Top PDF THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES AND CROP AREA ON MAIZE YIELD AND VARIABILITY IN GHANA

Agriculture plays a significant role in the economies of most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, agriculture employs about 60% of the population and contributes to about 30% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Ministry of Food and Agriculture [MoFA], 2011). However, the agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change and climate variability as 97% of agricultural land in Sub- Saharan Africa is rainfed (Rockström et al., 2004). Generally, temperature increase will re- duce yields and quality of food-crops thereby worsening vulnerability in food supply. Similar- ly, changes in precipitation patterns i.e., intensive rain concentrated in a particular month has a de- vastating effect on crop production (Abrol & In- gram, 1996).
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Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Low crop productivity is one of the major problems that are facing agricultural production in the Sudan. Low crop productivity in addition to high production costs, low prices and high taxes had all resulted in a general deterioration of the agricultural sector. This has contributed in converting agriculture from an attractive business to a repellent activity and caused many farmers to abandon agriculture and migrate to cities. The agricultural sector in the Sudan contributes to about 48% of the Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and to about 93% of the foreign currency earnings (Ministry of Finance and National Economy, 1996). It also employs about 65% of the labor force. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is the major staple food crop in the Sudan. It is estimated that the annual consumption amounts to about 3.9 Million tons (Elsayed, 1999). It is cultivated in large areas that include both irrigated and rainfed. Farah, et al. (1997) reported that the area which is annually cultivated by sorghum is about 2.1 million ha, of which 80% is completely rain-fed, whereas the remainder is given supplementary irrigation throughout the growing season. The Gezira scheme contributes by 60% to the total irrigated production (Elsayed, 1999). Irrigated sorghum production is characterized by the use of disc harrows and ridgers for land preparation, improved varieties and fertilizers. However, yield per unit area in this sector is still very low 1400 kg ha -1 (Ibrahim, 1992). Great efforts had been put in the Gezira scheme to increase sorghum productivity which led to increase the average yield during the pervious seasons, this could be due to the high adoption rate of the recommended technical packages released by the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC). Maize (Zea mays L.) is traditionally cultivated along the banks of the River Nile in the northern states and it is also cultivated in southern states. The area cultivated by maize in the Sudan during the period 1989- 1995 is estimated to be about 21,840 hectares (FAO, 1995). However, maize is classified today as a new promising crop in the irrigated projects of central and eastern Sudan. The average yield per unit area of sorghum and maize of the Sudan are very low compared to other areas in the world have the same weather conditions. Vertisols of the Gezira scheme
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Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield

Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield

The experiment had a completely randomized block design, in strip plots with three replications. Every experimental block had 28 plots, which consisted of four summer crop sequences combined with seven winter crops. The summer crop sequences were the following: MM – maize monocrop (Zea mays L.); SS – soybean monocrop (Glycine max L. Merrill); SM – soybean/maize rotation, both intercropped every other year; and RBC – rice/bean/cotton rotation, with rice (Oryza sativa L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in rotation. Winter crops consisted of maize, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.), millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), sown in February/March (relay crops). In each growing season, the same winter crop was sown in the same plot. The useful area of the experimental plots was 200 m² (20 x 10 m).
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Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

mechanical grinding and polishing. Back scattered electrons (BSE) were utilized in SEM in order to reveal difference in chemical compositions of microcomponents present in particular samples. The SEM investigations were used to reveal the distribution of graphite and other big particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), on the other hand, was applied for examination of nanosized secondary precipitates, i.e. vanadium or niobium carbides and/or nitrides (or carbonitrides). The thin foil technique was implemented for this purpose. The 3 mm disks were ground down on sand papers and then dimpled to about 0.1 mm thickness. Afterwards the disks were further thinned in an ion mill until a perforation had appeared. The TEM investigation was carried out by means of a JEOL 2010 ARP analytical scanning transmission electron microscope operating at acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Imaging was performed by conventional transmission mode while for chemical analysis (X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - EDS) the nanoprobe mode was utilized. The nanoprobe mode enabled to obtain electron probes approaching a few nanometers in diameter (practically about 10 nm because at smaller electron probes the number of X-ray counts is usually too low for analysis). The EDS analysis was performed by Oxford-Link system attached to the microscope. The Oxford- Link system was equipped with Si(Li) detector. This system detects all elements down to boron. In order to examine the crystallography of precipitates the Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) patterns analysis was also performed.
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Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

An aspect that draws attention when comparing white and black individuals with tertiary education in Brazil is the unequal distribution across fields of study. Black workers are more concentrated in areas like education, arts, humanities and languages, and social care, while white individuals are more represented in engineering and health professions. Several studies present evidence for different countries indicating that university premium varies substantially by field of study. 3 The Brazilian labor market not only exhibits important earnings differences across fields of study, but also the participation of black individuals is much higher in fields of study with lower average earnings. In both 2000 and 2010, for example, the average labor earnings in engineering are three times higher than that in education. Thus, the distributions of white and black workers with tertiary education across fields of study may play a role in the labor earnings gap by race in Brazil. It should be mentioned that there are many other elements that may contribute to explaining this earnings differential by race in Brazil,
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Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

customer response times.[1]. Lean manufacturing can also purposed to lean effort and wasting time to increase goal production. By disspeared all 0f them wastes such as time, effort and finance. The company can competition with the other companies. And face uncertaintly in the future. This terms supported. Wang [2011] Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production: less waste, less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product.[9] furthermore Boczko [2007] said that Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) as well as other industrial best practices. Lean manufacturing is renowned for its focus on reduction of Toyota’s original ―seven wastes‖ in order to improve overall customer satisfaction [9]. Lean manufacturing has good designed to the company that especially in the manufacturing field. Furthermore Hansen [2007] described that Lean manufacturing is thus an approach designed to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. It is characterized by delivering the right product, in the right quantity, with the right quality (zero-defect), at the exact time the customer needs it and at the lowest possible cost [7]. Line manufacturing can be priority by company to reach target achievement production appropriate costumer demand. Cesarony [2014] has opinion that Zero setup times, zero defects, zero inventories, zero waste, producing on demand, increasing a cell’s production rates, minimizing cost, and maximizing customer value represent ideal outcomes that a lean manufacturer seeks.[17]. In other hand lean manufacturing has
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Customer value begins to emerge in the 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one of the most significant factors in the success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences of the perceived value of the site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature of the perceived value. In the online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes of the sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease of the temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature of the sample to about 996°C. Decrease of the temperature of the sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence of the following diffusion processes:
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Effects of variety, cropping system and soil inoculation with Aspergillus flavus on aflatoxin levels during storage of maize

Effects of variety, cropping system and soil inoculation with Aspergillus flavus on aflatoxin levels during storage of maize

Two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties were used in the experiment: “Gbogbe”, a local maize variety with a maturity cycle of 90 days, and “TZSR-W” (tropical Zea mays streak resistant white), an improved variety. The latter variety has a longer maturity cycle of 120 days, and was expected to accumulate less aflatoxins because of the hard tegument of its kernels that might prevent infection by A. flavus. Besides growing the two maize varieties in pure stands, their intercropping with Kpodjiguégué - a local variety of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) that has a cropping cycle of 90 days was also tested. The cowpea was sown between each pair of maize rows. A completely randomized block design of the eight treatments (two varieties in two cropping systems, with and without A. flavus inoculation) and three replications was used in the experimental set up (Table 1). Each plot had a size of 8 m x 8 m. Maize plants within a row were separated by 25 cm and the rows were separated by 75 cm. Two weeks after planting, a NPK fertilizer (15-15-15) was applied at a rate of 160 kg per ha. At the beginning of the grain formation, urea was applied at a rate of 50 kg per ha. Weeding was carried out before each fertilizer application.
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Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Systems in Banks A case study of Ghana Commercial Bank Ltd. Kumasi Main Branch

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) etc. by banks in attempt to minimize waiting line problem at over-the counter services have not yielded the much desired result due to frequent breakdown of such computerization and fraudulent activities. Hence, long queue persisted in almost all Ghanaian banks. The danger of keeping customers waiting can cause prolonged discomfort andeconomic cost to them [5]. The time wasted on the queue would have been judiciously utilized elsewhere (opportunity cost of time spent in queuing). In a queuing system, managers must decide what level of service to offer. A low level of service may be inexpensive, at least in the short run, but may incur high costs of customer dissatisfaction, such as loss of future business. A high level of service will cost more to provide and will result in lower dissatisfaction costs. When considering improvements in services, the management of the bank weighs the cost of providing a given level of service against the potential costs from having customerswaiting. The goal of queuinganalysis is therefore to strike a balance between minimize the economic cost to the system and provision of satisfactory and reasonable quick service.
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
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Adubação potássica no cultivo do algodoeiro de fibra colorida irrigado com águas salinas

Adubação potássica no cultivo do algodoeiro de fibra colorida irrigado com águas salinas

Irrigations were manually performed and the applied irrigation depth was determined according to the water requirement of the plants, estimated through the water balance: applied volume minus the volume drained in the previous irrigation, plus a leaching fraction of 0.10 (Ayers & Westcot, 1999). Before sowing, all lysimeters were taken to field capacity using water, according to the treatment. After sowing, irrigation was daily performed by applying, in each lysimeter, a water volume to maintain soil moisture close to field capacity. Seven seeds of the cotton cv. ‘BRS Topázio’ were planted in each lysimeter, at depth of 2 cm and equidistantly distributed. At 18 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), thinnings was performed to leave only one plant per lysimeter.
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The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

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Morning glory species interference on the development and yield of soybeans

Morning glory species interference on the development and yield of soybeans

The weed-crop interference would reduce the availability of water, nutrients and light. The soil chemical analysis from the experimental sites document medium to high levels of nutrients (Tedesco et al. 2004) on both environments (Pato Branco and Renascença) (Table 1), suggesting that the productivity differences between environments are not related to soil fertility. Thus, rainfall distribution and intensity and air temperatures (Figure 1) constitute the main differences between both experiments. Compared to Pato Branco, the experiment in Renascença had greater cumulative rainfall during the soybean development cycle. However, there was better rainfall distribution in Pato Branco than in Renascença (Figure 1). Environmental conditions favorable to the development of the crop increase the competitive ability of the plants in relation to the weeds. Nevertheless, more competitive weed species are expected under unfavorable environmental conditions (Radosevich et al. 2007). It is possible to speculate that the less favorable conditions for the development of soybean plants in Renascença reflected in lower development of the crop in this environment and increased competitive ability of the weeds, when contrasted to Pato Branco conditions.
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Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are in the forms of actual
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Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

before conducting the experiments, the soil samples were thawed. The soils were then homoge- nized, passed though a 2-mm sieve, and stored in the dark at 4°C. Maize and wheat residues were both sampled at second day after harvest at the experimental farm at Henan Agricultural College (113.59E, 34.86N) in Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Both crop residues included all above-ground material. Crop residues were dried at 55°C continually for 24 hours and ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve before being mixed into the soil. The total C and N of crop resi- dues was determined by dry combustion using a CNS elemental analyzer (LECO). The amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of crop residues were measured with the acid detergent fiber method[25]. Some chemical properties of crop residues used in the experiment are shown in Table 2.
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MAIZE SEED VIGOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON CROP CULTIVATION CYCLE

MAIZE SEED VIGOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON CROP CULTIVATION CYCLE

This study aimed to investigate influences of maize seed vigor on crop cycle. Four maize seed lots with different seed vigor levels were sowed in the field and evaluated daily, computing growing-degree-days for each plot to reach each phenological stage. Differences among treatments during plant development were observed, which occurred at emergence, 4th, 8th, 12th fully expanded leaves and at milk stages. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that seed vigor has impacts on crop cultivation cycle, with plants from lower vigor seeds presenting a delayed development compared to higher vigor seeds. However, such differences tend to disappear during the reproductive phase.
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Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

The existence of trace metals in aquatic environments has led to serious concerns about their influence on plant and animal life [2]. Geo-accumulation index is the quantitative measure of the degree of pollution in aquatic sediment. It consists of seven grades ranging from unpolluted to very extremely polluted and the Pollution load index is a quick tool in order to compare the pollution status of different places, the pollution load index is use to determine the pollution severity and its variation along the different sample stations [3]. Heavy metals are chemical elements having atomic weights between 63.546 and 200.590 and a specific gravity that is 5 times greater than that of water. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases with their occurrence in water bodies being either of natural origin (e.g. eroded minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism extruded products) or of anthropogenic origin(that is; solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents, harbour channel dredging) [4]. Furthermore, trace toxic metals are not easily removed from the environment nor are readily detoxified or degraded by metabolic activities in the body of the organism, thereby resulting in accumulation [5, 6]. Research has been that, they are no studies on sedimentology and geochemistry of the sediment in Ona River. To provide baseline information and also enlightened the people of the area about the immediate effect of the water body studied, they is need to determine trace metals pollution in sediment using pollution load index and Geo-accumulation Index. This study reports the levels of __________________________
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Production, decomposition of residues and yield of maize and soybeans grown on cover crops

Production, decomposition of residues and yield of maize and soybeans grown on cover crops

ABSTRACT - The residues of cover plants and crops left on the soil surface can influence decomposition, nutrient cycling and follow crop yield. The objective was to evaluate the production of dry biomass (BD), of residues decomposition rate and yield of maize and soybean grown on different soil covers. The experimental design was a randomized block scheme banded, with four covers: Brachiaria, sun hemp, pearl millet and fallow period in autumn/winter, with maize and soybean crop in the spring/summer. We evaluated BD, decomposition through bags of decomposition and yield of maize and soybeans. Pearl millet and sunhemp were the covers which produced more of BD in the fall/winter period. the rate of decomposition of plant residues in maize and soybeans is slow in the dry period and accelerated in the rainy period; maize yield was higher when grown on sunhemp and brachiaria in the years evaluated, while for soybeans there were no differences on any measured coverage; maize and soybeans have grain yields higher than the regional average when grown on different soil covers.
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Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

ABSTRACT - The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this present paper was to analyze the genetic variability in two populations of sweet corn (BR 400 and BR 402), two common corn (Pampa and Suwan) and teosinte, using microsatellite markers. The results showed a low intra-population genetic variability in populations of maize, and high variability for the population of teosinte, suggesting that the maize populations may have limitations in future cycles of breeding.
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