Top PDF The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

norms for a large sample of German first names. From this study, we selected 36 names (18 fe- male and 18 male names, see S1 Table) with a similar length (two to three syllables) that scored within the second and third quartile in popularity and were perceived as being relatively mod- ern. Each participant in the names condition was presented a random sample of 18 first names (9 female and 9 male). Furthermore, we selected 18 low- and 18 high-arousal pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; [65]). The IAPS is a collection of pictures that have been evaluated on their power to evoke emotions, rated on scales of 1 (low) to 9 (high) for emotional valence as well as for intensity of arousal. We selected pictures that evoked only pos- itive emotions (valence ratings over 4.8) to avoid frightening the participants or causing dis- gust. Also, for negative emotions participants’ reactions are less predictable. Phobic or disgusting stimuli could either attract more attention due to an alertness reaction or be avoided. Studies on the effect of stimulus emotionality on the allocation of attention showed that the arousal level, not the valence of the stimuli, influences the amount of attention partici- pants direct to the stimuli [61,66]. Therefore, we selected pictures with either low emotional arousal (arousal ratings below 3.0) or high emotional arousal (arousal ratings over 5.5) to vary the arousal potential of the pictures, and thus assumably, the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. For the low-arousal pictures the mean arousal rating was 2.76 (SD = 0.17) and the mean valence rating was 5.62 (SD = 0.65); for the high-arousal pictures the mean arousal rating was 6.34 (SD = 0.55) and the mean valence rating was 6.87 (SD = 0.92). For both picture types, we selected 9 pictures illustrating humans (engaged, for example, in reading or playing chess for low emotional arousal, and in extreme sports or erotic actions for high emotional arousal) and 9 pictures illustrating objects (such as a plant or a boat for low emotional arousal, and lightning or a rocket for high emotional arousal). The presentation of the stimuli and the as- sessment of the dependent measures were controlled by a computer program (E-Prime 2.0 soft- ware; [67]) run under a Windows XP environment with 17-inch monitors.
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The impact of accountability on judgments of ethical decisions

The impact of accountability on judgments of ethical decisions

Regardless of the condition of negative consequences, and supporting hypothesis 1, participants under process accountability evaluated decisions with positive or neutral consequences as less acceptable compared with the group of participants who are not accountable at all or who are under outcome accountability. This effect is independent of the individual propensity to make cognitive effort in problem analysis. Moreover, these results suggest that process accountability activates a kind of cognitive functioning based on a more thorough and systematic analysis of all elements of the decision and therefore less based on the valence of the consequences. On the contrary, our results suggests that outcome accountability is not an effective mechanism in preventing bias driven by the excessive salience of a decision’s consequences, at least, in the case of ethical decision-making. However, when individuals believe that they have to account for the way they judge the ethical decisions of others (process accountability) tend to make more severe judgments, even if the consequences of the decision are displayed as positive. This effect does not occur when individuals are facing a similar decision but with negative consequences. Under this condition, both accountable and non-accountable participants tend to judge the decision as unacceptable. Put another way, process accountability seems not to interfere with the judgments about the decision when it has negative consequences. This result may be due to the high salience of negative consequences (Mazzocco et al., 2004), which allows the individual to identify how the decision specifically affects others, leading to higher culpability of whom perpetrate an ethically questionable behavior (Alicke & Davis, 1989). Participants may anticipate that other people would never accept such behavior. Moreover, from a self-centered perspective, individuals may place themselves in the victims’ shoes, which implicitly suggest that they themselves could be affected by the decision’s consequences.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
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Value-Added Business Based On Small Scale Of Fisheries A Case Study On Nortern And Shouthern Coasts Of  Java Lamongan And Pelabuhanratu Regency Indonesia

Value-Added Business Based On Small Scale Of Fisheries A Case Study On Nortern And Shouthern Coasts Of Java Lamongan And Pelabuhanratu Regency Indonesia

The development of fisheries sector was expected to keep the economy growth stable, to absorb more labor forces, to produce high foreign exchange, and the most important thing is to increase the income per capita as well as to give a muliplier effects to the society. The effect of economy from an economy activity is usually performed with input-output analysis approach (I-O) and Computable Geberal Equlibrium (CGE) to know the direct, indirect and induced impacts [4]. The impact of economy in a productive activity, for example fisheries can be grouped into three catergories, i.e. direct advantage, indirect advantage, and induced advantage [4]. Direct advantage is triggered from the fishing activity that needs input like labor force/ ship’s crew, fuel, Ice, clean water, supplies/ ration etc. That input can be obtained from other sector. This can cause indirect advantage. If ship’s crew is from local area, the expense of the crew can create induced benefit in that area. Not all the benefits or the impact can be felt by local society. Does the input come from the other area or imported one, the rotation of money can cause indirect benefit then. This is a leakage of benefit. The flow of the money from the fisheries activity to the local society at last creates the impact of economy and economy leakage. Even though it is a little, the empirical studies that try to count the downstream and upstream linkage in small scale fishing in a developing country tend to show that the number of added work is created through the downstream and upstream linkage that is significant enought [5]. Downstream and upstream linkage is stated in Table 1. Generally, the international value chain for economic commodities is important for sellers, such as, tuna, salmon, skipjack tuna, shrimp and tilapia, which consist of some nodal with a product that passes over longer to achieve consumers. Whereas some species that is not economically important is important to the sustainability for local food which is part of the shorter value chain [5]. Small scale fishing is very important as a source of livelihood, earning, production and world fish supply. Besides that, small scale fishing provides fish that directly gives contribution to increase the food and nutrition sustainability [6].
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

To the commercial website, telepresence is the equivalent of general and internal variables. According to Sheridan (1992), Steuer (1995), Biocca (1997), Lombard and Ditton (1997) and Shith (1998), the telepresence concept is used to describe the gratifying sense to be present in a mediated environment which appears as it naturally was. Hoffman and Novak (1996), Novak, Hoffman and Yung (1999) assert that telepresence is the perception that the virtual environment, with which the user is in interaction, is more real and dominant than the physical environment. Volle (2000), as for him, highlights that the principle challenges landed by the virtual atmosphere consist to maintain a high attention and a fluidity sensation that captures the visitor. Thus, a site with captivating content is the one that allows visitors to live a telepresence experience. During this research, we consider the steuer (1992)’s conceptualization of telepresence envisioning this later as “The extent to which one feels present in the mediated environment rather than in the immediate physical environment”. In other words, telepresence refers to the mediated perception of an environment that can be a spatially distant, real environment, or a virtual world.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" [45]. The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
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Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

Skills transfer from volunteer activities to paid employment is not a new idea. In fact, the impression of transferring skills gained through volunteer work to paid employment got its first major impetus in 1964 when the United States Employment Center assigned volunteer interviewers to work with professionals to help women find part-time employment opportunities [21]. According to Phillips and Phillips (2000), skills gained through volunteerism can be put to use effectively in job searches. Research on skills transfer from volunteer work to paid employment has been conducted by Hybels (1978) and Schram (1985). They have argued that skills developed through volunteerism improve job opportunities and job performance of volunteers. The studies by Austin (1998) and Ross (1997) corroborate these findings by referring to reports by CEOs of Fortune 500 companies who claim that volunteering has helped them create new contacts and improve their company’s reputation in addition to individual fulfillment and skill development. Some of the life and work skills that volunteers develop through volunteerism are group commu- nication, leadership, interpersonal communication social justice, critical thinking, workplace literacy skills and moral character development [9]. Volunteering, in general, enhances the well- being of volunteers and increases the frequency of positive emotions [27]. Many volunteers enhance their career prospects, command higher salaries, and get better jobs because of their work [28–30]. In this research, we consider job performance as one of the outcomes of ISB-V.
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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

After 60 min of isothermal annealing the β phase formed grains with boundaries which are the most developed. With the general trend of size reduction grain β phase, with increasing time τ_ia, increase the length of the grain boundaries indicates a greater heterogeneity in size grains in the in bronze microstructure, heat treated under these conditions (Fig. 7 c). For very small grains, grains also were identified about a larger surface area and greatly developed interphase boundary. Extending the annealing time of 1β0 min possible to obtain grains of β phase with the shortest grain boundaries (Fig. 15, Tab. 7).
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Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

The metal mould had a possibility of installation of a thermocouple, which served to permanent registration, in real time, of temperature of solidifying specimen. With use of measuring station of the ATD method one registered runs of crystallization for individual specimens. Results of the registration were presented in graphic form on crystallization diagrams from the ATD method [7, 8, 9]. The tests were performed in fixed conditions. One poured specimens of the investigated alloy in the following conditions: without vibrations, with 50%ampliture of the vibrations (0,4 mm), with 100% amplitude of the vibrations (0,8 mm), frequency of vibration of 50Hz, temperature of metal mould of 250 0 C, temperature of the alloy of 760 0 C. Half of the specimens (18) were poured in horizontal position, whereas the second half of the specimens were poured in metal mould tilted with 20 0 (Fig. 3). Three pieces of specimens for each series were produced.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

In polycrystalline blades of aircraft engine turbines, the size and shape of the grain constitutes one of the most significant quality control criteria of the casts made. In industrial practice, the macrostructure of the airfoil and the blade root is evaluated in terms of the presence of equiaxed, columnar and frozen grains. The grain size has a significant influence on the mechanical properties, creep resistance as well as heat- and high-temperature creep resistance of the blades [10-14].
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

This article examines the effect of prolonged time of holding at the temperature of 620 0 C on the processes of secondary phase precipitation and mechanical properties of low-alloy cast steel with an addition of vanadium subjected to two variants of heat treatment, i.e. U:1150 0 C+H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C and H:950 0 C+O:620 0 C. To determine an impact of the applied heat treatment operations, testing of mechanical properties and microstructural examinations of the cast steel with 0,21 and 0,27%C were carried out.
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Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

The control program starts the cooling process in the 1. zone as soon as possible after filling the mold with the liquid metal, and at the latest at the beginning of crystallization of silumin, i.e. 330 C. Then, after the silumin crystallization is finished, the program begins with the cooling of the other zones, which will no longer supply the zone 1 with the liquid metal,, but instead accelerate the process of cooling of the entire cast. The program ends cooling of the chill after reaching the temperature of 60 C for casting. The program also contains a condition of water pulsation after temperature reduction by mold below 150 C and then 100 C. This condition reduces the amount of water in a mist along with the decreasing ability of the evaporation on the cooled wall of the pre-chill and thereby reduces the possibility of water gathering at the casting station.. Moreover, research shows that reducing the amount of water at this stage did not affect the cooling rate and the total time of casting. The cooling process ends when they reach the permanent molds temperature below 60 ° C.
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Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

India is a tropical country and seasonal partitioning of Southern Bengal is mainly based on rainfall in this region. Accordingly monsoon sets from mid Jun-September, followed by winter that starts from November and persists till February. The dry season or pre monsoon is usually of three months, March-May. Environmental variables as well as zooplankton density of Bakreswar reservoir varied seasonally as depicted in Fig. 2. Even results of MANOVA showed a significant effect of season on zooplankton density (Table 1). Copepods and Cladocerans were highest during the months of August and February-March. Rotifers were found to be abundant during the late summer months, so were the Ostracods. Similar seasonal fluctuations were also reported from reservoirs of other states of India (Ahmed et al., 2013; Jadhav, 2012). Temperature has a positive effect on the rotifer abundance as established by Smith (1983). Annual seasonal variations of cladoceran populations in Indian aquatic bodies were also established in the works of Mathew (1985) and Rao et al. (1981). Works of Shivshankar (2013) and Rajashekhar (2012) from Southern reservoirs of India also confirms such observations as found in Bakreswar reservoir.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

in four dimensions: occupation, industry, firm, and job cell. One of the contributions of this paper is the estimation of these effects including fixed effects to control for unobserved, time-invariant characteristics of workers, firms, and worker-firm matches. The workers’ fixed effects capture unobserved heterogeneity in their abilities/skills, motivation, preferences, and personality traits, all of which affect wages and can be correlated with the allocation of workers across the four dimensions of interest. If females’ tastes are such that they are prepared to trade more easily the pecuniary for non-pecuniary aspects of the jobs, one should expect to observe a higher concentration of women in occupations, industries, establishment, and job cells that pay lower wages. It could also be that less productively able men and women sort (or are sorted) into predominantly female jobs that command lower wages. In both cases, the estimates of the effects of female segregation on wages will be misleading if worker-specific fixed effects are not part of the model.
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White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

This means that branching of graphite, which is needed for growth at the optimum-lamellar spacing, is difficult. The lamella of graphite will then grow straight in a converging or diverging way, leading to a whole range of lamellar spacing (corresponding to a range of undercooling given by eq. (1)). It has been shown that growth cannot be achieved with a spacing lower than the extreme one. Growth of converging lamella will then stop when this spacing is reached. At the opposite, growth of diverging lamella will be stable only as long as is less than a critical spacing br where branching occurs, as shown in fig. 3.
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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the numerical solution of the inverse problem consisting in the identification of the heat flux on the continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. On the stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme of the boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Based on the objectives to be achieved and problems that have been formulated, the method used is juridical- sociological. The juridical approach is intended to explore and study the legislation as a basis for a research, while the sociological approach is intended to explore the factors and impacts incurred from the occurrence of border-area dispute and solution by the government. The specifications of this research are normative law called also as doctrinal research. A site was chosen by researcher to conduct a research is a government agency that includes the Navy (Department of Hydro-Oceanographic) related to the sea boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia and neighboring countries, local governments, especially in the leading islands border to the Republic of Indonesia related to culture, security, politics and thinking about the area/island they occupy, as a part of the Unitary of the Republic of Indonesia. The population is all research objects to be researched. In this research, the population is Navy and the relevant agencies involved in the security of sea area. The samples were chosen to be a material of research is the bearer of the security function in marine areas through the random system and interviews with relevant parties, such as Bakorkamla and community.
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The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The article discusses the possibilities of using optical measurements for defining the geometric accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the rapid prototyping process. The tested gear wheel prototype was cast using an aluminum alloy. The casting mould was made by means of the three-dimensional print method (3DP) with the use of a Z510 Spectrum device. The aim of the tests was to determine the geometric accuracy of the cast made by the ZCast technology in the rapid prototyping process. The tests were conducted with the use of the coordinate optical measuring method and a GOM measuring device. The prototype measurements were made in the scanning mode. The results of the measurements, saved in the STL format with the use of the scanning device software, were compared with the gear wheel 3D-CAD nominal model. The measurements enabled the determination of the real accuracy of prototypes manufactured in casting moulds by means of the ZCast technology. The selection of the measuring method was also analyzed in terms of measurement accuracy and the RP technology precision.
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