quality is thesomaticcellcount which is also the main mammary gland health condition measurement. In the cause of udder infection, their count increases even to a dozen or so million per 1 ml ofmilk [1,4,5.6,7]. Udder disease condition results in a lower quality and quantity ofthemilk obtained, shortens the time ofgoat utilization and has a negative effect onthe kid rearing indicators, and thus it decreases thegoat farming proﬁtability. Thecountofcell elements in milk is species-speciﬁc. Goatmilk contains on average a higher somaticcellcount (ks) than cow milk [4,8], which is due to the apocrine character ofmilk secretion in goats, namely involving the destruction ofthemilk-producing cell and its reaching the light ofmilk-producing alveolus. In cattle and sheep milk secretion is mesocrine in character [4,5]. Goatmilk obtained from a healthy udder contains from a few hundred thousand to a few million ks in 1 ml, and in cow milk in the ﬁrst lactation thesomaticcellcount should not exceed 100 thousand per 1 ml, and in successive 200 thousand per 1 ml [3,4,5,8,10]. Thesomaticcellcount depends on many factors, namely: the breed, age, lactation period, season, nutrition, milking technique, and most of all the health condition of udder.
In several studies onthe incidence of TBC in milk, it was observed that high microbial counts are sourced from disability in washing and sanitizing ofthe equipments, milking utensils and inadequate cooling system (TRONCO, 2008). In Lacerda et al. (2010), high bacterial counts were due to failure in handling, especially with regard to hygiene and health care in milking. Another explanation for high values of TBC is the season, which infl uences the feeding ofthe herd and milk production, interfering with the bacterial content (HOOGERHEIDE and MATTIODA, 2012; PAIVA et al., 2012). This aspect can be seen in a study about thequalityof refrigerated raw milk in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil, showing that the mean TBC in March, a period considered rainy (October-March), of 1.891.000 cells/mL, was higher than the average of July, a period considered dry, of 760.000 cells/mL (ALMEIDA, 2010).
The aim of this study was to characterize the production systems and milkqualityof eight milk production units (MPU) in the semiarid region ofthe state of Ceará, Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted through a questionnaire onthe characteristics ofthe properties and production systems. Samples ofmilk and water were collected for a period of 12 months. Four MPUs were classified as semi-specialized and four as non-specialized. No differences were observed in milk composition between the two production systems, and both showed protein, fat, and solids-not-fat levels. Differences were observed for somaticcellcount. The semi-specialized systems showed an average somaticcell and total bacterial count which is above the limit established by the 62nd Normative Instruction. All water samples showed presence of Escherichia coli. Somaticcellcount was positively correlated (fat) and negatively (lactose). For total bacterial count, correlations were negative for fat, total solids, and somaticcellcount. The microbiological qualityofmilk is not in accordance with the 62st and 7th Normative Instructions. The specialization ofthe production systems did not result in improved microbiological aspects ofmilk.
ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate thequalityof raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions ofthe state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into conﬁnement, semi-conﬁnement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somaticcellcount (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC) and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system onthe contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC ofthemilk. However, conﬁnement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods ofthe year.
Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls ofmilk and milk products, Official Gazzete of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing onthe market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk- based products) for qualityof raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milkquality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milkquality pro- duced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts ofthe country. From the test- ed samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment ofthe results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% ofthe samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.
T he objective of this study was to evaluate the situation in somaticcell counts in one selected herd throughout three-years period T he was study performed in the experimental herd ofthe RIAP Nitra, Slovakia, between 2010 and 2013. Genotypes of purebred T sigai (TS), Improved Valachian (IV) and Lacaune (LC) and their crossbred Tsigai× Lacaune (TS×LC) and Improved Valachian × Lacaune (IV×LC) ewes on their 1-3 lactation were investigated. SCC ofmilk was determined in 2632 milk samples collected from lactating dairy ewes. Onthebasisof SCC the dairy ewes were divided into the five groups: G 1 = SCC <100 × 10 3 cells.ml -1 , G 2 = SCC between 100-
Somaticcellcount (SCC) is a recognized indicator of cow’s health and milkquality. Milk SCC reflects the level of infection and inflammation in the mammary gland of dairy cows, associated with mastitis. Milksomatic cells are primarily leukocytes, which depend on intensity ofthe cellular immune defence. Mastitis is one ofthe most common dairy cow diseases, and it can causes considerable economic losses to dairy farmers. The losses are caused by several factors, such as decreasing milk yield, marked compositional changes in milk that reduced milkquality, treatment and veterinary costs and increasing risk of early culling of cows. Somaticcellcount in milk has been accepted as the world standard for mastitis diagnosis (International IDF Standard 148A, 1995). Milk from healthy udder usually has a SCC less than 200,000 cells/mL, whereas for cows with subclinical mastitis SCC is greater than 200,000 cells/mL. Milk from cows with clinical mastitis may have SCC of several million cells/ml (Smith, 1995). Somaticcellcount is an indicator ofmilkquality and shelf-life is reduced for high-SCC milk. The processing quality and yield of some milk products is reduced when SCC increases (Barbano et al., 1991).
The effects of farm, parity (PO) and month of parturition onmilk production, percentage of fat and protein, somaticcellcount (SCC), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration were assessed on four specialized dairy farms using 120 cows. Also, the effects of MUN on gestation rate (GR) and artificial insemination rate (AIR) in early lactation were studied. The parameters of production and milkquality were similar among farms and were not influenced by the month of parturition. Farm D presented the highest MUN concentration. Concentration of MUN, percentages of fat and protein and SCC were not influenced by PO. Cows with a value of MUN between 10.1 and 13.0 mg/dL had the highest AIR and GR between days 55 and 70 postpartum and after 70 days in milk. These data suggested that MUN concentration was a useful parameter to predict the nutritional and reproductive stages of dairy cows.
ABSTRACT - The objective of this work was to evaluate themilkqualityof dairy farms in the city of Rondinha, Rio Grande do Sul, through somaticcellcount (SCC), standard plate count (SPC) and protein and fat indexes, comparing with the standards required by Normative Instruction 62 (BRAZIL, 2011), evaluating the main aspects ofthe production chain that influence the final qualityofthe product. The target municipality of this study was Rondinha were the 64 producers evaluated during four months in the city of Rondinha in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, largely do not meet the requirements of Normative Instruction 62, when standard plate count and somaticcell counts were evaluated, since only 35% of producers are in accordance with the appropriate standards. There is a need for greater care regarding the hygiene and management of these dairy herds and the accompaniment of qualified technicians to give support to the producers.
In 2005 the EMBRAPA Goat and Sheep created the Dairy Goat Breeding Program. The program aimed to structure the dairy goat national data bank and to conduct progeny tests for the main dairy breeds raised in the country. Supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, theGoat and Sheep Breeders Association ofthe state of Minas Gerais (ACCOMIG – CAPRILEITE) and by EMBRAPA Goat and Sheep, the Official Dairy Control Test has been carried out by technicians ofthe Brazilian Association of Holstein Breeders (ABCBRH) with an average of 45 days between tests. Some breeders have been carrying out several analyses for milk protein, fat, lactose, total solids contents and somaticcellcount. The Official Dairy Control Test has been carried out in eleven herds in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (the southeastern region of Brazil) (LÔBO et al., 2010). Descriptions ofthe national breeding program may be found in Facó et al. (2011) who state that current selection criteria were mainly designed to respond to market demands. They are focused onmilk yields, length of lactation period and reproductive traits, without any formal use of selection index theory.
Eight cows ofthe Jersey breed were separated according to milk production, lactation period and live weight and were randomly blocked in two homogeneous groups, in a randomized complete design, considering factors the treatments (n=2) and observation periods (n=9) with averages repeated in time. The variables analyzed were: milk fat percentage (n=36), protein (n=36), lactose (n=36), total solids (n=36) and somaticcellcount (n=36). On average, at the beginning ofthe experiment the animals age was 59 ± 3.5 months old, 2.5 ± 0 lactations, 2.8 ± 0 body score, 407 ± 13.95 kg live weight, 134 ± 2.47 days of lactation and 17.4 ± 1.2 kg milk per cow/day. Data was collected during nine periods from August to November of 2006, with an interval of about 15 days, in a total of 120 days of experiment. The cows were kept on winter cultivated pasture, consisting of Avena strigosa (black oats), Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass) and Vicia sativa L. (common vetch), half receiving a daily supplementation of 8 kg ofthe concentrate, according to the farm management.
decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division ofthe entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But onthe whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement ofthe figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves ofthe body), through which the aesthetic sides ofthe structures were emphasized. Monumental characters ofthe structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale ofthe monument, the height ofthe walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics ofthe interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills ofthe artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
Abstract: Mathematical model for the impact of pressure drop onthe human body has been investigated in the present studies. The studies has been aimed at personnel (army and mountaineer) who would be prone for higher altitude effect onthe body and to suggest them appropriate measures (as a precautionary or advisory purpose) who either will be getting inducted onto higher altitudes venturing onto higher peaks. The model accounts for heights of altitudes ranging from 4000-6000 meters and accounting for all the possible cardiovascular diseases
Table 2 gives the results of mechanical tests carried out onthe low-alloy cast steel with additions of vanadium and compares them with the results of previous studies made on this cast steel (designated as P1 in Tables 1 and 2) subjected to heat treatment recommended by the respective standard .
Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location ofthe producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state ofthe economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent ofthe field. Every well drilled inside the known extent ofthe field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
)n the context ofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal onthe capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective ofthe European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
The tool steels consistute a very important group of materials used for the production, not only tools, but also machine ele- ments, that need to have the increased strength, for example the high-speed steels are used onthe rolling bearing operating in high temperatures . Modern technologies such as: laser treatment, electron treatment, CVD, PVD methods, give the possibility of forming the structure ofthe surface layer of steels providing the demaded properties. The economic factors direct research in using the plasma ofthe electric arc for shaping the surface layer ofthe machine elements and tools. Advantages of that method are the possibilities of receiving wider treated areas with one stream ofthe heat in comparison with the laser technologies or electron
The possibility of increasing the hardness ofthe copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc . But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements .
In the paper the numerical solution ofthe inverse problem consisting in the identification ofthe heat flux onthe continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. Onthe stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme ofthe boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part ofthe paper the examples of computations are shown.
Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part ofthe four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer ofthe CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts ofthe free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are