Agriculture plays a significant role inthe economies of most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. InGhana, agriculture employs about 60% ofthe population and contributes to about 30% ofthe Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Ministry of Food and Agriculture [MoFA], 2011). However, the agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change and climate variability as 97% of agricultural land in Sub- Saharan Africa is rainfed (Rockström et al., 2004). Generally, temperature increase will re- duce yields and quality of food-crops thereby worsening vulnerability in food supply. Similar- ly, changes in precipitation patterns i.e., intensive rain concentrated in a particular month has a de- vastating effect oncrop production (Abrol & In- gram, 1996).
Low crop productivity is one ofthe major problems that are facing agricultural production inthe Sudan. Low crop productivity in addition to high production costs, low prices and high taxes had all resulted in a general deterioration ofthe agricultural sector. This has contributed in converting agriculture from an attractive business to a repellent activity and caused many farmers to abandon agriculture and migrate to cities. The agricultural sector inthe Sudan contributes to about 48% ofthe Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and to about 93% ofthe foreign currency earnings (Ministry of Finance and National Economy, 1996). It also employs about 65% ofthe labor force. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is the major staple food cropinthe Sudan. It is estimated that the annual consumption amounts to about 3.9 Million tons (Elsayed, 1999). It is cultivated in large areas that include both irrigated and rainfed. Farah, et al. (1997) reported that thearea which is annually cultivated by sorghum is about 2.1 million ha, of which 80% is completely rain-fed, whereas the remainder is given supplementary irrigation throughout the growing season. The Gezira scheme contributes by 60% to the total irrigated production (Elsayed, 1999). Irrigated sorghum production is characterized by the use of disc harrows and ridgers for land preparation, improved varieties and fertilizers. However, yield per unit areain this sector is still very low 1400 kg ha -1 (Ibrahim, 1992). Great efforts had been put inthe Gezira scheme to increase sorghum productivity which led to increase the average yield during the pervious seasons, this could be due to the high adoption rate ofthe recommended technical packages released by the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC). Maize (Zea mays L.) is traditionally cultivated along the banks ofthe River Nile inthe northern states and it is also cultivated in southern states. Thearea cultivated by maizeinthe Sudan during the period 1989- 1995 is estimated to be about 21,840 hectares (FAO, 1995). However, maize is classified today as a new promising cropinthe irrigated projects of central and eastern Sudan. The average yield per unit areaof sorghum andmaizeofthe Sudan are very low compared to other areas inthe world have the same weather conditions. Vertisols ofthe Gezira scheme
The experiment had a completely randomized block design, in strip plots with three replications. Every experimental block had 28 plots, which consisted of four summer crop sequences combined with seven winter crops. The summer crop sequences were the following: MM – maize monocrop (Zea mays L.); SS – soybean monocrop (Glycine max L. Merrill); SM – soybean/maize rotation, both intercropped every other year; and RBC – rice/bean/cotton rotation, with rice (Oryza sativa L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in rotation. Winter crops consisted ofmaize, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.), millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), sown in February/March (relay crops). In each growing season, the same winter crop was sown inthe same plot. The useful areaofthe experimental plots was 200 m² (20 x 10 m).
mechanical grinding and polishing. Back scattered electrons (BSE) were utilized in SEM in order to reveal difference in chemical compositions of microcomponents present in particular samples. The SEM investigations were used to reveal the distribution of graphite and other big particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), onthe other hand, was applied for examination of nanosized secondary precipitates, i.e. vanadium or niobium carbides and/or nitrides (or carbonitrides). The thin foil technique was implemented for this purpose. The 3 mm disks were ground down on sand papers and then dimpled to about 0.1 mm thickness. Afterwards the disks were further thinned in an ion mill until a perforation had appeared. The TEM investigation was carried out by means of a JEOL 2010 ARP analytical scanning transmission electron microscope operating at acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Imaging was performed by conventional transmission mode while for chemical analysis (X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - EDS) the nanoprobe mode was utilized. The nanoprobe mode enabled to obtain electron probes approaching a few nanometers in diameter (practically about 10 nm because at smaller electron probes the number of X-ray counts is usually too low for analysis). The EDS analysis was performed by Oxford-Link system attached to the microscope. The Oxford- Link system was equipped with Si(Li) detector. This system detects all elements down to boron. In order to examine the crystallography of precipitates the Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) patterns analysis was also performed.
An aspect that draws attention when comparing white and black individuals with tertiary education in Brazil is the unequal distribution across fields of study. Black workers are more concentrated in areas like education, arts, humanities and languages, and social care, while white individuals are more represented in engineering and health professions. Several studies present evidence for different countries indicating that university premium varies substantially by field of study. 3 The Brazilian labor market not only exhibits important earnings differences across fields of study, but also the participation of black individuals is much higher in fields of study with lower average earnings. In both 2000 and 2010, for example, the average labor earnings in engineering are three times higher than that in education. Thus, the distributions of white and black workers with tertiary education across fields of study may play a role inthe labor earnings gap by race in Brazil. It should be mentioned that there are many other elements that may contribute to explaining this earnings differential by race in Brazil,
customer response times.. Lean manufacturing can also purposed to lean effort and wasting time to increase goal production. By disspeared all 0f them wastes such as time, effort and finance. The company can competition with the other companies. And face uncertaintly inthe future. This terms supported. Wang  Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production: less waste, less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product. furthermore Boczko  said that Lean manufacturing is a generic process management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) as well as other industrial best practices. Lean manufacturing is renowned for its focus on reduction of Toyota’s original ―seven wastes‖ in order to improve overall customer satisfaction . Lean manufacturing has good designed to the company that especially inthe manufacturing field. Furthermore Hansen  described that Lean manufacturing is thus an approach designed to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. It is characterized by delivering the right product, inthe right quantity, with the right quality (zero-defect), at the exact time the customer needs it and at the lowest possible cost . Line manufacturing can be priority by company to reach target achievement production appropriate costumer demand. Cesarony  has opinion that Zero setup times, zero defects, zero inventories, zero waste, producing on demand, increasing a cell’s production rates, minimizing cost, and maximizing customer value represent ideal outcomes that a lean manufacturer seeks.. In other hand lean manufacturing has
Customer value begins to emerge inthe 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one ofthe most significant factors inthe success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences ofthe perceived value ofthe site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature ofthe perceived value. Inthe online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes ofthe sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease ofthe temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process inthe studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze inthe furnace that, after heating the furnace andthe sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature ofthe sample to about 996°C. Decrease ofthe temperature ofthe sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence ofthe following diffusion processes:
Two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties were used inthe experiment: “Gbogbe”, a local maize variety with a maturity cycle of 90 days, and “TZSR-W” (tropical Zea mays streak resistant white), an improved variety. The latter variety has a longer maturity cycle of 120 days, and was expected to accumulate less aflatoxins because ofthe hard tegument of its kernels that might prevent infection by A. flavus. Besides growing the two maize varieties in pure stands, their intercropping with Kpodjiguégué - a local variety of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) that has a cropping cycle of 90 days was also tested. The cowpea was sown between each pair ofmaize rows. A completely randomized block design ofthe eight treatments (two varieties in two cropping systems, with and without A. flavus inoculation) and three replications was used inthe experimental set up (Table 1). Each plot had a size of 8 m x 8 m. Maize plants within a row were separated by 25 cm andthe rows were separated by 75 cm. Two weeks after planting, a NPK fertilizer (15-15-15) was applied at a rate of 160 kg per ha. At the beginning ofthe grain formation, urea was applied at a rate of 50 kg per ha. Weeding was carried out before each fertilizer application.
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) etc. by banks in attempt to minimize waiting line problem at over-the counter services have not yielded the much desired result due to frequent breakdown of such computerization and fraudulent activities. Hence, long queue persisted in almost all Ghanaian banks. The danger of keeping customers waiting can cause prolonged discomfort andeconomic cost to them . The time wasted onthe queue would have been judiciously utilized elsewhere (opportunity cost of time spent in queuing). In a queuing system, managers must decide what level of service to offer. A low level of service may be inexpensive, at least inthe short run, but may incur high costs of customer dissatisfaction, such as loss of future business. A high level of service will cost more to provide and will result in lower dissatisfaction costs. When considering improvements in services, the management ofthe bank weighs the cost of providing a given level of service against the potential costs from having customerswaiting. The goal of queuinganalysis is therefore to strike a balance between minimize the economic cost to the system and provision of satisfactory and reasonable quick service.
Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part ofthe four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer ofthe CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts ofthe free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms andthe society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice andthe respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders andthe community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
Irrigations were manually performed andthe applied irrigation depth was determined according to the water requirement ofthe plants, estimated through the water balance: applied volume minus the volume drained inthe previous irrigation, plus a leaching fraction of 0.10 (Ayers & Westcot, 1999). Before sowing, all lysimeters were taken to field capacity using water, according to the treatment. After sowing, irrigation was daily performed by applying, in each lysimeter, a water volume to maintain soil moisture close to field capacity. Seven seeds ofthe cotton cv. ‘BRS Topázio’ were planted in each lysimeter, at depth of 2 cm and equidistantly distributed. At 18 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), thinnings was performed to leave only one plant per lysimeter.
The weed-crop interference would reduce the availability of water, nutrients and light. The soil chemical analysis from the experimental sites document medium to high levels of nutrients (Tedesco et al. 2004) on both environments (Pato Branco and Renascença) (Table 1), suggesting that the productivity differences between environments are not related to soil fertility. Thus, rainfall distribution and intensity and air temperatures (Figure 1) constitute the main differences between both experiments. Compared to Pato Branco, the experiment in Renascença had greater cumulative rainfall during the soybean development cycle. However, there was better rainfall distribution in Pato Branco than in Renascença (Figure 1). Environmental conditions favorable to the development ofthecrop increase the competitive ability ofthe plants in relation to the weeds. Nevertheless, more competitive weed species are expected under unfavorable environmental conditions (Radosevich et al. 2007). It is possible to speculate that the less favorable conditions for the development of soybean plants in Renascença reflected in lower development ofthecropin this environment and increased competitive ability ofthe weeds, when contrasted to Pato Branco conditions.
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are inthe forms of actual
before conducting the experiments, the soil samples were thawed. The soils were then homoge- nized, passed though a 2-mm sieve, and stored inthe dark at 4°C. Maizeand wheat residues were both sampled at second day after harvest at the experimental farm at Henan Agricultural College (113.59E, 34.86N) in Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Both crop residues included all above-ground material. Crop residues were dried at 55°C continually for 24 hours and ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve before being mixed into the soil. The total C and N ofcrop resi- dues was determined by dry combustion using a CNS elemental analyzer (LECO). The amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin ofcrop residues were measured with the acid detergent fiber method. Some chemical properties ofcrop residues used inthe experiment are shown in Table 2.
This study aimed to investigate influences ofmaize seed vigor oncrop cycle. Four maize seed lots with different seed vigor levels were sowed inthe field and evaluated daily, computing growing-degree-days for each plot to reach each phenological stage. Differences among treatments during plant development were observed, which occurred at emergence, 4th, 8th, 12th fully expanded leaves and at milk stages. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that seed vigor has impacts oncrop cultivation cycle, with plants from lower vigor seeds presenting a delayed development compared to higher vigor seeds. However, such differences tend to disappear during the reproductive phase.
The existence of trace metals in aquatic environments has led to serious concerns about their influence on plant and animal life . Geo-accumulation index is the quantitative measure ofthe degree of pollution in aquatic sediment. It consists of seven grades ranging from unpolluted to very extremely polluted andthe Pollution load index is a quick tool in order to compare the pollution status of different places, the pollution load index is use to determine the pollution severity and its variation along the different sample stations . Heavy metals are chemical elements having atomic weights between 63.546 and 200.590 and a specific gravity that is 5 times greater than that of water. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases with their occurrence in water bodies being either of natural origin (e.g. eroded minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism extruded products) or of anthropogenic origin(that is; solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents, harbour channel dredging) . Furthermore, trace toxic metals are not easily removed from the environment nor are readily detoxified or degraded by metabolic activities inthe body ofthe organism, thereby resulting in accumulation [5, 6]. Research has been that, they are no studies on sedimentology and geochemistry ofthe sediment in Ona River. To provide baseline information and also enlightened the people ofthearea about the immediate effect ofthe water body studied, they is need to determine trace metals pollution in sediment using pollution load index and Geo-accumulation Index. This study reports the levels of __________________________
ABSTRACT - The residues of cover plants and crops left onthe soil surface can influence decomposition, nutrient cycling and follow cropyield. The objective was to evaluate the production of dry biomass (BD), of residues decomposition rate andyieldofmaizeand soybean grown on different soil covers. The experimental design was a randomized block scheme banded, with four covers: Brachiaria, sun hemp, pearl millet and fallow period in autumn/winter, with maizeand soybean cropinthe spring/summer. We evaluated BD, decomposition through bags of decomposition andyieldofmaizeand soybeans. Pearl millet and sunhemp were the covers which produced more of BD inthe fall/winter period. the rate of decomposition of plant residues inmaizeand soybeans is slow inthe dry period and accelerated inthe rainy period; maizeyield was higher when grown on sunhemp and brachiaria inthe years evaluated, while for soybeans there were no differences on any measured coverage; maizeand soybeans have grain yields higher than the regional average when grown on different soil covers.
ABSTRACT - Themaize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide inthe endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maizeand teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this present paper was to analyze the genetic variabilityin two populations of sweet corn (BR 400 and BR 402), two common corn (Pampa and Suwan) and teosinte, using microsatellite markers. The results showed a low intra-population genetic variabilityin populations ofmaize, and high variability for the population of teosinte, suggesting that themaize populations may have limitations in future cycles of breeding.