ScaphidiumOlivier (1790) is a large genus of the subfamily Scaphidiinae, with 338 species (including two fossil species) known world-wide (Löbl 1997 and subsequent descriptions), including 51 species from China. Our ongoing study of the Chinese Scaphidium reveals that the fauna of EastChina, which covers the Shanghai munici- pality and the provinces Shangdong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Fujian, is characteristic and of special interest. he presence of Scaphidiumin this region is still rather unclear, and the species number has rapidly increased in recent years, pointing to inadequate collecting activities inthe past. Up until the present, 13 species had been known from this region and eight of them were recorded or described in our papers since 2008. Additional specimens have been accumulated by continuous ield work and these collections, in particular coming from recent trips to Anhui and Fujian, led us to review theEast Chinese fauna of thegenusScaphidium. In addition, many collecting data based on specimens coming from other regions are used for discussing intra-speciic variability and provide a better understanding of species distribution.
Marine picocyanobacteria, mainly including Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes are the principal primary producers inthe ocean [1–3]. Cyanophages, the viruses infecting cyanobacteria, control the mortality of their hosts and participate in nutrient regeneration and cycling inthe ocean [4–7]. Marine Synechococcus, an ancient and genetically diverse clade, is ubiquitous inthe global ocean and is abundant in both estuarine and coastal waters [8–10]. Thegenus has developed many eco- types to adapt to different environments, and is divided into three major subclusters, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 [9,11]. Synechomyoviruses (Synechococcus myoviruses) infect and interact with their hosts inthe marine environment, leading to the rapid diversification for both of them . Synechomyoviruses are known to encode accessory metabolic genes, including those for photosynthesis (psbAD) and carbon metabolism (talC, zwf, gnd, cp12), which are obtained via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and constitute a large reservoir of the genetic diversity pool [6,13–23].
Etymology. he speciic epithet is derived from the type locality “Baishanzu”. Comparative notes and comments. Two distinct species groups occur in Bais- hanzu. One of these groups includes L. baishanzuense, the three following species from Baishanzu, and additionally L. daicongchaoi Peng & Li, 2012 from Guadun, L. fuji- anense Peng & Li, 2012 from Junzifeng Shan, L. longwangshanense Peng, Li & Zhao, 2012 from the Longwangshan, L. tianmushanense Watanabe, 1999 from the Tian- mushan and the Longwangshan, L. zhaotiexiongi Peng & Li, 2012 from Jiulongshan Natural Reserve and Majian, and L. jiulongshanense Peng & Li, 2012 from Jiulongshan Natural Reserve. he species group is characterized by a male sternite V with a postero- median impression with dense dark setae and male sternites III–IV with conspicuously modiied setae inthe posterior or postero-median impression in some species, evident synapomorphies constituting the monophyly of this species group. hese characters appear to be unique among Chinese Lathrobium.
Holloway JD, Cock M, Desmier JW, Chenon R (1987) Systematic account of South-East Asian pest Limacodidae. In: Cock MJW, Godfray HCJ, Holloway JD (Eds) Slug and Nettle Caterpillars: he biology, taxonomy and control of the Limacodidae of economic importance on palms in South-East Asia. Cab International. Wallingford 15–117. Joannis de J (1901) Variation of Monema lavescens Walker. Bulletin de la Société ento-
Material examined. Holotype (female) and 45 paratypes (19 males and 26 females) from soil and moss, Beiling Park in Shenyang (41°50 50.56 N, 123°25 18.09 E), Liaoning province, North East- ern China, 90 m above sea level. Collected by Lixia Xie, Rong Huang, Daxing Yang and Bin Li, 11. August, 2010.
repeatedly in different periods of time via different routes such as by the Arabians or by Venetian commerce (e.g., The Travels of Marco Polo), although no written document about these is available. The earliest rice cultivation documented in Italy can be traced back to 1468 inthe wetlands of Tuscany, near Pisa . Rice cultivation expanded to ca. 20,000 ha around the Milanese area till 1700s . At that time, the only rice cultivated in Italy was “Nostrale”, a variety susceptible to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae). To guarantee the continued rice cultivation that was seriously threatened by this fungal disease, new varieties were introduced from China and Japan at the beginning of 19th century. These varieties were characterized by their high yielding and resistance to rice blast. As a consequence, five Italian rice varieties were cultivated in Italy in 1872: Ostiglia, Bertone, Novarese, Francone, and Giapponese. Because of the recrudescence of blast attacks that created a new crisis for Italian rice cultivation, more rice varieties were imported from Asian countries including China, India, and Japan in 1880, which led to a substantial increase inthe number of Italian rice varieties inthe subsequent years. A milestone of Italian rice cultivation in history was the presence of a set of varieties grouped under the general name of “Chinese Originario” with high yield and strong resistance to blast . However, there was no written document for the origin of these varieties, although the literal meaning of the name “Chinese Originario” is “originated from China”.
The Galois encoder generates the encrypted data that can be used for transmitting the Galois encrypted message. At the receiver 4 bit of encrypted data is decoded using the Galois decoder .Multiplier as private key & look up table at the Rx end is used for decryption of the original message signal. The same pseudo random algorithms used at the Galois transmitter side are used at the Galois receiver side to find the M and E, which are the pixels used for matching the data and embedding the 2BCs based on password. The location where the first bit of the 2BC is embedded in E can be obtained from the password. Then, depending on the technique used to embed the second bit of the 2BC, the second bit can be read directly, read from position 3, or read from different positions in a particular order according to techniques 1, 2and 3, respectively. The extracted bits are then combined to obtain the different 2BCs. The data bits are extracted from the M pixels based on the locations obtained from the 2BC‟s. When the location is „5‟, the receiver will check if the bits in locations 8, 7, 6 and 5 are the same. If they are the same, then this case corresponds to a “no match” and hence the complement of the bit in position 5 is taken as the data bit, else the same bit is
The field survey showed that the habitats of some populations have been destroyed by human disturbance for great medical value. Damage to natural habitats would led to a decrease in population sizes and probably a subsequent increase in inbreeding, decreasing its genetic diversity. In situ conservation effectively and sustainably prevents this problem. The establishment of S. hexandrum reserves should be the primary method because the Qinling Mts. are situated in state forest conservation areas, where cutting and hunting are restricted. The management for the conservation of genetic variability in this species should aim to preserve not only large populations but also as many of the small populations outside nature reserves as possible. Reduced levels of genetic variation, especially inthe smaller populations, will affect the species’ ability to adapt to changes in its habitat . Positive correlations between population size, expected heterozygosity, and plant fitness were found in Gentiana pneumonanthe  and Arnica Montana . Thus, policy plans should also be developed to stimulate seedling recruitment inthe small populations (e.g., PAS and MXS). It may be dangerous to mix highly divergent populations because it could cause loss of adaptive diversity . Therefore, it is necessary to improve gene flow among populations Figure 6. Bayesian clustering for infering population structure of S. hexandrum populations from Qinling Mts.
Xing et al. [12–13] discussed the often surprisingly intimate relationship between dinosaur tracks and Chinese folktales. The name “Lotus” tracksite reflects the local belief that the track site represented lotus leaf veins (the mud cracks) and petals (the ornithopod tracks) submerged in water (the ripple marks). Lotus Fortress is famous as a castle stronghold dating back to the time of the Mongol invasions of the late 13th century (Southern Song Dynasty Baoyou 4th Year, A.D. 1256), and humans have been living at Lotus tracksite for over 700 years (Fig 1). During this period, most tracks were covered with soil to make castle grounds more comfort- able and, thus, the tracks were largely protected, despite the abundant human traffic. Today the site, previously very difficult of access, is now approachable by a steep series of about 800 steps designed to help visitors reach the site with relative ease.
Head. Rather large. Oval in anterior view, with antennal sockets high above mid- dle level of eyes; transverse in dorsal view, 1.5× as wide as long and shorter than that of mesoscutum, shiny with dense short setae all over. Ocelli small in a low, very wide triangle, the transverse, posterior tangent to the anterior ocellus just cutting the poste- rior pair. POL:OD:OOL=5.0:3.8:7.7. Vertex strongly convex, and sharply constricted to occiput, densely rugose-punctate; frons densely rugose-punctate except the polished area behind scape and pedicel; face coarsely rugose-punctate, without median keel; its width 1.4× as high as eye and clypeus combined (25.6:18.0); eyes of moderate size, in- ner margins of eyes parallel, 1.8× as high as wide (23.8:13.1); temple and gena striate- punctate. Mouth opening wide; clypeus densely rugose; tentorial pits small, distance between tentorial pits 3.4× as long as distance from pit to eye margin (10.8:3.2); malar space short, 0.2× as long as eye height. Antennae longand with the preapical segment fully 2.5× as long as wide; scape short; lagellomeres thinner, tappered distally, with bristly setosity, with placodes arranged regularly in 2 ranks; apical segment slightly longer than preapical one. Flagellomere proportion: 2 L/W=3.1, 8 L/W=3.2, 14 L/ W=2.0; L 2/14=1.7; W 2/14=1.1.
Pollution transport can be tracked computationally with Eu- lerian and Lagrangian approaches, as represented by GEOS- Chem and FLEXPART models, respectively. GEOS-Chem can not only track transport of CO (a physical process) but also consider chemical reactions during the transport while FLEXPART can visualize transport pathways and pin down source regions effectively, without considering chemi- cal functions inthe meantime. GEOS-Chem can also fill the gaps in MOPITT satellite data (Figs. 10, 11, and 14). We found that GEOS-Chem simulates the observed aircraft and satellite CO well in cases 2004 and 2005 but cannot fully re- produce the elevated CO in MOZAIC data in case 2003. The simulated CO plume is with lower mixing ratios and at lower altitudes than inthe MOZAIC data. This is possibly due to an underestimated fire inventory or conservative parameteriza- tions in simulating large forest fires or both in GEOS-Chem. Nassar et al. (2009) reported underestimated CO over the 2006 Indonesia fire region by GEOS-Chem, in comparison with the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) obser- vations. FLEXPART can generally simulate the three cases, strikingly well sometimes in agreement with observed details in space and time, although discrepancies between FLEX- PART and satellite and aircraft observations can be found in various places on small scales. FLEXPART simulates strong sources well but sometimes omits weak sources.
Ion Chromatography (Model: Dionex 3000), which consists of a separation column (Dionex Ionpac AS11 for anion and CS12A for cation), a guard column (Dionex Ionpac AG 11 for anion and AG12A for cation), a self-regenerating sup- pressed conductivity detector (Dionex Ionpac ED50), and a gradient pump (Dionex Ionpac GP50). The gradient mobile phase generated by EG-3000 was used for anion detection, while the weak acid eluent (20 mM MSA) for cation detec- tion. The recovery of each ion was inthe range of 80–120 %. The relative standard deviation of each ion was less than 5 % for reproducibility test. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were less than 0.04 mg L −1 for anions and 0.006 mg L −1 for cations. The quality assurance was routinely carried out by using Standard Reference Materials (GBW 08606) produced by National Research Center for Certified Reference Mate- rials, China. Blank values were subtracted from sample de- terminations. The details were given elsewhere (Yuan et al., 2003).
O estudo da distribuição espacial do zooplancton é essencial para o entendimento não só da dinâmica das teias tróicas nos ecossistemas marinhos, mas também para o manejo da pesca. Neste trabalho procuramos elucidar a composição e distribuição do mesozoo- plancton na plataforma continental do Mar Amarelo e do Mar da China Oriental, e explorar a estruturas das comunidades nessas duas massas de água. Sessenta arrastos verticais (do fundo ou de 200m até a superfí- cie) foram realizados em Novembro de 2007, usando uma rede circular com diâmetro de 0,8m e malhagem de 505µm. Os padrões biogeográicos das comunida- des do zooplancton foram investigados, utilizando-se métodos de análise multivariada. A biodiversidade de Copepoda foi analisada através de indices univaria- dos. Copéodes e protozoários foram os organismos dominantes nas amostragens. Baseados na composi- ção de espécies, pudemos dividir a área de estudo em seis grupos de estações. Diferenças signiicantes nas assembléias de zooplancton foram detectadas entre o Mar Amarelo e o Mar da China Oriental. A riqueza de espécies foi mais elevada nesta última área, enquanto a distinção taxonômica foi mais alta no Mar Amarelo. Houve uma clara relação entre composição de espé- cies e tipo de massa de água.
it, namely, through active leadership, through outreach to problematic states, and through a model constitution. Brazil is known as an active member of fora on nuclear disarmament such as the Conference on Disarmament, the 2005 NPT Review Conference, the International Panel on Fissile Materials, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), and the Missile Technology Control Regime. Brazil’s presence in these platforms has added to its reputation as a respected player inthe field of nuclear disarmament initiatives, which dates back to the 1960s when Brazil was the first country to advocate a nuclear-free zone in Latin America (Rublee 2010, Muxagato 2010). When it comes to Brazil’s role regarding a nuclear-free world, its capacity to reach out to so-called problematic nations inthe field of nuclear security is considered an asset, since Brazil’s own historical background in nuclear energy development is an example of how a country can develop nuclear capability for civilian use without being tempted to explore its military side. From this perspective, it is understandable that Iran accepted Brazilian mediation in its imbroglio with the international community. Like Iran, Brazil has been very critical of Nuclear Weapon States (NWS), since they are the ones who advocate against other countries’ nuclear facilities while possessing nuclear weapons themselves. Brazil’s stance on this matter appeals to countries which do not want to relinquish their nuclear programs just because NWSs tells them to. The use of nuclear technology in many aspects of civilian life inthe modern days - energy output or in medical research for instance - is essential to any nation. Brazil’s role as a mediator in this issue can also be seen through the lenses of Brazilian interests in improving its relations with the Republic of Iran, not only concerning commercial ties but also political affairs (Muxagato 2010). One last asset underpinning Brazil’s role in disarmament initiatives is its constitution, which defends a country free from any pursuit of nuclear technology for military purposes (Rublee 2010). This gives Brazil authority concerning representing other countries willing to pursue nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes too.
Notogaster. Almost circular, slightly longer than wide. Anterior and posterior margins broadly rounded in dorsal view. Spinae adnatae large, directed anterolaterad in dorsal view, distance between their bases approximately equal to that between tubercles Bp. Notogastral setae of c-, l- and h- series inserted on distinct tubercles. Setae relatively smooth, brown, acuminate. Comparative length: lm < lp < la = h 3 < h 2 < h 1 = c 1 = c 2 . he respective lengths: 88–94μm, 107–110 μm, 137–142 μm, 147–154 μm and 167–172 μm. Setae c 1 , c 2 and la directed anterodorsad, other setae radially directed. A conjoint ridge connected to base of all notogastral setae. Mutual distance of setae c 2 twice that of c 1 . Pseudanal setae undulating attenuate, the proximal half with obvious, thorn-like barbs, the distal half smooth. Comparative length: ps 1 > ps 2 > ps 3.
As the Partition was officially promulgated along religious lines, large groups of Hindus and Muslims suddenly found themselves on the wrong side of the border. Although in theory they were to remain where they were as protected minorities, a massive transfer of population ensued. Indeed it remains one of thethe largest and fastest migrations in world history. Although the numbers are disputed, its scale and speed are staggering: perhaps as many fifteen million persons relocated themselves in a period of six months — mostly in Punjab, the other partitioned province, often accompanied by violent clashes between Hindu and Muslim and Sikh communities. Much of the Hindu community of East Bengal made its way to West Bengal. In 1947 344,000 Hindu refugees from East Pakistan arrived in West Bengal, most to Calcutta, more than twice that number came in 1948 and more than 1.5 million in 1950. According to the Census of India, more than % of Calcutta s population originates inEast Bengal. Significantly, less than 50% of the Bengali Muslim community migrated to East Pakistan; some Hindus advocated Muslims leaving West Bengal, and did not welcome the few Muslims who, at the time, chose in fact to migrate to India. 20
The results of the present study indicate unequivo- cally that the M. equidens stocks introduced into Brazil were from the Indo-West Pacific Region (Taiwan or the Philippines), based on the comparison against approxi- mately 300 COI sequences from Genbank, representing dozens of Macrobrachium species. However, the relat- ively high genetic divergence (approximately 3%) be- tween the Brazilian and Asian populations of M. equi- dens appears to contradict the hypothesis that the spe- cies was introduced recently from ballast water dis- charges or accidentally together with other exotic spe- cies for aquaculture purposes, such as Macrobrachium rosenbergii, which was brought to Brazil inthe nine- teen-seventies (Cavalcanti 1998). One possibility – that requires closer attention – is that the Amazonian pop-
Abstract: High hydrocarbon resource potential makes the Russian Arctic an attractive region for major oil and gas producing companies. Any investment decision is commonly based on an assessment stage which includes various types of technical and economical evaluations. Transportation cost inthe Russian Arctic drastically influences overall project economics. Thus accurate method for transportation cost assessment becomes important from early stages of project definition. Infrastructure inthe Russian Arctic is poorly developed so conventional estimation methods of hydrocarbon transportation tariff are ineffective. This paper describes a cost estimation method for tanker transportation of oil which considers key features of operations inthe Russian Arctic.
Central EastChina (CEC) is regarded as one of the regions inthe world where tropospheric ozone is present at high con- centrations. Pochanart et al. (2009) revealed the seasonal variation in ozone concentrations over CEC from observa- tion. They found that at the top of Mount Tai (36.26 ◦ N, 117.11 ◦ E, 1534 m a.s.l., Shandong Province of the People’s Republic of China) located inthe middle of CEC, monthly averaged ozone concentrations regularly peak in June at ∼80 ppbv, with highest hourly values exceeding 120 ppbv in each year of 2004–2006. Considering that the site is not directly affected by plumes from large cities, a geographi- cally wide area (with a scale of several hundred kilometers) is likely covered by air masses containing high concentra- tions of ozone. Zhu et al. (2004) indicated in their regional modeling study that a zonal band (between 35 and 40 ◦ N) of high ozone concentration (>70 ppb) emerged from the west- ern boundary (70 ◦ E) of their model domain to 130 ◦ E in June, the latitudinal location of which was affected by sea- sonal transition associated with the Asian monsoon system. The regionally high ozone burden in this region is of interest from the viewpoints of the greenhouse effect, health effects, and agricultural damage.
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government inthe function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government inthe context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the