Top PDF CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

quality is the somatic cell count which is also the main mammary gland health condition measurement. In the cause of udder infection, their count increases even to a dozen or so million per 1 ml of milk [1,4,5.6,7]. Udder disease condition results in a lower quality and quantity of the milk obtained, shortens the time of goat utilization and has a negative effect on the kid rearing indicators, and thus it decreases the goat farming profitability. The count of cell elements in milk is species-specific. Goat milk contains on average a higher somatic cell count (ks) than cow milk [4,8], which is due to the apocrine character of milk secretion in goats, namely involving the destruction of the milk-producing cell and its reaching the light of milk-producing alveolus. In cattle and sheep milk secretion is mesocrine in character [4,5]. Goat milk obtained from a healthy udder contains from a few hundred thousand to a few million ks in 1 ml, and in cow milk in the first lactation the somatic cell count should not exceed 100 thousand per 1 ml, and in successive 200 thousand per 1 ml [3,4,5,8,10]. The somatic cell count depends on many factors, namely: the breed, age, lactation period, season, nutrition, milking technique, and most of all the health condition of udder.
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Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários

Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks Contagem bacteriana total e contagem de células somáticas em leite cru refrigerado armazenado em tanques comunitários

In several studies on the incidence of TBC in milk, it was observed that high microbial counts are sourced from disability in washing and sanitizing of the equipments, milking utensils and inadequate cooling system (TRONCO, 2008). In Lacerda et al. (2010), high bacterial counts were due to failure in handling, especially with regard to hygiene and health care in milking. Another explanation for high values of TBC is the season, which infl uences the feeding of the herd and milk production, interfering with the bacterial content (HOOGERHEIDE and MATTIODA, 2012; PAIVA et al., 2012). This aspect can be seen in a study about the quality of refrigerated raw milk in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil, showing that the mean TBC in March, a period considered rainy (October-March), of 1.891.000 cells/mL, was higher than the average of July, a period considered dry, of 760.000 cells/mL (ALMEIDA, 2010).
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CHARACTERIZE OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND MILK QUALITY OF PRODUCTION UNITS IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF CEARÁ CARACTERIZAÇÃO DOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO E QUALIDADE DO LEITE DE UNIDADES PRODUTORAS NO SEMIÁRIDO DO CEARÁ

CHARACTERIZE OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND MILK QUALITY OF PRODUCTION UNITS IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF CEARÁ CARACTERIZAÇÃO DOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO E QUALIDADE DO LEITE DE UNIDADES PRODUTORAS NO SEMIÁRIDO DO CEARÁ

The aim of this study was to characterize the production systems and milk quality of eight milk production units (MPU) in the semiarid region of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted through a questionnaire on the characteristics of the properties and production systems. Samples of milk and water were collected for a period of 12 months. Four MPUs were classified as semi-specialized and four as non-specialized. No differences were observed in milk composition between the two production systems, and both showed protein, fat, and solids-not-fat levels. Differences were observed for somatic cell count. The semi-specialized systems showed an average somatic cell and total bacterial count which is above the limit established by the 62nd Normative Instruction. All water samples showed presence of Escherichia coli. Somatic cell count was positively correlated (fat) and negatively (lactose). For total bacterial count, correlations were negative for fat, total solids, and somatic cell count. The microbiological quality of milk is not in accordance with the 62st and 7th Normative Instructions. The specialization of the production systems did not result in improved microbiological aspects of milk.
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Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC) and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.
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Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazzete of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk- based products) for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality pro- duced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the test- ed samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.
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THE FREQUENCY OF DISTRIBUTION OF SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY EWE’S MILK

THE FREQUENCY OF DISTRIBUTION OF SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY EWE’S MILK

T he objective of this study was to evaluate the situation in somatic cell counts in one selected herd throughout three-years period T he was study performed in the experimental herd of the RIAP Nitra, Slovakia, between 2010 and 2013. Genotypes of purebred T sigai (TS), Improved Valachian (IV) and Lacaune (LC) and their crossbred Tsigai× Lacaune (TS×LC) and Improved Valachian × Lacaune (IV×LC) ewes on their 1-3 lactation were investigated. SCC of milk was determined in 2632 milk samples collected from lactating dairy ewes. On the basis of SCC the dairy ewes were divided into the five groups: G 1 = SCC <100 × 10 3 cells.ml -1 , G 2 = SCC between 100-
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An investigation on somatic cell count in milk samples collected from dairy farms at Tabriz region of Iran

An investigation on somatic cell count in milk samples collected from dairy farms at Tabriz region of Iran

Somatic cell count (SCC) is a recognized indicator of cow’s health and milk quality. Milk SCC reflects the level of infection and inflammation in the mammary gland of dairy cows, associated with mastitis. Milk somatic cells are primarily leukocytes, which depend on intensity of the cellular immune defence. Mastitis is one of the most common dairy cow diseases, and it can causes considerable economic losses to dairy farmers. The losses are caused by several factors, such as decreasing milk yield, marked compositional changes in milk that reduced milk quality, treatment and veterinary costs and increasing risk of early culling of cows. Somatic cell count in milk has been accepted as the world standard for mastitis diagnosis (International IDF Standard 148A, 1995). Milk from healthy udder usually has a SCC less than 200,000 cells/mL, whereas for cows with subclinical mastitis SCC is greater than 200,000 cells/mL. Milk from cows with clinical mastitis may have SCC of several million cells/ml (Smith, 1995). Somatic cell count is an indicator of milk quality and shelf-life is reduced for high-SCC milk. The processing quality and yield of some milk products is reduced when SCC increases (Barbano et al., 1991).
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Monitoring the Nutritional and Reproductive State of Dairy Cows Through the Presence of Urea in Milk

Monitoring the Nutritional and Reproductive State of Dairy Cows Through the Presence of Urea in Milk

The effects of farm, parity (PO) and month of parturition on milk production, percentage of fat and protein, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration were assessed on four specialized dairy farms using 120 cows. Also, the effects of MUN on gestation rate (GR) and artificial insemination rate (AIR) in early lactation were studied. The parameters of production and milk quality were similar among farms and were not influenced by the month of parturition. Farm D presented the highest MUN concentration. Concentration of MUN, percentages of fat and protein and SCC were not influenced by PO. Cows with a value of MUN between 10.1 and 13.0 mg/dL had the highest AIR and GR between days 55 and 70 postpartum and after 70 days in milk. These data suggested that MUN concentration was a useful parameter to predict the nutritional and reproductive stages of dairy cows.
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RELEVANT ASPECTS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF RONDINHA-RS AND ITS EFFECTS ON MILK QUALITY

RELEVANT ASPECTS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF RONDINHA-RS AND ITS EFFECTS ON MILK QUALITY

ABSTRACT - The objective of this work was to evaluate the milk quality of dairy farms in the city of Rondinha, Rio Grande do Sul, through somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC) and protein and fat indexes, comparing with the standards required by Normative Instruction 62 (BRAZIL, 2011), evaluating the main aspects of the production chain that influence the final quality of the product. The target municipality of this study was Rondinha were the 64 producers evaluated during four months in the city of Rondinha in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, largely do not meet the requirements of Normative Instruction 62, when standard plate count and somatic cell counts were evaluated, since only 35% of producers are in accordance with the appropriate standards. There is a need for greater care regarding the hygiene and management of these dairy herds and the accompaniment of qualified technicians to give support to the producers.
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Comparação de índices de seleção de caprinos leiteiros em regiões tropicais

Comparação de índices de seleção de caprinos leiteiros em regiões tropicais

In 2005 the EMBRAPA Goat and Sheep created the Dairy Goat Breeding Program. The program aimed to structure the dairy goat national data bank and to conduct progeny tests for the main dairy breeds raised in the country. Supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, the Goat and Sheep Breeders Association of the state of Minas Gerais (ACCOMIG – CAPRILEITE) and by EMBRAPA Goat and Sheep, the Official Dairy Control Test has been carried out by technicians of the Brazilian Association of Holstein Breeders (ABCBRH) with an average of 45 days between tests. Some breeders have been carrying out several analyses for milk protein, fat, lactose, total solids contents and somatic cell count. The Official Dairy Control Test has been carried out in eleven herds in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (the southeastern region of Brazil) (LÔBO et al., 2010). Descriptions of the national breeding program may be found in Facó et al. (2011) who state that current selection criteria were mainly designed to respond to market demands. They are focused on milk yields, length of lactation period and reproductive traits, without any formal use of selection index theory.
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Milk quality of Jersey cows kept on winter pasture supplemented or not with concentrate

Milk quality of Jersey cows kept on winter pasture supplemented or not with concentrate

Eight cows of the Jersey breed were separated according to milk production, lactation period and live weight and were randomly blocked in two homogeneous groups, in a randomized complete design, considering factors the treatments (n=2) and observation periods (n=9) with averages repeated in time. The variables analyzed were: milk fat percentage (n=36), protein (n=36), lactose (n=36), total solids (n=36) and somatic cell count (n=36). On average, at the beginning of the experiment the animals age was 59 ± 3.5 months old, 2.5 ± 0 lactations, 2.8 ± 0 body score, 407 ± 13.95 kg live weight, 134 ± 2.47 days of lactation and 17.4 ± 1.2 kg milk per cow/day. Data was collected during nine periods from August to November of 2006, with an interval of about 15 days, in a total of 120 days of experiment. The cows were kept on winter cultivated pasture, consisting of Avena strigosa (black oats), Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass) and Vicia sativa L. (common vetch), half receiving a daily supplementation of 8 kg of the concentrate, according to the farm management.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

decoration in Airtam "the sculpture with the busts of musicians, gift-bearers was subjected to the unified principle of division of the entire space into rhythmic segments" [47, 86].As an example, one may consider the case when the sculpture had a religious or symbolic significance, and was a crucial element in resolving the entire interior ("Hall of Warriors" in Toprak-kale). But on the whole, in contrast to a more constrained medieval sculpture, antique one differed in realistic nature (right arrangement of the figures), expressiveness (the types of faces and their emotions), naturalness (in different curves of the body), through which the aesthetic sides of the structures were emphasized. Monumental characters of the structures, their ideological concepts (for example, the idea of greatness) were emphasized by means of sculpture. And, the most important aspect, the sculpture differed in architectonic manner (Buddhas - under the arches, gandharvas– between the acanthuses), as the determinant factor was still the scale of the monument, the height of the walls, the conditions of observation, the very architectonics of the interior. A high quality performance, especially in the Greco-Bactrian period, testified to the high skills of the artists, in the best traditions of Hellenic arts. "The artist could be acourt master from Seleucid accompanying the king to a distant Bactria" [30, 190]. It is assumed that in Bactria existed at least three sculptural schools; their students were familiar with Asia Minor sculpture schools [48, 125p]. Smooth walls of buildings were divided not only horizontally –by friezes, zofors, but also vertically - through door and window openings, columns and pilasters. The synthesis of architecture and decorative plastic forms, generally typical for later Hellenistic states, could be seen in the ancient Bactrian capitals - Corinthian and composite ones, representing a complete architectural form. Professional masters "were widely using the approach of architectonic
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On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

Abstract: Mathematical model for the impact of pressure drop on the human body has been investigated in the present studies. The studies has been aimed at personnel (army and mountaineer) who would be prone for higher altitude effect on the body and to suggest them appropriate measures (as a precautionary or advisory purpose) who either will be getting inducted onto higher altitudes venturing onto higher peaks. The model accounts for heights of altitudes ranging from 4000-6000 meters and accounting for all the possible cardiovascular diseases
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Table 2 gives the results of mechanical tests carried out on the low-alloy cast steel with additions of vanadium and compares them with the results of previous studies made on this cast steel (designated as P1 in Tables 1 and 2) subjected to heat treatment recommended by the respective standard [9].

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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location of the producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state of the economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent of the field. Every well drilled inside the known extent of the field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services and of the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The tool steels consistute a very important group of materials used for the production, not only tools, but also machine ele- ments, that need to have the increased strength, for example the high-speed steels are used on the rolling bearing operating in high temperatures [1]. Modern technologies such as: laser treatment, electron treatment, CVD, PVD methods, give the possibility of forming the structure of the surface layer of steels providing the demaded properties. The economic factors direct research in using the plasma of the electric arc for shaping the surface layer of the machine elements and tools. Advantages of that method are the possibilities of receiving wider treated areas with one stream of the heat in comparison with the laser technologies or electron
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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The possibility of increasing the hardness of the copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc [3]. But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements [4].
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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the numerical solution of the inverse problem consisting in the identification of the heat flux on the continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. On the stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme of the boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
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