Top PDF Cerebral Cortex Expression of Gli3 Is Required for Normal Development of the Lateral Olfactory Tract.

Cerebral Cortex Expression of Gli3 Is Required for Normal Development of the Lateral Olfactory Tract.

Cerebral Cortex Expression of Gli3 Is Required for Normal Development of the Lateral Olfactory Tract.

Correct formation of the lateral olfactory tract and specific innervation of the piriform cor- tex are prerequisites for the transmission of olfactory information [1,4,5]. Both of these pro- cesses are thought to depend on intrinsic properties of olfactory projection neurons that regulate axon outgrowth as well as environmental cues that control LOT axon navigation to the different structures of the olfactory cortex. This external control requires a number of axon guidance molecules, including EphrinA5 [6], Netrin1 [7] and Sema3B and F [8,9,10], as well as guidance by lot cells that are positioned on the telencephalic surface along the path followed by LOT axons [11]. In addition, LOT formation is controlled by several transcription factors [12,13,14], including the zinc finger transcription factor Gli3 which is expressed in progenitor cells of the dorsal and ventral telencephalon and in olfactory bulb progenitors but not in neu- rons of the piriform cortex or in mitral cells [15] (S1 Fig). Gli3 null (Gli3 Xt/Xt ) and Gli3 hypo- morphic (Gli3 Pdn/Pdn ) mouse mutants both show severe defects in the formation of the olfactory system [15,16,17]. Both mutants show no discernible olfactory bulb protrusion but form an olfactory bulb like (OB-like) structure containing mitral cells and OB interneurons in ectopic dorsal or lateral positions in the telencephalon [18]. In addition, Gli3 Pdn/Pdn mutants show apoptosis of precursor mitral cells in the OB-like structure [17] with residual surviving mitral cells creating a slender LOT [16,17]. Moreover, Gli3 Xt/Xt mutants show severe telence- phalic patterning defects resulting in the clustering of lot guidepost cells [19] and an expansion of the paleocortex [20]. Based upon these phenotypes, Gli3 could affect LOT development by controlling intrinsic OB development, the formation of environmental cues guiding LOT axons and/or the development of the LOT target area but the severity of the defects complicate the analysis of Gli3’s roles in LOT formation. To circumvent these difficulties, we made use of Emx1Cre;Gli3 fl/fl (Gli3 cKO ) conditional mutants [21] which we have previously shown to have an expanded piriform cortex [22]. These mutants formed an OB-like structure that did not protrude from the telencephalic surface but contained mitral cells and olfactory interneurons. Mitral cell axons formed a LOT which occupied a medially shifted position. LOT axons inner- vated an extended area of the piriform cortex and their collaterals penetrated deeper layers. No obvious defects were found in the expression of telencephalic guidance cues or in the formation of lot cells consistent with the formation of the LOT. However, time course analysis confirmed that the paleocortical primordium expanded from E13.5 onwards, coinciding with the arrival of the LOT axons. These findings suggest an important role for Gli3 in correctly positioning the LOT and controlling its innervation of the piriform cortex.
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The mammalian DM domain transcription factor Dmrta2 is required for early embryonic development of the cerebral cortex.

The mammalian DM domain transcription factor Dmrta2 is required for early embryonic development of the cerebral cortex.

(Figure 4A), Wnt3a-positive cortical hem region was dramatically reduced by E10.5, and only small portion was detected at E12.5 (Figure 4B). Consistent with a previous report describing the involvement of the cortical hem in choroid plexus formation [14,29], the expression of transthyretin (Ttr), a marker for the choroid plexus, was also significantly reduced in Dmrta2 2/2 mutants (Figure 4B). To examine the role of Dmrta2 in the formation of signaling centers other than the cortical hem, we checked the expression of Fgf8, a mediator of brain patterning expressed in the anterior midline of the telencephalon, but found no change in its expression (data not shown). We further confirmed the sustained disorganization of the medial structures of the telencephalon by immunostaining for regional markers; the expression of Otx2, which is predominantly expressed in the cortical hem and choroid plexus, was observed only in a very Figure 2. Expression of Dmrt3 and Dmrta2 in the developing telencephalon. (A) Immunostaining for Dmrt3 and Dmrta2 with DAPI counterstaining on coronal sections of the telencephalon at E10.5 and E12.5. (B) Immunostaining for Sox2 (top), Map2 (middle), and Otx2 (bottom) with Dmrt3 and Dmrta2 on coronal sections of the telencephalon at E13.5. Images show the magnified view of the dorsolateral area of the telencephalon. Dotted lines indicate the ventricular surface of the telencephalon (A), the border of the ventricular zone and cortical plate (B, top and middle), and the border of the hippocampal primordium and cortical hem (B, bottom). CP, cortical plate; OE, olfactory epithelium; V, ventricle; RP, roof plate; GE, ganglionic eminence; D, dorsal; L, lateral. ChP, choroid plexus; Hem, cortical hem. Scale bar, 100 mm.
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The role of reelin in the development and evolution of the cerebral cortex

The role of reelin in the development and evolution of the cerebral cortex

single reelin-positive cell was detected in the dense cortical plate in medial and dorsal pallial areas, which contained Dab1-posi- tive neurons. In the lateral cortex, reelin- and Dab1-positive neurons were somewhat mixed, although reelin expression seemed more diffuse than Dab1 expression, which was restricted to the dorsal aspect. At this level, some neurons may co-express reelin and Dab1, but this should be confirmed us- ing both markers simultaneously. The pat- tern in lizards is unique, with heavy reelin expression in the marginal zone and subcor- tex, and Dab1 expression in the dense corti- cal plate. The reelin expression level in the marginal zone and subcortex is comparable to that in mitral cells. One may perhaps imagine that reelin defines the upper and lower borders of the dense Dab1-positive cortical plate by preventing neuronal somata from migrating in reelin-rich zones. In the crocodilian embryonic telencephalon (Fig- ure 6), future cortical areas are less defined than in lizards, but clearly all of them contain reelin-positive cells in their marginal zone. In contrast to turtles, very few reelin-posi- tive cells are dispersed within the cortex. Unlike lizards, crocodiles lack reelin expres- sion in the subcortex. The level of reelin expression in marginal zone neurons is lower than or equivalent to that in the olfactory bulb. Not surprisingly, the chick telencepha- lon is rather similar to that of crocodiles (Figure 7). Cortical areas are, however, re- duced in birds compared to crocodilians and even compared to turtles, suggesting that crocodiles are more closely related to stem archosaurs. In parallel, reelin-positive neu- rons are dispersed in the chick marginal zone as in crocodiles, but they are less abundant and prominent than in the crocodilian cor- tex. It should be added that the DVR contains some reelin- and Dab1-positive cells in all reptiles studied, which, however, have not been studied in detail since the architectonic patterns of the DVR are poorly defined in most species, except lizards and Sphenodon.
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The possibility of increasing the hardness of the copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc [3]. But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements [4].
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with the use of the FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage of the electric arc I = 100 A, speed of the electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) of the tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time of the load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

The metaphysicians of chance point to the probabilistic nature of scien- tiic laws. Such probabilistic laws assert some dependencies and enable us to predict (with a given probability) the future of aggregates or collectives, but not the future of their individual parts. We also meet this kind of unpre- dictability in the case of human behaviour, individual as well as social. All these data give us evidence that our universe has not been created according to a very detailed and precise plan encompassing all substances and all of their properties. Protons, electrons, and genes, but also species, kinds, and particular human beings, are not part of a divine plan and creative volition (Bartholomew 1984, p. 145). How could it be that God brings about the existence of beings which are purposeless, unpredictable and, as such, not determined by his creative volition? If our non-deterministic universe has a Creator, He does not control every substance and every property, de facto, he is not the Creator of all contingent entities in our world. Thus, divine action consists in the creation of the universe in its initial stage, and the world is such that God need neither act continuously upon that world nor intervene from time to time in order to achieve His aims. God created the world in such a way that His providence does not have to control absolutely every contingent substance at every moment of its existence in order to realize all that divine will wills to be realized.
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

This article examines the effect of prolonged time of holding at the temperature of 620 0 C on the processes of secondary phase precipitation and mechanical properties of low-alloy cast steel with an addition of vanadium subjected to two variants of heat treatment, i.e. U:1150 0 C+H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C and H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C. To determine an impact of the applied heat treatment operations, testing of mechanical properties and microstructural examinations of the cast steel with 0,21 and 0,27%C were carried out.
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Suppressor of Fused Is Required for Determining Digit Number and Identity via Gli3/Fgfs/Gremlin.

Suppressor of Fused Is Required for Determining Digit Number and Identity via Gli3/Fgfs/Gremlin.

mutants [16, 18, 23]. Moreover, we also demonstrate that Sufu functions as a genetic modulator of both Gli2R and Gli3R levels in early limb bud patterning, consistent with the notion of ge- netic quantities of Gli2 and Gli3 as activators and repressors determine the regulation of the skeletal morphogenesis, digit number and digit identity [16, 18, 23]. We found that the repres- sor forms of Gli2 and 3 were significantly decreased in Sufu mutant limb buds at the early pat- terning stage, while the full length forms remained similar between the wild type and mutant, providing in vivo evidence that Sufu is a genetic regulator of Gli2 and Gli3 isoforms critical for limb bud patterning. In addition, our data that ectopic expression of posterior markers in the anterior limb bud lacking Sufu suggest that Sufu is a negative regulator of Shh signaling in early limb bud patterning [30]. It has been shown previously that the counteraction between Shh signaling and Gli3 determines the patterning along the anterior-posterior axis of the limb bud [16,17,21,24,40]. However, pre-patterning of the posterior specificity of the early limb bud prior to the activation of Shh signaling is established by anterior Gli3 restriction of posterior Hand2 expression [20]. In the absence of Shh signaling, Gli3R acts to induce the AER and the ZPA, which are subsequently maintained by activated Shh signaling that antagonizes the for- mation of GliR, as described in detail previously [1, 11, 12, 16, 17, 23]. Unbalanced production of either Gli3R or Gli3F exhibited polysyndactyly and loss of digit identity, while the limb bud expressing both forms results in the development of a limb indistinguishable from the wild type [16, 17, 42]. On the other hand, premature activation of Shh signaling inhibited the forma- tion of Gli3R [23], causing ectopic Hand2 expression in the anterior limb bud [23] and thus the failure to establish the anterior and posterior limb identities. Once established in the poste- rior limb bud, Shh signaling is the major coordinator for Gli3R and Gli3F balance. Loss of Sufu in the early limb bud prior to the activation of Shh signaling reduced the levels of Gli3R, but did not significantly affect the level of Gli3F, suggesting that Sufu is indispensable for the for- mation of identity and the regulation of digit number via Gli3R. Moreover, our Gli2R data indi- cate that Sufu modulate Gli2R in digit patterning, supporting the importance of Gli2, together with Gli3, in regulation of the limb anterior-posterior polarity [18].
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

containing from 16 to 18 % silicon, assigned for casting of high- duty parts for automotive applications. A wide range of these alloys has been specified by Western standards. Using information given in these standards, it was the aim of the authors of this study to “enrich” the family of “slightly” hypereutectic silumins with alloying additions (Cu, Ni and Mg).

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WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

WP114 No Impact of Rural Development Policies? No Synergies with Conditional Cash Transfers? An Investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil

Another possibility is that there were in fact impacts, but they were on outcomes that we were not able to measure. It was only possible to evaluate outcomes that can be measured in the Agricultural Censuses, and even among these there were limitations. For example, PG may have helped farmers to cope better with the risks that they face by providing technical assistance and disseminating new technologies in the semi-arid region. A lthough we couldn’t find any positive impacts on the growth of land productivity or income, it is possible that there was a reduction in the variance of agricultural production over time. An analysis of a reduction in risk would require data from more than one follow-up period, and this was not feasible with the data at our disposable. It is also possible that other dimensions of well-being may have been affected that we were unable to measure. The components of PG that encouraged participation in training events, or the creation of associations and common processing centers, may have been responsible for improvements in the human and social capital of the beneficiaries, or of non-agricultural sources of income. But these are not variables that could be measured with the Agricultural Censuses.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality of the products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability of the product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to the physical characteristics of the product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

RESUMO. A esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) é caracterizada por alterações na substância cinzenta frontostriatal, semelhantes às da demência frontotemporal (DFT). No entanto, essas alterações geralmente são detectadas em nível de grupo, e as escalas simples de atrofia cortical por ressonância magnética visual (MRI) podem elucidar ainda mais as alterações frontostriatais na ELA. Objetivo: Investigar se as alterações frontostriatais são detectáveis usando escalas de classificação de atrofia MRI visuais simples aplicadas em um nível de paciente individual em ELA. Métodos: 21 pacientes com ELA e 17 controles foram recrutados e submetidos a uma ressonância magnética. Sub-regiões do córtex pré-frontal do córtex orbitofrontal medial (MOFC), córtex orbitofrontal lateral (LOFC) e córtex cingulado anterior (ACC), sub-regiões estriadas do núcleo caudado (NC) e nucleus accumbens (NAcc) foram classificadas usando escalas de atrofia de substância cinzenta visuais de Likert de 5 pontos. Resultados: Observações de atrofia significativamente maiores no MOFC bilateral em pacientes com ELA versus controles foram observadas apenas (p <0,05). Pacientes com maior atrofia do MOFC tiveram atrofia significativamente maior do CN (p <0,05) e LOFC (p <0,05). Conclusão: O uso de escalas de avaliação de atrofia visuais simples em um nível individual detecta de forma confiável déficits frontostriatais específicos para ELA, mostrando diferenças de atrofia MOFC com atrofia associada de CN e LOFC. Este é um método aplicável que pode ser usado para apoiar o diagnóstico e o gerenciamento clínico.
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Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Table 2 shows statistically significant correlations between gene expression levels and age in the two intervals. Correcting for 98 comparisons, at p < 0.0005 fewer age correlations are evi- dent during Aging than Development. Only expression of ITPKB (r = 0.34) and of GRASP (r = - 0.38) correlates significantly with age during the Aging interval. During Development, on the other hand, expression of PIP42K2A, SYNJ2, SACM1L, IMPA1, PLA2G4A, SYNJ1, PIK3CB, PIK3R4, INPP1, PRKCD, PIK3CD, PIK3C3, and ITPKB increase significantly, while expression of AKT1, PIK3R2, IPMK, CYTH3, PIP5K1C, and PIK3C2B decrease significantly. Visual observation of expression levels during Development suggested nonlinear changes for some genes. We tested this by comparing nonlinear to linear goodness of fits for each of the 49 genes. For 10 of them, as illustrated in Fig 2, expression of ITBKB, PIP4K2A, SYNJ2, PRKCD, GRASP, PLA2G4A and PTGS2 increase non-linearly in the first years of life before reaching a plateau, whereas expression of PIK3C2B, CYTH3, and DGKE decline before reach- ing a plateau.
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Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of hypoeutectic alloys solidification is a complex problem, because increase of solid phase fraction is triggered by constitution of two structures: In the first stage, between eutectic and liquidus temperature, dendritic grains nucleate and grow. In the second stage, below eutectic temperature, eutectic structures form. In the latter stage eutectic grains nucleate and grow from the liquid phase that did not solidify in the first stage. As has been reported recently [1-8], various modes of eutectic transformation can be observed, depending on the alloy modifications. In unmodified alloys, eutectic grains nucleate in adjacency of dendritic grains. Whereas, in modified alloys (e.g. by adding strontium modifier) eutectic grains nucleate with no relation to dendritic structure, and the number of eutectic grains is smaller compared to the unmodified alloys.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

The results of calculations of the areas of non-planar grain surfaces and the grain areas on the projection plane for correct and incorrect macrostructures are presented as distributions with a logarithmic width of classes in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. 7. Parameters of the grain size distributions in 3D and 2D spaces are presented in Table 1. A supplementary evaluation of the grain size consists of a calculation of the shape and elongation coefficients. The results of the calculations are presented as distributions these values in Figures 8, 9, 10 and 11, respectively, while statistical parameters are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those of the central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance of the transformer winding is neglected in front of the consumption of the central branch [11]. But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances of the reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions of the elements of the central branch in the model of Steinmetz starting from the powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation of the iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes of the sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease of the temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature of the sample to about 996°C. Decrease of the temperature of the sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence of the following diffusion processes:
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 Glimpses for Effective implementation of  Virtual Trainer

Glimpses for Effective implementation of Virtual Trainer

This paper discusses and suggests some ideas and necessary changes in implementation of virtual trainer in an organization. With the invention of new technologies like high speed computer networks and multimedia computers, there is an increasing awareness that direct face to face teaching is not the only possible mode of training methodology in an organization. There is a demand for preparing high quality multimedia training material across all faculties, which can be used by learners of the course who either cannot attend the live lectures or prefer to study in an off-line mode. Assignments, Seminars and evaluations are done though on line mode. A new trend in implementing virtual trainer in Muti-user Virutal Reality system is discussed in this paper. The awareness of computer-based training is analyzed with employees of different categories. This method also leads to the development of effective implementation of web based virtual trainer through out the world in the near future.
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Analysis of the expression of taste and olfactory receptors in choroid plexus and orbitofrontal cortex of Alzheimer’s disease patients

Analysis of the expression of taste and olfactory receptors in choroid plexus and orbitofrontal cortex of Alzheimer’s disease patients

67 The finding that taste receptors are expressed in the central nervous system is somewhat expected since Tas2rs are responsible for the detection of bitter compounds, such as the natural alkaloids, quinine, caffeine, nicotine and morphine (Singh et al., 2011). Therefore, bitter sensing serves as a central warning signal against the ingestion of potentially harmful substances (Jung et al., 2014). So, it is not surprising that previous studies have found ectopic Tas2rs expression in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cells of the large intestine (Wu et al., 2002; Wu et al., 2005), chemosensory cells of nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003) and human airway cells (Shah et al., 2009; Deshpande et al., 2010). In the brain, the first evidence of Tas2rs expression was found in 2011 by Singh and colleagues. Using RT-PCR analysis, they found expression of Tas2r107, Tas2r108 and Tas2r138 in the brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, and nucleus accumbens of rat brain (Singh et al., 2011). The corresponding orthologues in human are TAS2R10, TAS2R4 and TAS2R38. Transcripts of Tas2r109 and Tas2r144 (corresponding human orthologue is TAS2R40) were also found in rat choroid plexus alongside with their corresponding proteins in CP explants and CP epithelial cells by Tomás and colleagues. The functionality of these bitter receptors was also assessed by calcium imaging, revealing that a bitter compound elicits calcium responses in CP epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and that this response could be suppressed by a bitter receptor blocker (Tomás et al., 2016).
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