The questionnaire requested to respondents to indicate the ways they deal in their daily activities regarding our seven items we defined for transformational leadership. The were also asked to indicate their age among 5 age groups specified inthe survey, namely: 1) up to 30, 2) 31- 40, 3) 41-50, 4) 51-60, 5) >61. The results were represented in Figure no. 3. The leadership styles which managers adopt has changed radically over the last 60 years (Gill, 2003) and we started to see that is less use of directive leadership in favor of transactional and transformational leadership, which we will go into more details later inthe paper. The top and middle management started to be younger and younger, and this research can be the start of a second part inthe near future due to the rapid transformation ofthe markets, especially when important events occur more often than ever. The research can be an answer to the suggestion of Kabacoff (2002) regarding the personal characteristics, such age, education, etc that have a significant impact on leadership. For example, the youngest manager within Heineken Romania is under 30 years old and this can be an answer to a lot of questions, especially when you want to improve the management ofthe human resources. Therefore, the present work attempts a comprehensive research of transformational leadership of managers from two perspectives, personal and organizational dimensions, to describe new both the individual and also the impact of these variables on leadership practice. Also, the respondents were also asked to indicate their last form of education completed: 1) High-school, 2) University, 3) Master, 4) PhD, 5) MBA and represented in Figure nr. 4 The rating scale adopted was Likert-type scale from 1 (Strongly Disagree), 2 (Partially Disagree), 3 (Uncertain), 4 (Partially Agree), 5 (Strongly agree). Some authors, like Hogan and Hogan (2001) are not in favor of self-report data used in leadership research, because they consider that “leadership is a social influence process and thus, should be determined by manager’s staff/direct reports”. (Hogan, 2005,p.3). Moreover, while Gill (2003) accepts that self-reports are open to criticism, he argued that they could be valid and very important in certain circumstances. Bass (2002) has demonstrated how “self-report personality scales show predictable, significant and substantial correlations with criteria of management
Queues (or waiting lines) are general phenomenon in everyday life. Queues are usually seen at post offices, bus stops, hospitals, bank counters, petrol filing stations etc. Queues are formed when customers (human or object) demanding service have to wait because their number exceeds the number of servers available; or the facility does not work efficiently or takes more than the time prescribed to service a customer. Some customers wait when the total number of customers requiring service exceeds the number of service facilities, some service facilities stand idle when the total number of service facilities exceeds the number of customers requiring service.  defines queue as simply a waiting line, while put it in similar way as a waiting line by two important elements: the population source of customer from which they can draw and the service system. The population of customer could be finite or infinite. The banking sector which is the largest and most competitive unit of Ghana’s financialsector, acting as a financial intermediarybetweenthe surplus and deficit agents ofthe economy has always been the center ofattraction to many customers that want to carry out one transaction or the other through the services provided by these banks. However, the major problem is the inability ofthebanks to match their service facilities to the needs of customers without much delay. The common experience in Ghana is that most banks do not have the facilities and capacities to service the number of customers without much delay on the part ofthe customers. The problem in this regard had been that though bank customers for instance, have always been desirous of spending the least possible time in banking transactions, this age-long desire is yet to be met by thebanks. Banks on the other hand, want to attract, retain customers and at the same time optimize profit. Profit making inbanks is a function of management ability to provide efficient services to customers at little or no time wastage . One major recurring problem in Ghanaian Banks is congestionat the banking halls; this has led to the movement of customers from one bank to the other, where they can obtain banking services without much delay. Despite technological advancement inthe banking sector, such as Internet Banking, Mobile or Telephone Banking,
In this paper we tried to deliver a profile analysis ofthe employees fromthecommercialbanks. The banking sector is especially important because it has to finance the entire economy, and therefore it needs competent and well- motivated people. As methodology we realized a survey on a representative number of employees ofcommercialbanks. We used questionnaires measuring motivational factors, the orientation to tasks vs. people questionnaire, the potential leadership questionnaire, the Belbin self- knowledge questionnaire. The results showed that the employee fromthe Romanian commercialbanks has a strong work-ethic and is highly motivated.
Studies have proved that structure ofthe chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides inthe chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature inthe liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used inthe manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties inthe metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
One ofthe most common defects leading to the rejection of faulty castings made of duplex cast steel is hot cracking. Hot cracking – differently from cold cracking which occur on cooling, when the material exhibits already distinct elastic properties – proceeds inthe semi-solid state, particularly when the temperature of solidifying casting is close to the equilibrium solidus point. There exist a range of temperatures inthe vicinity ofthe solidus point within which the solidifying metal shows very small deformation ability and small strength. Therefore even little stresses occurring at the solidification stage and caused by density difference between ferrite and austenite, or restricted shrinkage, or various temperature gradients, can be the reason of hot cracking. Copper addition, as it is used in cast steel grades implemented in Polish power industry applications, decreases the temperature ofthe end of solidification, thus affecting beneficially the surface reproduction quality, but on the other hand it can promote, along with several other elements contained in duplex cast steel, the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification. The presence of peritectic solidification, i.e. strictly speaking the structural stresses accompanying that process, is the well-known and significant reason ofthe increased steel defectiveness inthe continuous steel casting (CSC) technology if the steel with carbon content promoting the peritectic transformation is processed.
For every analyzed case it was assumed that inthe range of variability of each parameter there are 4 points (p=4). The number of simulation needed to be conducted depends on the number ofthe studied physical model parameters k, as well as on how many times the matrix B* was created, and it is equal to r (k+1). Hence the number of computer simulations ranged between 80 for cases shown in Figures 3, 7, 8 and 9 through 128 and 320 for Figures 4 and 5 respectively, up to 640 for the case from Figure 6.
Nickel based superalloys castings are produced by investment casting methods which are constantly improved . Nickel superalloys are used for critical elements ofthe aircraft engines (so called „Flight safety parts” - FSP). They are subject of exceptional requirements inthe production and control respects. These elements have to fulfil a lot of requirements ofthe consumer standards dealing with the chemical composition and microstructure – and first of all the grain size, the microstructure of matrix, the type and relative volume of carbides, porosity and the surface roughness [2-5]. Properties of casted blades made of
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears ofthe unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading roleinthe diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
arterial stifness (and EVA) is strongly inluenced by the BP load (MAP), HR, and SNS activity, there may exist some other important components (collagen protein synthesis and structure) and vascular risk factors (hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, inlammation) independent of BP regulation. If shown to be true, for example after analysis based on Mendelian randomisation methodology, this opens up new possibilities to target these mechanisms of protein/collagen synthesis with new drugs to reduce arterial stifness. Such studies have been considered and drafted, but the results will not be ready for presentation inthe near future. One speculative example involves the truncated and aberrantly farnesylated lamin A protein called progerin, which is found in children with the extremely rare and fatal premature ageing syndrome Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Recently, 25 patients with HGPS received the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib for a minimum of 2 years. 27 The primary outcome for
Checking the dependency of attributes is done to omit the un- necessary attributes, the step which can be of crucial importance in optimising the decision-making process. A smaller number of attributes means less of a dialogue with the user and quicker search ofthe rule base looking for adequate procedure of reason- ing. Inthe case of decision tables that contain very large sets of redundant attributes (created during the operations associated with data mining), the possibilities of reduction can become critical elements in building of a knowledge base. A totally different situation occurs when the decision table is created by knowledge engineers in a controlled manner, based on e.g. literature, expert knowledge, and/or standards, when the set of attributes is authori- tatively created basing on the available knowledge about the phenomena. In this case, the reduction of attributes is not neces- sary, as it can be assumed that the number of unnecessary attributes (if any) shall not deteriorate the model classificability.
Women also provide most ofthe labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities inthe rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions ofthe farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective ofthe study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics ofthe respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
IEEE standard images for different number of ASCII characters. Tables 1-2 indicate the PSNR values for various Stego-images of size 256 x 256 using the proposed techniques, calculated for 1500 characters. We conducted further experiments with the Lena image using more characters. Table 2 indicates the PSNR values for the Lena image calculated for up to 1997 characters using the three suggested techniques. Thus, using the proposed method, up to 1997 characters (or 15,976 bits) have been embedded in a 256 x 256 pixel image. This shows that, 12.5% ofthe image pixels are used to embed 15,976 bits and yet the perceptual quality ofthe stego-image is still high. The PSNR ofthe third method can be controlled depending on number of bits being stored in various positions. Considering a minimum of 34 dB PSNR threshold for stego-image perceptual quality  It is clear fromthe obtained PSNR values that the proposed technique can generate stego-images with good perceptual quality. For qualitative assessment, , Figures 11(a), 11(b) show the Baboon image before and after steganography using the proposed technique for 500 characters. Figures 12(a) and 12(b) show the Lena image using the proposed technique, for 1997 ASCII characters.
We designed a set of experiments for both models. Obtained results are presented in Figure 6. As can be seen only one curve, corresponding to the factor 1 f , diverges fromthe others, including cooling curves obtained by our model. Curves corresponding to other two factors are convergent with each other and with curve obtained by means ofthe proposed model. We noted that for both eutectic transformation modes the same correcting factor in analytical model can be used to describe eutectic structure evolution in case of hypoeutectic alloy. This implies that in order to take into account various eutectic transformation modes, there is no need to differentiate between various correction factors.
Brazil has the world’s eighth largest economy (IMF, 2008). Nevertheless, 21.4 % ofthe country’s people live in poverty, and 7.3% in misery (IPEADATA, 2009). This contradiction is the result ofthe country’s glaring income inequality (UNDP, 2010) 1 . But, after decades remaining at a very high and stable level, inequality has recently started to decline in Brazil and in several other Latin- American countries (Lopez-Calva and Lustig, 2010). The aim of this paper is to understand the reasons behind the fall ofthe Brazilian inequality, using a flexible econometric approach and focusing on therole played by education and age.
delivery systems . Since then it has come to encompass any use of mobile telephony technology to address healthcare challenges such as access, quality, affordability, matching of resources, and behavioral norms . mHealth technologies are a valuable partner in health care’s shift towards a delivery model that is patient-centered and value- based. Mobile technologies can help to facilitate that shift among clinicians, life scientists, and consumers by defining and directing the patient-centered model towards health care that is community-based, integrated, seamless, and assimilated into the daily lives of consumers accustomed to an ’on-demand’ environment. Globally, the demand for mHealth has also been growing. The global mHealth market was estimated at $1.2 billion in 2011 and experts project that the market’s value would increase to $11.8 billion by 2018, implying that the demand is growing at an annual growth rate of 39 percent. Kenya has been on the fore front inthe application ofthe mobile phone technology platform in providing solution to the social problems inthe community. Qiang  in a World Bank report on mobile applications for the health sector indicated that Kenya has been the cutting edge ofthe use of mobile technology for development, with its M-PESA mMoney scheme having become a model for similar programs around the world. However, the report revealed that, the country’s adoption ofthe mHealth technology remains low, while the landscape ofthe industry is changing rapidly as mHealth enterprises come and go. Half ofthe mHealth enterprises are less than two years old, and their commercial viability is still in question; only four percent are for profit, and none from any public sector are currently operating sustainably. Several mHealth programs inthe country have been launched and run not for profit by the NGOs. For Instance, the Kenyan integrated mobile Maternal and Newborn Child Health information platform (KimMNCHip) which is a national scale effort to provide affordable and accessible mobile health solutions to all pregnant women and mothers with children under 5 everywhere in Kenya. It is run by a cross-sector partnership between the Government of Kenya, Safaricom, World Vision, Care, AMREF, and NetHope . The programme was launched to make use ofthe 29.2 million mobile subscribers in Kenya on assumption that at least every household, has a phone therefore it is easy to reach the 41 million Kenyans through the mHealth platform.
This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those ofthe central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance ofthe transformer winding is neglected in front ofthe consumption ofthe central branch . But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances ofthe reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions ofthe elements ofthe central branch inthe model of Steinmetz starting fromthe powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation ofthe iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
describe and understanding the evaluated of customer and customer behavior (Tuu & Olsen, 2011:29). Consumer behavior involves risk inthe sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which he cannot anticipate with anything approximating certainty, and some of which at least are likely to be unpleasant (Bauer, 1960) and sacrifice to obtain a product (Zeithaml, 1988). Value of risk often in empirical study on customer behavior in foods (Knight et al., 2007:794), considering food is basic needs of customer every day. Perceived risk is not only related to consumers’ information acquisition and processing activity but to post- decision processes as well, where people will seek out information that confirms the wisdom of their decision (Horvat & Dosen, 2013:273). Consumer risk perception and its impacts on purchasing behavior are a critical component ofthe management of food safety (Yeung et al., 2010:306), perceived risk can be explained as consumers’ doubt on the results of their buying decisions (Arslan et al., 2013). It can be interpreted that perception of risk is sacrificed value of customer when buying products as result from selection until interpretation from alternative product. Described of organic product can be measure with financial risk, performance risk, physical risk and social risk (Yee et al., 2011:54). Research on the same years is delivered of measure of risk, especially food include health risk, performance risk, psychosocial risk, and financial risk (Tuu et al., 2011:368). Perception of risk have negative relationship with perception of quality (Kim & Lennon, 2013:33), and on last research found that perception of quality have negative relationship with perception of risk received by customer (Chen & Chang, 2005:521). Based on theoretical study which has been discussed, next determined research hypothesis.
Surface of C120 steel after arc plasma treatment showed tracks have multizone microstructure composed ofthe remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate, which can have diversified microhardness. Structure (particularly precipitation of martensite, bainite retained austenite and secondary cementite) inthe remelted zone is dependent on the arc plasma treatment parameters. The cooling rate obtained during the treatment by arc plasma ofthe steels is compared to the cooling rate ofthe steels during conventional heat treatment. This cooling rate can be estimated on the basis ofthe standard CCT diagram for C120 steel. Increased ofthe current intensity of arc plasma lead to of grater areas of materials remelting and it decreases ofthe cooling
their purchasing behavior. The work on CSR and consumer choice could be a new growth opportunity for marketing. CSR initiatives with well-designed targets and high consumer awareness through communication could play an important rolein successful marketing. Becker- Olsen et al. (2006) suspected the assumption that consumers will always reward firms for their socially responsible initiatives unselectively. They designed two studies to explore how consumers react to different CSR activities. In addition, they investigated the impact ofthe motivations and time choice of CSR initiatives. CSR activities that do not fit with a fir m‘s expertise have negative impact on consumers‘ attitudes toward a firm and the firm‘s credibility. Firms can be perceived as ―doing good‖ only by addressing selected CSR initiatives. CSR activities with low fitness with a firm are perceived as ―doing CSR business‖ by consumers, and lead to non-positive consumer evaluations. Perceived motivations of consumers have effect on consumers‘ evaluation of a firm and a firm‘s CSR initiatives. If consumers believe CSR initiatives are profit- driven rather than social-driven, then they will assess a firm and its credibility negatively. This leads to a low likelihood of consumers‘ purchase intention. The time of practicing CSR activities matters to consumers‘ assessments. Proactive CSR activities help firms get positive evaluations from consumers. In contrast, consumers regard reactive CSR activities as doing ―CSR business‖. Reactive CSR has non-positive contribution to a firm‘s image (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006).