Use Cases are presented through Use Case diagrams, one of the thirteen official UML diagrams. Use Case diagrams are a broad and not too detailed („mile wide inch deep“) representation of system functionality. Actually, one can say that Use Case diagrams define the scope of the system. These diagrams are supposed to answer the question of what the system does. The syntax used in UML notation for this purpose is very modest and easy to understand. However, that does not mean these diagrams are easy to concoct. Quite the contrary, making the Use Case diagrams is extremely complex and takes a lot of time and discussion until a satisfying solution can be made. Elements used to design them are Actors, Use Cases and relations which link the elements together. Every Use Case represents a separate, fully executable functionality of the system. Exceptions to this rule are Use Cases linked by content relations. This trait allows for creating TestCases based on Use Cases.
This chapter has presented two examples of testing a user interface. The tool worked as expected. Given that this is just a prototype the existing limitations can always be corrected in the future. One of the improvements is to extend the scope of the Display keyword. Currently the generated code for Display only checks if a given text is present in the HTML element, however if the text shown is dynamic, ie, varies depending on the error, it is not possible to test this event. Due to this limitation, it was decided that the keyword Display would not be a part of the testcases, ie, the method is created, but is not used in the testcases.
In this paper a new solution is proposed for testing simple stwo stage electronic circuits. It minimizes the number of tests to be performed to determine the genuinity of the circuit. The main idea behind the present research work is to identify the maximum number of indistinguishable faults present in the given circuit and minimize the number of testcases based on the number of faults that has been detected. Heuristic approach is used for test minimization part, which identifies the essential tests from overall testcases. From the results it is observed that, test minimization varies from 50% to 99% with the lowest one corresponding to a circuit with four gates .Test minimization is low in case of circuits with lesser input leads in gates compared to greater input leads in gates for the boolean expression with same number of symbols. Achievement of 99% reduction is due to the fact that the large number of tests find the same faults. The new approach is implemented for simple circuits. The results show potential for both smaller test sets and lower cpu times.
The main aim of this paper is to generate testcases from the use cases. In the real-time scenario we have to face several issues like inaccuracy, ambiguity, and incompleteness in requirements this is because the requirements are not properly updated after various change requests. This will reduce the quality of testcases. To overcome these problems we develop a solution which generates testcases at the early stages of system development life cycle which captures maximum number of requirements. As requirements are best captured by use cases our focus lies on generating testcases from use case diagrams.
PRIMAVERA Business Software Solutions has dedicated a lot of time and effort in the last years in the development of a framework that allows a programmer to model an application and its respective services. This framework will then generate a big part of, not only the application source code, but also its database and the User Interface. The objective of this dissertation project is to add a new feature to this framework - the test automation component. By using such a component, the framework will be able to generate testcases to validate the applications requirements. Since trying all possible combinations would be unpractical, one of the main objectives of this project is to generate a smaller set of testcases only that can assure that the system is being properly tested.
database queries, continuous input to system or database load. Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. A graceful degradation under load leading to non-catastrophic failure is the desired result. Often Stress Testing is performed using the same process as Performance Testing but employing a very high level of simulated load. Mutation Testing: Mutation testing is a method for determining if a set of test data or testcases is useful, by deliberately introducing various code changes (‘bugs’) and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the ‘bugs’ are detected. Proper implementation requires large computational resources Sanity testing: Typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or destroying databases, the software may not be in a ‘sane’ enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.
that it satisfies the test purpose. The work studies the synthesis of testcases for symbolic real-time systems. The method presented combines and generalizes two testing methods presented in previous work, namely: 1) a method for synthesizing testcases for (non-symbolic) real-time systems, and 2) a method for synthesizing testcases for (non-real-time) symbolic systems.
Given the fact that, in the context of this research, platform profiles define the range of the input models of the transformations, for generating testcases it is adequate to define criteria based on profiles and use them for the partition of the input range (Wang et al., 2008). In so doing, the selection of a group of relevant test data is intended. The selection of testcases, therefore, involved the selection of valid Input Models (PIMs) from a group of input models. Such test models are valid once they belong to the transformation input domain (in conformity with the input meta-model) (Sen et al., 2009).
In order to acquire reliable results about the scope of terrestrial laser scanning in real life testcases, four testcases are evaluated. The tests were conducted using a phase-based FARO Focus3D S120 scanner, set in an arbitrary coordinate system. All scans were taken with 5-10m spacing at 12.5mm/10m resolution with the lowest quality. Given this resolution, point cloud vertices can be extracted from the cloud with a standard deviation of 2mm. The control network was established by an external surveying company which provides an accuracy of 2mm in each direction on every control point. The individual point clouds were regis- tered using Leica Cyclone 8.0. The registration software allows for cloud-based registration and the distribution of weights across its registration network.
In this paper, the genetic algorithms are used to automatically generate testcases for path testing. The greatest merit of genetic algorithm in program testing is its simplicity. Each iteration of the genetic algorithms generates a generation of individuals. In practice, the computation time cannot be infinite, so that the iterations in the algorithm should be limited. Within the limited generations, solution derived by genetic algorithms may be trapped around a local optimum and as a result, fail to locate required may be trapped around unwanted paths and fail to locate the required global optimum. Although the tested cases generated by such algorithms may be trapped around unwanted paths and fail to locate the required paths, since the testcases of the first generation are normally distributed over the domain of the tested program, the probability of being trapped is very low. The quality of testcases produces by genetic algorithms is higher than the quality of testcases produced by random way because the algorithm can direct the generation of testcases to the desirable range fast.
the NoC. We developed different testcases to test the func- tionality of each processing element, the on-chip memories, the switch-boxes, the interface to external memory, the NoC- links and the physical ports. To verify the correct behavior of the system, these test results can be automatically compared with those of the simulation and FPGA emulation. To deter- mine the bottlenecks of the system or the distribution in the fabrication of the ASICs, we need to operate the components of the SoC at different clock frequencies. The interface on the additional FPGA enables the variation of the clock fre- quency during runtime. In this way we can operate the NoC at a specific speed while transmitting packets via the NoC and afterwards switching to a different frequency to deter- mine the maximum performance of the processing engines.
Software is an essential key in many devices and systems of our society and defines the behavior of many infrastructures of modern life. From mundane appliances like mi- crowaves, mobile phones and cars to more delicate applications such as airplanes and spaceships, software plays an important role. For those more delicate applications, even more than for the mundane ones, a special attention is needed. Many factors affect the engineering of reliable software, such as careful design and sound process management. However, testing is still the primary hardware and software technique used by the industry to evaluate software under development — and it consumes between 30 and 60 percent of the overall development effort (Utting and Legeard, 2007 ). Usually, testing is ad hoc, error-prone, and very expensive (Broy et al., 2005 ). Fortunately, a few basic software testing concepts can be used to design tests for a large variety of software applications (Ammann and Offutt, 2008 ). The goal of this thesis is to provide an easier and efficient testing envi- ronment through the use of model-based testing, where the model of the system under test is synchronized with its testcases and the developer is able to evolve the model by either evolving the model itself or its testcases, therefore being bidirectional.
The only way to categorically measure the skill of a ho- mogenisation algorithm for realistic conditions is to test it against a benchmark. Test data sets for previous benchmark- ing efforts have included one or more of the following: as homogeneous as possible real data, synthetic data with added inhomogeneities, or real data with known inhomo- geneities. Although valuable, station testcases are often rel- atively few in number (e.g. Easterling and Peterson, 1995) or lacking real-world complexity of both climate variabil- ity and inhomogeneity characteristics (e.g. Vincent, 1998; Ducré-Robitaille et al., 2003; Reeves et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2007; Wang, 2008a, b). A relatively comprehensive but regionally limited study is that of Begert et al. (2008), who used the manually homogenised Swiss network as a test case. The European homogenisation community (the HOME project; www.homogenisation.org; Venema et al., 2012) is the most comprehensive benchmarking exercise to date. HOME used stochastic simulation to generate realistic net- works of ∼ 100 European temperature and precipitation records. Their probability distribution, cross- and autocorre- lations were reproduced using a “surrogate data approach” (Venema et al., 2006). Inhomogeneities were added such that all stations contained multiple change points and the magnitudes of the inhomogeneities were drawn from a nor- mal distribution. Thus, small undetectable inhomogeneities were also present, which influenced the detection and ad- justment of larger inhomogeneities. Those methods that ad- dressed the presence of multiple change points within a se- ries (e.g. Caussinus and Lyazrhi, 1997, Lu et al., 2010; Han- nart and Naveau, 2012; Lindau and Venema, 2013) and the presence of change points within the reference series used in relative homogenisation (e.g. Caussinus and Mestre, 2004; Menne and Williams, 2005, 2009; Domonkos et al., 2011) clearly performed best in the HOME benchmark.
In present communication, a new regression test suite prioritization algorithm is presented, that prioritizes the testcases in the regression test suite with the goal of finding the maximum number of faults at the early phase of the testing process. It is presumed that the desired execution time to run the testcases, the faults they reveal, and the fault severities are known in advance. This technique considers total number of concealed faults detected by each test case, to prioritize them. First the total number of faults detected by each test case is found. From this, the one which detects maximum faults is selected and then the fault coverage data of each unselected test case is adjusted to indicate their new fault coverage data (faults detected by each test case that are not yet discovered). Then the test case which covers maximum faults is selected. If there is more than one test case which covers maximum number of faults then choose them randomly and again adjust the fault coverage data of unselected testcases. This process is repeated until all faults have been covered. When all faults have been covered, same process is repeated for the remaining testcases. To make this technique accustomed to the situation where test costs and fault severities vary, instead of summing the number of new faults covered by a test case t to calculate the worth of t, the number of new faults f covered by t is multiplied by the criticality-to-cost adjustment g(criticality t ;cost t ) for t.
Software testing is an expensive, time consuming, important activity that controls the quality of the software and important part of the software development and the maintenance. In testing the time is spent mainly for generating testcases and to test them. Whenever the software product gets modified, a group of the testcases has to be re-executed and the new output has to be compared with old one for avoiding the unwanted changes. If there is a match then the modifications that are made in the software will not affect other parts of the software. It is not practically possible to re execute all the test case in the program if any change has occurred. This problem of selection of those test case in regression testing can be re-solved by prioritizing the test case. This technique will reduce the testing effort. Different techniques were proposed in the past decades and still require further improvement. Here we propose a clustering based prioritization of the test case. The results achieved shows that prioritizing the test case has enhanced effectiveness of the test case.
interpretation is the familiarity of the patient with the proverb tested, and for this reason we selected a test in which the patients had to initially complete the proverb. he patients assessed failed to properly complete any of the proverbs presented. Given the case of semantic de- mentia involved, one may hypothesize that the diiculty on this task stems from the impaired ability to attribute meaning to the language structures (words and phrases) and from the signiicant changes in semantic memory inherent to this pathology. 14 he diiculty attributing
TG levels > 150 mg/dL are a primary marker for atherogenic factors as well as components of metabolic syndrome, such as elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, elevated LDL-cholesterol levels and low HDL- cholesterol levels (NCEP 2001). In some cases of hypertriglyceridemia, there is a genetic defect that alters TG metabolism (Jeppesen et al. 1998). Other influencing factors include oral contraceptives, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, alcohol, and exercise (AbouRjaili et al. 2010). Waist circumference was not recorded during interviews; we used BMI as a substitute for waist circumference. The BMI measurements used in this study are acceptable as per the WHO criteria, but it is not sufficient for the NCEP guidelines. However, the most important aspect of this research is that it represents a new perspective on TG metabolism using postprandial measurements as indicators of metabolic risk. Nevertheless, factors such as environmental, behavioral and genetic characteristics must be considered. Furthermore, we emphasize that all the subjects who participated in this study presented normal glucose blood levels, but we did not measure insulin resistance in order to compare this data with TG levels. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL- cholesterols levels were not measured either. Some reports indicated that TG levels could be considered an independent risk factor. Jeppesen et al. (1998) reported that fasting hypertriglyceridemia was a strong predictor of CAD independent of other risk factors, including HDL-cholesterol. Other report showed that elevated TG level was associated with a 30% increase in CAD risk in men and a 75% increase in CAD risk in women and adjustment for HDL-C and other risk factors attenuated these risks but did not render them non-significant (Hokanson and Austin 1996).
As we observed, the density of T CD8 + cells was high in all cases of gastric cancer. These cells, according to our understanding, have two basic functions: (i) acting as cytotoxic T cells to promote the elimination of bacilli; and (ii) modulating the inflammatory response, which is important for controlling infection. The release of a number of H. pylori antigens is important in terms of the former function. Many of these antigens are responsible for cell migration and establishment of an inflammatory response, as well as other mechanisms involved in the transformation of gastric mucosa epithelial cells to adenocarcinoma (BARBOSA & SCHINONNI, 2011; AMEDEI et al., 2012). Reports in the literature demonstrate that H. pylori can induce oncogenic transformation (ZORZETTO et al., 2012). Transgenic mice expressing H. pylori antigens develop several types of cancer, including gastric cancer (OHNISHI et al., 2008). In addition, the association between H. pylori and MALT-type lymphoma has been established (KUO & CHENG, 2013; SUZUKI et al., 2009). Therefore, carcinogenic activity can be attributed to this bacterium. The pathogenesis of neoplasms involves immunity-related mechanisms. Given this fact, we believe that with the progression of the H. pylori infection and the establishment of the inflammatory response, CD8 + T lymphocyte numbers increase and are present in cases of neoplasia.