasting implants have been de- veloped that allow the partial exchange of the implant in case of a revision pro- cedure.
It should be noted that, as we establish "partial and temporary unified theory so far" and the corresponding "partial and temporary unified variational principle so far", the including phenomenon is allowed. For example, the three terms gravitational formula Eq.(8) includes Eq.(7), while Eq.(7) includes Eq.(6). But we still consider these three equations simultaneously. This is because that, in some cases Eq.(7) is more convenient; as for Eq.(6), it is