Soundcontrol doors are doors that employ the used ofsound in opening and closing, this work is unique in every aspect of operation in terms of accessibility andcontrol. It may be confused with soundcontrol switch.A soundcontrol switch is an electronic switch that employs the use ofsound to ON and OFF a device. This workdiffers from sound switch even though sound is used to activate their mechanisms and operation. In this work, the system comprises of two systems; Security Access systemandControl Mechanism. The security access system is the system that grants the user or operator an access into any system while the control mechanism controls the operation of the security device. The increasing rate of crime, attacks by thieves, intruders and vandals despite all forms of security gadgets and locks still need the attention of researchers in finding a permanent solution for the well-being of lives and properties of individuals [Adamu, 2009]. This work will employ the use sound pattern of knock to grant access to only those who inputs the correct sound pattern (knock) on the door. It was designed to eliminate the problem of unwanted noise. One major problem of the soundcontrol devices is environmental noise which triggersthe devices. In this work, an obstacle sensor (infrared) was introduced into the device to avoid false triggerring. Hence, the soundcontrolsystem will only respond to whoever blocks the obstacle sensor to input the correct sound pattern set by the user or operator. The control mechanism involves the use of a DC motor and gear system in opening and closing the door. Immediately the sound have been encoded by the user, the soundcontrolsystem decodes it and sends a signal to the control mechanism which opens and closes the door depending on the signal sent by the soundcontrolsystem. The major function of the DC motor is to provide the required turning torque when activated while the gear system is to increase or reduce the speed of the DC motor used.
The proposed work presents a navigation system, which detects the obstacles and also guide to visually impaired people about appropriate path. The system we propose detects the obstacle via an infrared based detecting systemand sends back vibro-tactile or sound (buzzer) feedback to inform the user about its position. The most common method of obstacle detection, used by blind people is the walking stick. The limitation of walking stick is that, it does not provide protection near to head area. A sensor module is fixed on a light weight cap allowing the user to obtain the information about obstacles (near to head area) and also about correct path on which the user should move. When the user uses this system with cane, he is fully protected about obstacles and can navigate freely into the environment .
The Camera utilizes an autopilot for navigation andcontrolof the camera, for everything else it is RC parts (wings, servos, propellers, glow fuel or batteries) purchased locally. This makes the Camera parts practical and accessible worldwide. Furthermore, the Camera lends itself easily to the establishment of a Dealer System due to ease of use, minimal training required, and locally available RC parts. Developmentof a suitable lightweight system in which a sensor is airborne for carrying out surveillance. The sensor should remain airborne for a minimum of 2 minutes at a minimum height of 30 meter and above to do imaging of a proportionate area below. Recognizable real time video information should be transmitted to the ground receiver point suitably located in the observation area. Sensor should be able to detect man-sized objects in above-mentioned conditions. Proposed solution should take up designof configuration and identification of suitable options for sensor, data link, ground observation & control points and other support system(s). System configuration details comprising of sensor, data link, observation, data processing mechanism and support system should form part of the design.
computing servers. It has faced some legal challenges from patients and others in the health care delivery sector. The individual’s health status is rated on a scale of 1 to 10. The data is then time-stamped, uploaded to a server and a timeline of the patient’s wellness is generated. A time graph of his or her health status over time is then made available and displayed. A Java server connects the android application to the services it needs in order to achieve the desired functionality of the project. The server administrator retains the capacity to controland secure the server, as well as maintaining data and connection integrity, (2) BeWell is an application developed by the researchers in [Lane et al] that assists users in maintaining a healthy lifestyle by keeping track of their everyday activities such as sleep, physical activity and social interactions. It does not end there, but makes available excellent feedback to enhance user health, thus, helping an individual to easily identify any signs of decline, (3) the authors in [Hicks et al., (2010)] developed AndWellness, which is a health application on an android platform. The application works by collecting data via an Android device, stores the data on a server that performs configuration and goes further to display the statistical breakdown of participants. Users are made to provide answers to surveys at certain configured intervals. The answers to the surveys are uploaded onto a central server via a wireless mechanism and parsed into a central database which can be seen by the participants or even researchers. The server for the AndWellness application is implemented in Java 1.6 and is hosted in the Apache Tomcat 6.0 environment. Data storage is made possible through the help of MySQL Database, (4) Woudshet, a researcher from University of California developed the Android Electrocardiogram (ECG) Application in [Woudshet, (2012)]. It helps in monitoring electric activities of the heart in a cheap, efficient and easy to use manner from the users’ mobile phone. The application can be used during exercises so as to monitor one’s heart conditions. These features make it suitable for a fitness and healthcare solution, (5) Diabetes Care developed by Anders Widén in [Widén, (2008)] for Android is implemented as an android application with the database residing solely on SQLite. It is designed to help diabetic patients monitor their health.
This Paper is a very good example of embedded system as all its operations are controlled by intelligent software inside the microcontroller. The aim of this paper is to control i.e. to ON/OFF of generator, the electrical or electronic appliances connected to this system from anywhere in the world. For this purpose user can use any type of Mobile. This way it overcomes the limited range of infrared and radio remote controls. Using the convenience of SMS, this paper lets you remotely control equipment by sending plain text messages, such as "abcdn1", "abcdnaf3", "abcdf57n142"– all of which can be pre-programmed into the controller and easily remembered later. It can control up to eight external devices Short Message Service (SMS) is defined as a text-based service. That enables up to 160 characters to be sent from one mobile phone to another. In a similar vein to email, messages are stored and forwarded at an SMS centre, allowing messages to be retrieved later if you are not immediately available to receive them. Unlike voice calls, SMS messages travel over the mobile network„s low-speed control channel.
Operating traffic signals is inherently a difficult task with many conflicting objectives. The traffic control should be effective by minimizing the waiting times of the vehicles while maximizing the capacity of the intersection. In addition to this, the emissions should be minimized and benefits should be given to e.g. public transportation. All these objectives should be realized without compromising the safety of the road users. The aims described above are hard to cope with by using traditional time-based or detector-based control methods since there is no intuitive way of seeing how individual parameter changes affect the overall performance. There are two kinds of research based on fuzzy logic. One is focused on simple traffic conditions and researches single intersection. Obviously, these researches can’t apply to complex traffic systems with many intersections as a whole in a modern city. The other new methods Pappis et al  try to consider all these intersections as a whole and make the average delay time of vehicle lower. In all the cities in the world, the registration of new vehicles each year increased by about twenty percent. This increment is rather than alarming and even with the developmentof the new roads other measures have to be stepped up and introduced as quickly as possible Kim et al , Favilla et al , Bagheri et al ,Tan et al . , Nakatsuyama et al . It is understandable that automatic control systems should relieve humans from manual control; however, such automatic system does not work well in many circumstances especially during oversaturated or unusual load conditions which could be due to limitations of the algorithms or sensing devices. In this respect manual control seems to be better due to the intelligence of the humans in understanding the traffic conditions at the respective junctions.
Abstract: The controlsystemdesign for position controlof a wearable exoskeleton of the right lower limb is proposed using a speed controller. A great variety of exoskeletons has already been developed but research in this field is still under development because of the variety of applications and ongoing introduction of innovative technology , . The proposed exoskeleton is designed for user mobility improvement for people with movement deficiency in the right leg. The mechanical designof the exoskeleton consists of a model developed in Solidworks, which was imported into MATLAB/Simmechanics, upon which the designof the controlsystem is based. The controlsystem, which is responsible for the behaviour of the exoskeleton is one of the most important aspects of this system. The controlsystem uses feedback loops to adjust the movements of the two exoskeleton motors, one in the hip- and one in the knee joint. Each motor is equipped with a gear and the motor encoders deliver the actual values of speed and position of each joint as feedback to the controlsystem.
This paper presents the designanddevelopmentof a prototype ofan auto depth control using a thruster system. The thrusters are able to submerge the ROV until the maximum depth, as well as performing two main tasks which are maintaining the ROV at the specified depth for a long time and retaining the ROV at the initial depth when disturbances occur. The analysis results show that the auto depth controlsystem usedperforms well and is suitable to be utilized by the UTeM ROV. For future work,an intelligent controller such as a Fuzzy Logic Controller can be applied in this project to compare the controller performances, and also a comparison witha simulation should be considered in further research.
Abstract—Swarm robotics is a promising approach char- acterized by large numbers of relatively small and in- expensive robots. Since such systems typically rely on decentralized controland local communication, they exhibit a number of interesting and useful properties, namely scalability, robustness to individual faults, and flexibility. In this paper, we detail the designanddevelopment process of a swarm robotics platform composed of autonomous surface robots, which was designed in order to study the use of robotic swarms in real-world environments. Our aquatic surface robots where manufactured using digital fabrication techniques, such as 3D printing and CNC milling, and all hardware and software has been made available as open-source, thus allowing third-parties to customize and further improve our platform.
The smartphone application was intended to be developed in Outsystems software, but during the first prototype development, it showed a lot of communication incompat- ibilities with the remaining system, that delayed the overall work development. After this, the smartphone application development was made using Android Studio, Sketch and Zeplin softwares. This decision allowed the application to be user-friendly and clean, but at the same time, sharing the base functionalities that other, already in the market, smart lock systems have. Using Android Studio allowed that the developed smartphone application helped to create a personalized solution to control the smart locksystem. The application proposed features work all the time, but some tweaks to the application must be made before it can be called a finished product. Sometimes when the session token expires and the user returns to the application, instead of showing the user the login screen, so that he can login again and receive a new session token, it just shows the user the home screen. Despite that fact, the user can’t gain access to any of the available features, since the session token needed to perform the requests has already expired, but it’s certainly a problem that needs to be fixed to achieve an even better user experience. The conclusion is that to develop a smartphone application for a system with these speci- fications, Outsystems is not the most suitable solution. Android Studio provides a better a better framework which allows the implementation of the needed features.
The flowchart of the keypad controldoor security system is shown in fig:5. Firstly, initialize the I/O pins and initialize the serial LCD. In this stage, LCD will display “Locked” and “Enter Password”. When the user enters the password, the arduino will check it. If the password is correct, LCD will display “Opening” and the door will open. When the door is fully opened, LCD will display “Opened” and “Waiting 4 minutes”. Then the door will keep opening about four minutes. Finally, the door will close automatically. If the wrong password is entered, the door will be still locked. Fig:6 shows the flow chart of the switch controldoor security system. Firstly, I/O pins and serial LCD must be initialized. LCD will display “Locked” and “Enter Password”. When user press the switch to open the door from inside of the room, LCD will display “Opening” and the door will open. When the door is fully opened, LCD will display “Opened” and “Waiting
coupled systems. Most of this research tends to be related to aerostructural designand is called multidisciplinary optimization. The designof an airplane requires the bringing together of resources representing structures, metallurgy, aerodynamics, performance, controland other disciplines in order to produce an optimal design. The main challenges faced in MDO design problems are computational cost and organizational complexity (Sobieszczanski-Sobieski and Haftka, 1996). The complexity ofdesign optimization depends on the complexity of the pertinent disciplines, the size of the problem, and the nature of the objectives and constraints. Comparing with an aggregation of many disciplines, the problem grows very much in complexity, if there is more than one discipline controlling the same design variables for a particular objective. This is mainly due to the effect of coupling between the variables. Organizational complexity is due to the fact that the various disciplines traditionally reflect different analysis methods, schools of thought, software and hardware platforms, standards, etc. The organizational challenge in MDO is for an efficient exchange of data, systems integration and other aspects of communication.
which until then were not possible using other meth- odologies (Boyd et al., 1993, 1994; Grigoriadis and Skelton, 1996). Once formulated in terms of an LMI, a problem can be solved efficiently using convex optimization algorithms, for example, interior-point methods (Gahinet et al., 1995). Limited work has been done on the use of LMI for active vibration control. Sana and Rao (2000) used LMI to design an output feedback controller to increase the damping in some modes of a cantilever beam. However, the resulting matrix inequalities involved bilinear matrix inequalities (BMI) in unknown variables, and hence it became a non-convex optimization problem. Because of this, the BMI could not be solved directly using standard convex optimization software, and it was necessary to use an iterative method, as cone comple- mentary linearization algorithm, described in Ghaoui et al. (1997). Gonc¸alves et al. (2002) compared H 2 and
Abstract— This work presents the designand implementation of a controlsystem for a thyristorized rectifier bridge held by PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip), which is able to maintain the output current of the circuit in a predetermined reference supporting changes in input voltage, as well as changes in load. Using the PSoC – an integrated circuit that has programmable analog and digital resources - it is possible to reduce the external circuitry. The project built with the PSoC, compared with a conventional implementation, is smaller and has lower costs. Another important aspect is related to the decrease in energy consumption due to the use of fewer components. The rectifier and its controlsystem were designed and simulated. Additionally, a prototype was built and the tests proved the feasibility of using PSoC.
The output of each rule memory is the rule consequent, which gives the singleton value of the output function related with the particular combination of membership functions sequence number corresponding to the values of input variables. The degree of applicability provides the Min-AND value from the three mapping values of the three selected fuzzy sets. Six defuzzifiers are used because in this system six output variables are used. Each defuzzifier consists of: one multiplier; to multiply the singleton value of a rule with the degree of applicability, two accumulators; one to take the sum of the eight products values for the eight rules applied, and another to take the sum of eight values of degree of applicability for the eight rules. Each defuzzifier works with the mathematics of centroid method .
The examined alloy AlZn20 and the master alloy AlZn- Ti3 were laboratory melted from electrolytic aluminium (mini- mum purity 99.96%); electrolytic zinc (99.995%) and titanium sponge (98-99.8%, from Johnson Matthey Alfa). The melting was performed in an electric resistance furnace, in an Salamander clay-bounded graphite crucible, of 1.5 litre capacity. The AlZn20 melt was superheated to ~740 o C and purified by flashing with pure Argon for 10 min. Then a master alloy was added and the melt was held for 2 minutes to ensure complete dissolution of the master alloys added. Then the melt was stirred for next 2 minutes with an quartz-glass tube, and finally the alloy was cast into a dried sand moulds to obtain dog-bone shape samples (working part ∅12x60 mm) for tensile tests and ∅32x50 mm samples for damping tests. To monitor the melting process thermocouples NiCr-NiAl0.5 ∅0.20 mm were used. Temperatures (accuracy ± 1 o C) were recorded using a multi-channel recorder Agilent 34970A (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA). Microsections for LM examinations were ground on abrasive paper (grit 200-1000) and then were polished using sub-microscopic aluminium oxide in water-alcohol suspension. The AlZn20 samples, used in macro- structure examinations, were etched chemically with Keller's or electrochemically with Barker’s reagent. LM observations of microstructures were performed using Leica-DM IRM and Zeiss Axio Imager A1m light microscopes. The grain size was deter- mined by measuring the real grains with the software NIS Ele- ments Br 3.0, Nikon. Meaurements of the attenuation coefficient were performed using the Olympus testing device Epoch XT, connected with a normal probe PF2R10 with a frequency of 2MHz. The examinations were carried out using oil as lubricant. The tensile tests were performed using an Instron 3308 device.
Extensive work has been done in the field of plant identification using shapes of leaves. Some of the earlier works focused on the basic morphological characteristics of a leaf shape which included area, perimeter, eccentricity, maximum length and maximum width. But, it was observed that these basic morphological parameters are helpful for the broader classification of leaves and do not provide sufficient information about defining the minute details of the shape of a leaf. To reduce the search space and improve the retrieval efficiency, the concept of clustering and dimension reduction was initiated in 1997, where the authors Abbasi, Mokhtarian, & Kittle, 1997 used the curvature scale space technique and the k-NN classifier to chrysanthemum leaves.Neto, Meyer, Jones, &Samal, 2006 used elliptic Fourier harmonic function for defining the leaf shape. These Fourier values were reduced by using Principal component analysis.The clustering and dimension reduction approach caused reduction in the size of the feature vector but in turn resulted in the loss of minute details of the leaf shape, hence affecting the retrieval efficiency. Use of statistical discriminant analysis was done by Timmermans &Hulzebosch, 1996 along with the color based clustering and neural network was used for classification of a flowered plant and a cactus plant. Efforts for approximation of a leaf shape were done by Belongie, Malik, &Puzicha, 2002. He computed 2D histogram from shape content by computing inner distances and angles between sample points of leaf margin. Yahiaoui, 2006 used two directional fragment histogram to compute directions and relative lengths in a succession of elementary fragments of contour.The concept of histogram was helpful in reducing the representation of feature vector but it caused a major loss of
conventional engine with a different source of power. Thus conventional moulds and manufacturing processes need not be modified to specifically suit our requirements and more importantly existing engines can be converted to run on compressed air. Our project mainly involves designand fabrication of specific parts necessary for the functioning of our vehicle that runs on compressedair  , which prior to these modifications would be running on petrol. Hence the project is titled ―Designand Fabrication of a 50cc two wheeler that runs on compressed air‖.
After investigation of measurement thickness for real work part brake disc value represent as follows: for not ventilated disc average result in range 9,8 mm and for ventilated brake disc average result were 23,5mm. Minimum thickness admits value of data producer for ventilated brake disc 9,55 mm and for not ventilated brake disc 23 mm.
The position and trajectory of the sensor platform is determined by a GNSS receiver with the corresponding antenna. To avoid multipath and interferences, we placed a second GNSS antenna eccentrically on a carbon bar (each in the end of the bar) which is controlled by a dual GNSS receiver with the corresponding input for two antennas. This configuration is supported on the ground by a GNSS base station. An inertial measurement unit is firmly attached to the sensor platform. The advantage of this configuration is that the trajectory can better be evaluated. The measured base length is compared with the calibrated distance between the GNSS antennas to sort out possible outliers (see fig. 8).