The total vegetation cover simulated by the model (Fig. 3) is in agreement with the one from another version of LOVE- CLIM (Goose et al., 2010, Fig. 14). Likewise, it is similar to the data but with an overestimation of the cover in the Tropics because of too much precipitation. In terms of car- bon content, iLOVECLIM simulates low carbon contents in the regions of low vegetation cover, and particularly high carbon contents in the southern and eastern parts of North America, the northeastern part of South America, the south- eastern part of Africa and on the maritime continent. This results in 2142 GtC globally, corresponding to 863 GtC for vegetation and 1279 GtC for soils (and litter). This is in the range of other model estimates which vary between around 320 and 930 GtC for vegetation and between around 500 and 3100 GtC for soils (Anav et al., 2013), as well as close to data estimates although with an overestimation of vegetation carbon content and underestimation of soil carbon content (respectively 450 to 650 GtC for vegetation, Prentice et al., 2013, and 1500 to 2400 GtC for litter and soils, Batjes, 1996). Because the objective of this coupling is to study the cli- mate and carboncycle on a timescale of more than thou- sands of years, and because the terrestrial biosphere has al- ready been studied (apart from the isotopes) (Goosse et al., 2010), we focus mainly on the distribution of the tracers in the ocean, both at the surface and in the interior. We also compare the carbon isotope results with data as they consti- tute an important constraint for past climates.
The interactive oceancarboncyclemodel is the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model (NOBM, (Gregg and Casey, 2007; Romanou et al., 2013), which is interactively coupled to the oceanmodel from which it uses temperature, salin- ity, mixed layer depth, the ocean circulation fields, horizon- tal advection and vertical mixing schemes and the atmo- spheric model from which it uses the surface shortwave ra- diation (direct and diffuse) and surface wind speed. NOBM includes four phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, and coccolithophores), four nutrients (ni- trate, silicate, ammonium and iron), three detrital pools (ni- trates/carbon, silicate and iron) and a single herbivore com- ponent. The carbon submodel includes dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively) and surface alkalinity, which is a constant function of salinity at the sur- face. The underwater irradiance needed to drive phytoplank- ton growth is calculated explicitly for the entire spectrum of light with the use of a radiative transfer model that takes into account water absorption and scattering based on the opti- cal properties of the phytoplankton groups that were derived from laboratory studies (Gregg, 2002). Detrital settling and phytoplankton sinking are modeled in HYCOM using a one- dimensional piecewise parabolic transport method whereas in the Russell oceanmodel using a piecewise linear method. In Gregg and Casey (2007) phytoplankton sinking was modeled as an additional advection in the vertical. Sink- ing rates were specified at 31 ◦ C and derived from Stokes’ law using representative phytoplankton sizes for each group from a very thorough survey of the literature (Gregg and Casey (2007) and references therein). The sinking rates w s
whether CO 2 evolved from the oxidation of lactate by A. fulgidus was incorporated into precipitated carbonate minerals and helped to define distinct phases or patterns at- tributed to the precipitation process. This information provides insight into how closely linked the carboncycle is coupled between microbial metabolism and mineral precipi- tation processes and provides some insight into mineral biomarkers.
thermal unfolding profile. Furthermore, the authors showed that the copper ion has a stabilizing effect on the overall conformational stability (Agostinelli, et al., 1995; Savini, et al., 1990; Sedlak, et al., 2008). Korovleva et al (2001) showed that two fungal laccases from Coriolus hirsutus and Coriolus zonatus and their type2 copper depleted derivatives, also showed that the copper center are disrupted before the overall unfolding. In a multidomain MCO, human ceruloplasmin, Sedlak (2007), found that during unfolding there was the formation of a reversible intermediate which correlates with decreased secondary structure, exposure of aromatics, loss of two coppers, and reduced oxidase activity. Further additions of urea trigger complete protein unfolding and loss of all coppers. Attempts to refold this species result in an inactive apoprotein with molten-globule characteristics. However, the copper ions also have a stabilizing effect in this protein, since the apo-hCp also unfolds through a multistep reaction but the intermediate appears at slight lower denaturant concentrations (Sedlak and Wittung-Stafshede, 2007). In general terms, the stability studies in multicopper oxidases showed that the copper has a fundamental role in the overall conformational structure, and also that the thermal unfolding of these proteins is highly complex were no refolding was detected, and none of these proteins unfolded according to a single thermal domain. In fact, some authors suggest that the three thermal transitions determined by DSC may correspond to the three structural domains of these proteins.
Interaction of nonlinear internal waves with background shear occurs frequently in the coastal ocean. Lamb (2010) uses numerical simulations to investigate the energetics of waves interacting with a sheared background flow. The total energy of the waves is partitioned between available potential energy and kinetic energy. The paper explores the difficulty associated in defining an appropriate averaging procedure to separate background from wave and turbulent flow. For slowly varying linear internal waves, spatial averaging over several wavelengths accomplishes the task. However, for nonlinear, pulse-like waves, such averaging does not make sense, and the author argues that a logical choice is to consider the far upstream field velocity as the background state. Several different combinations of waves
Neither a true, nor a lie, but a scripture that operates least in terms of what happened to the dimension of what is heard, the otobiography is a performance work. This article assumes the task of removing the writings of the comfortable post of literary genre - autobiography. Thus arose the analysis around the autofiction, here transformed into otofiction or performance and pure act. It is through these same gestures that Wittgenstein's Nephew is revealed, signed by Thomas Bernhard, the performance of this actor in place of the authorship of the one who betrayed the state of Austria.
A comparison of the scalings shows that the responses to transient perturbations are qualitatively similar across the two climates. Figures 13–15 show the correlations of peak perturbations in the two configurations. For most emission events the correlation is high; however, there are systematic deviations for some variables. For example, the paleo-ocean systematically takes up less carbon than the modern ocean (Fig. 13b), leaving more in the atmosphere (Fig. 13a). This is likely to be due to higher paleo-temperatures and lower alkalinities resulting in weaker ocean buffering capacity. The changes in pH, however, are systematically larger in the mod- ern ocean compared to the paleo-ocean(Fig. 14a). The rel- atively small changes in carbonate chemistry are unlikely to explain the systematics (doubling pCO 2 with the paleo-
Ingvar começou sua trajetória vendendo pequenos objetos (como canetas, carteiras e meias) que comprava no atacado por preços reduzidos e revendia aos fazendeiros da região, na sua Suécia natal. Aos 17 anos, recebeu do pai uma quantia que investiu em um negócio próprio batizado de IKEA (o I pela inicial do seu nome, K do sobrenome, E representava o lugar onde nasceu e o A era a inicial do nome do seu povoado). Deixou de usar a bicicleta para vender suas mercadorias e passou a utilizar um velho caminhão. Depois teve a ideia de elaborar um catálogo reunindo todos os seus produtos.
a spectral manifestation of Moby Dick was just a carnival prop, Tom longs for a more direct contact with the source he is looking for, and ends up physically sucked into the novel itself. Moby-Dick acquires then its full status as a concrete presence in the narrative of The Unwritten, and this also leads to the consummation of its pull as a cultural artifact. In the role of a minor character in the novel, Tom notices that all the other characters follow the script imposed by the novel, their dialogue being pulled verbatim from the text, and that they only stare blankly when he asks them about information that is not contained in the narrative. “Perhaps there was an elementary force, like gravity or magnetism”, he wonders. “A force that compelled the visitors to a fiction into a blind obedience to its words and structures” (CAREY et al., 2011, n. 21, p. 16). Moreover, he feels that this process will eventually take over himself; this is a threat to his identity, since he would become indistinguishable from the character whose part he plays, and also a threat to his life, since he would die with the rest of the crew if he stayed on the Pequod. From an open narrative, Moby-Dick becomes a trap, probably because acting as one of its characters means adhering to the surface of its text and to its plot. The solution is to open up the narrative again by reclaiming its status as a symbol and by reestablishing its contact with other narratives. Tom takes over the narrative voice of Moby-Dick in order to force it to an end, a point of equilibrium that would allow him to get out; what he achieves, though, is to bring it to a standstill. Interestingly, he does so by taking charge of the metaphors used to describe a storm and therefore controlling the symbolic language of the novel. Immobilizing the story seems to mean containing it, turning Moby-Dick into a cultural artifact that can then be inserted into a larger body of fictional creations.
These two phenomena, having distinctively dierent characteristics, can be studied from registrations in a suitable network of geomagnetic observatories to un- derstand the ionospheric current systems during the events. India has a unique set of geomagnetic observa- tories spanning the latitudes of the magnetic equator and the SQ focus in a region of the world where the geomagnetic and geographic meridian planes are least separated. Taking advantage of this, we aim here to focus on some of the aspects of an SFE and associated SSC and their related changes in the ionospheric conductivities and electric ®elds.