Body composition

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ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND EMPTY BODY COMPOSITION OF ZEBU BULLS USING THE COMPOSITION OF RIB CUTS1

ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND EMPTY BODY COMPOSITION OF ZEBU BULLS USING THE COMPOSITION OF RIB CUTS1

Rib cut composition is a good parameter for the estimation of chemical body composition, but specific equations must be used for Zebu animals.. Key Words: bovinos, body composition, rib[r]

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Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

this study, we demonstrated the positive association of this ratio with lipodystrophy. The higher the index obtained by the ratio, the greater the amount of fat in the trunk and reduc- tion thereof in the upper limbs. This index is easy to apply, obtained through skinfolds, being feasible in clinical practice. In the study population, no changes were verified in the percentage of fat in lower and upper limbs when compared to the groups with and without lipodystrophy, however the ratio limb to trunk obtained through DXA showed a strong correlation with this clinical change. In another study carried out with children using HAART compared to a control group, changes in body composition obtained through DXA were also noted, even in the absence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy. 7
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A specific bioelectrical impedance equation to predict body composition in Turner's syndrome

A specific bioelectrical impedance equation to predict body composition in Turner's syndrome

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes for Turner syndrome (TS) mor- tality and the evaluation of its risk factors such as excess body fat and its distribution is conside- red one of the major aspects of the adult patient care. Objective: To develop and validate a spe- ciic bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation to predict body composition in TS patients. Subjects and methods: Clinical and anthropometric data, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for total fat-free mass (FFM) and BIA for resistance and reactance were obtained from 50 adult TS patients. Linear regression analysis was performed with multiple clinical and BIA data to obtain a predicting equation. Results: The equation developed to estimate FFM in adult TS patients showed great consistency with DXA, elevated correlation (r = 0.974) and determination (r 2 = 0.948) coeficients and an adequate standard error estimate (SEE = 1.52 kg). Conclusions:
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Relationship between Neurocognitive Performance and Body Composition of Men and Women Exposed to Organic Solvents

Relationship between Neurocognitive Performance and Body Composition of Men and Women Exposed to Organic Solvents

It was investigate the effect of organic solvents on the neurocognitive performance of men and women with and without chronic exposure to organic solvents and verify correlations between neurocognitive performance and body composition indices. Participants included 14 men and 14 exposed women and 14 men and 14 unexposed women. The Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, the Rey Complex Figure (RCF; Copy and Memory), sociodemographic questionnaire, and bioimpedance evaluation were used. There was a signifi cant difference between exposed and non-exposed women in all tests. Comparison between exposed and non-exposed men showed a signifi cant difference in TMT-A, RCF-Copy, and RCF-Memory. However, there was no signifi cant difference between sexes. Regarding the comparison between neurocognitive performance and body composition indices, for exposed women, there was a signifi cant correlation between RCF- Copy and water, body weight, fat mass, and lean mass. Regarding the exposed men, there was a signifi cant correlation between TMT-B and WHR (waist-hip ratio) and visceral fat. In general, organic solvents can affect neurocognitive performance and the effects of chronic exposure depend on the accuracy of the neurocognitive test and the body composition index.
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Associations of physical activity and maturity with adolescents’ body composition

Associations of physical activity and maturity with adolescents’ body composition

Data were analyzed with SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., an IBM Company, Chicago). Data treatment was performed by descriptive analysis for all the variables, initially performed by absolute and relative frequencies of each group of variables and later through central tendency for each variable. The results were presented by gender and grade level, showing the mean, median and both lower and upper boundaries of a 95% confidence interval. The Shapiro-Wilk test and the Levene’s test were performed in order to ensure parametric characteristics (n<50). To compare average values was performed t- student test for parametric variables and, in alternative, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test for non-parametric variables. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was performed between the PA and maturity variables with the body composition variables. For all tests statistical significance was set at ρ<0,05.
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Precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in cats.

Precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in cats.

A short-term precision error of the individual subject and the DEXA technique, such as the effect of the repositioning of the cat on the examination table, were established. Four neutered adult cats (BW=4342g) and three females (BW=3459g) were submitted to five repeated scans with and without repositioning between them. Precision was estimated from the mean of the five measurements and expressed by the individual coefficient of variation (CV). The precision error of the technique was estimated by the variance of scan pool (n=35) and expressed in CV for the technique (CVt). The degrees of freedom and confidence intervals were determined to avoid underestimation of precision errors. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) averages were higher (P<0.05) when animals were repositioned. The CVt was significantly higher (P<0.05) for bone mineral density (BMD), LM, and FM when the animals were repositioned. For short-term precision measurements, the repositioning of the animal was important to establish the precision of the technique. The dual energy x- ray absorptiometry method provided precision for body composition measurements in adult cats.
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Body image of female adolescents and its association with body composition and sedentary behavior

Body image of female adolescents and its association with body composition and sedentary behavior

Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image and its association with body composition, anthropometric indicators and sed- entary behavior of female adolescents. It involved a cross-sectional study with female adolescents from Viçosa in the state of Minas Gerais. The body image was assessed by the Body Shape Question- naire (BSQ) and by the Silhouette Scale. The body fat percentage (BFP) and other anthropometric parameters were measured. The sedentary behav- ior (SB) was evaluated by the sum of screen time (ST) and cellular time (CT). The sample con- sisted of 274 adolescents, the majority having an adequate BMI (81.6%), however, 53.9% had ele- vated BFP. More than half of the adolescents had elevated SB, 68.2% with ST and 54.7% with CT above 2h. Body dissatisfaction was expressed as 45.7% by BSQ and 50.2% wished for a silhouette different than the current silhouette. The waist circumference (WC) (OR = 11.94, CI = 2.744 - 51.728) and waist-to-height ratio (WHR) (OR = 10.535, CI = 3.109 - 35.698) were the measure- ments most associated with body dissatisfaction. All body composition measurements were signifi- cantly associated with body dissatisfaction, and the WC and WHR the most conditioning factors with dissatisfaction. The SB was elevated; how- ever, it was not associated with a negative assess- ment of body image.
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Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

The objective of our study was to correlate the performance in 6MWT with BMI, total and seg- mental body composition according to gender and obesity grade. Severe obesity affects walking ability and the functional capacity of this population. The importance of functional assessment of morbidly obese patients is well documented [4,20,21]. Nowadays, the 6MWT is being used to evaluate the functional capacity of morbid obese patients to realize their ADL [8,9,21,22].

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Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES.

Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANES.

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. NHANES performs a continuous, nationally representative health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized United States popula- tion, collecting data on about 5000 persons each year from interviews, physical examinations, and medical tests including bone densitometry. Previous NHANES surveys provided a widely accepted DXA proximal femur BMD database [1]. In 1999 NHANES began performing DXA whole body measurements on survey subjects 8 years old and older in three mobile examination centers. DXA whole body data from the mobile exam centers was compiled by the NHANES study group and released on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website. Previous studies used the data to investigate age, gender, and ethnic differences in whole body and regional BMD [2] or compared percent body fat to BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-stature ratio in adults [3]. We report here on an age, gender, and ethnicity-specific DXA body composition and bone mineral reference database developed from the NHANES survey data collected from 1999 to 2004.
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Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

In summary, the present study revealed an age-associated decline in BMD in the femoral neck and total hip of elderly males. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that LM and FFM may be important determinants of BMD in the femoral neck and total hip. Based on these data, it appears that lifestyle factors, including physical activity, that benefit bone health and LM or FFM should be encouraged to prevent diseases such as osteoporosis or sarcopenia. Our study has some limitations. Firstly, as a cross-sectional study, though had enough sam- ples, the present analysis is limited in its ability to elucidate causal relationships between aging, body composition parameters and BMD. Secondly BMD does not represent the entirety of bone mass, thus, further study is required to elucidate the relationships among body composi- tion parameters and the risk of fracture. Thirdly, DXA has relative availability, inexpensive, and low radiation dose. But DXA is still not the golden stander in measuring body composi- tion. It may have some deviation. Fourthly, the study cohort has the limitation of region and ethnicity.
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REGIONAL BODY COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE STRENGTH ARE RELATED TO BONE MINERAL CONTENT IN ELDERLY

REGIONAL BODY COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE STRENGTH ARE RELATED TO BONE MINERAL CONTENT IN ELDERLY

Subjects presented 29.3±6.9% of whole-body MG (SEE: 2.8%; varia- tion: 20.7-39.9%), 49.2±5.6 kg of whole-body MM (SEE: 1.8 kg; variation: 39.5-58.3kg). Regional body composition characteristics are presented in Table 1. Whole-body BMC was 2474.2±293.2 g (SEE: 92.7 g; variation: 2098.2-2937.5 g), and regional BMC presented values of 183.0±20.7 g (SEE: 6.5 g; variation: 150.5-208.3 g) for R Arm, 178.0±15.2 (SEE: 4.8 g; variation: 154.9-208.0 g) for L Arm, 448.8±65.9 g (SEE: 20.9 g; variation: 331.0-545.6 g) for R Leg, 468.4±67.4 g (SEE: 21.3 g; variation: 347.3-558.6 g) for L Leg, and 644.5±97.0 g (SEE: 30.7 g; variation: 529.9-846.2 g) for Torso. There is a regional tendency which can be observed by the asso- ciation between BMC of the arms, legs and torso with their respective regional lean masses (Table 2). It is possible to observe, for all relations, that the correlation coefficient was elevated and positive between regional lean mass and BMC. As for the correlation between strength capacity in upper and lower limbs exercises and BMC, it is highlighted that the 45º leg-press exercise strength is associated to left leg BMC (r=0.677; P=0.032; 95%IC: 0.23-0.93) and right leg (r=0.714; P=0.020; 95%IC: 0.38-0.92). It is also observed that 45º leg-press strength is associated with torso BMC (r=0.810; P<0.01; 95%IC: 0.56-0.96). For the BMC correlations between left and right legs and strength in 45º leg-press, sample power was 12.7% and 40.4%, respectively. However, the statistical power of the association between 45º leg-press strength vs. torso BMC was 97.0%, parameters
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Bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

Bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; ANOVA: analysis of variance; ApoE: apolipoprotein E; AS: ankylosing spondylitis; BC: body composition; BF: body fat; BMD: bone mineral density; CASPAR: Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis; CDKAL1: cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1; CRP: C-reactive protein; DAS28: Disease Activity Score 28; DXA: dual x-ray absorptiometry; EPM: Paulista School of Medicine; EVOS: European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study; GH: growth hormone; HC: healthy controls; HAQ: Health Assessment Questionnaire; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; IFN: interferon; IGF: insulin-like growth factor; IL: interleukin; NHANES III: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OR: Odios ratio; Ps: psoriasis; PsA: psoriatic arthritis; PsARC: Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria; PASI: Psoriasis Area Severity Index; PSORS: psoriasis susceptibility locus; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; RANKL: receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand; SMMI: skeletal muscle mass index; TBF: total body fat; TGFβ: transforming growth factor beta; Th: T-helper; TLM: total lean mass; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo; VAS: visual analogue scale; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; VLDL: very low density lipoprotein; WHO: World Health Organization.
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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

This study contributes to the understanding of body composition alterations in adolescents following energy restricted diets. Here we demonstrate a significant loss of body fat (3–4 per- centage points) with concurrent preservation of lean tissue, the optimal outcome in body com- position change during weight loss. Using the measurement of total body potassium, an accurate measure of body cell mass independent of body water, we describe the relatively low lean mass of all the participants at baseline. In adults, sarcopenia in the presence of obesity is documented and its relationship with functional impairment and increased cardiovascular risk is emerging [33, 34]. Consequently, the addition of resistance strength training to preserve lean tissue further may well be of benefit and perhaps acceptable to teenagers, as it is in adults. This highlights the critical need for any intervention to preserve lean mass whilst targeting a reduc- tion in body fat but importantly that a moderate increase in protein as demonstrated here was insufficient to completely preserve lean mass. Weight management programs aimed at children
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Body composition in patients with classical homocystinuria: body mass relates to homocysteine and choline metabolism

Body composition in patients with classical homocystinuria: body mass relates to homocysteine and choline metabolism

To evaluate the effect of fat mass reduction on bone health, we inves- tigated the relationship between BMD T-scores and biochemical and body composition parameters, and found no statistical association of these parameters with bone density. However, cysteine appears to play a central role in the development of osteoporosis, since this disor- der is not observed in other types of homocystinuria without cysteine deficiency (Wilcken, 2006). In the Hordaland cohort, cysteine levels were positively associated with BMD, but this association was lost when adjusted for lean mass and fat mass, demonstrating that the effect was likely mediated by body composition. Homocysteine concentration, in turn, was inversely related to bone mass in male individuals, inde- pendently of other variables (Elshorbagy et al., 2009). In our study, all patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia received a specific treatment, and this may have influenced the results obtained.
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Cross-sectional and prospective impact of reallocating sedentary time to physical activity on children’s body composition

Cross-sectional and prospective impact of reallocating sedentary time to physical activity on children’s body composition

Our results are in agreement with previous cross- sectional observations in children (6) and adults with type 2 diabetes (15). Therefore, efforts aimed at replacing less time spent in sedentary behaviours with MVPA appear effective in relation to young people’s body composition. Because screen-based activities are the primary source of children’s leisure time sedentary behaviours (16), one possible strat- egy could be reducing the amount of time children spend on computer, talking on mobile phones, or playing videogames. Reducing sedentary time in combination with promotion of organized sports suit- able for all youth may have favourable implications, because organized sports appears to contribute to increased MVPA and the proportion of youth meeting PA recommendations (17). Another potential strat- egy to accomplish this is to integrate high-intensity activity bouts during children’s school recess (18) or encourage physical education teachers to increase PA intensities in their classes. The last suggestion appears feasible, because it seems possible to increase MVPA in physical education classes without compromising students’ intrinsic motivation, perceived competence or planned les- son objectives (19).
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Methods of body composition estimative of growing goats

Methods of body composition estimative of growing goats

The fat-free composition of the empty body is relatively constant as protein, water and ash are deposited simultaneously. In addition, water is intimately involved in the stabilization of protein configuration. Consequently, the high precision of the relationship between TOH space and protein might be a consequence of their close association in the body composition. Contrary to protein, fat is inversely related to water and is the most variable component in the body. Due to its high variability between animals, the use of equations to predict fat from other species or breed could result in under or overestimate as much as 20.5% (Viljoen et al., 1988). Specific gravity
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Birth weight, physical growth and body composition in children: A longitudinal study

Birth weight, physical growth and body composition in children: A longitudinal study

The dynamic of changes observed in %fat means that there was no significant difference between boys and girls. However, boys showed slightly lower gains in FFM than girls. So, there is a high heterogeneity, especially regarding to body composition in children, that can possibly be explained by differences in infant growth rates. However, it can be considered an uncertain scenario, given that previous studies described the existence of positive, negative, or even absence of association with BW. This inconsistence in the results can be explained by the differences in methods and/or in statistical analysis procedures used, as well as the interval of time that sample was followed-up throughout the study [8]. Wells [6] showed that some LBW children have experienced the catch-up growth, that can lead to different responses in these issues by using different pathways. Ayyavoo et al. [24] reported differences related to gender in the effect of body composition, with high body fat and total adiposity, and low FFM in girls.
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Excessive daytime sleepiness and body composition: a population-based study of adults.

Excessive daytime sleepiness and body composition: a population-based study of adults.

Increased prevalence of EDS among obese individuals have also been cited to result from underlying psychiatric illness [12]. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that women with EDS are more likely to meet criteria for current or lifetime history of a depressive disorder [41]. As mental disorders were not examined for this study, it is possible that symptoms of EDS may, in part, by mediated by these underlying disorders. Research conducted by Williams et al (2009) reported that women with a lifetime history of psychiatric illness are more likely to meet criteria for adiposity than controls, therefore alluding to an association between body composition and mental health [42]. To our knowledge, however, no such comparison has been made between EDS and psychiatric disorders specifically, and thus, any interpretations at this time are premature.
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Body composition in athletes : from methodology to application

Body composition in athletes : from methodology to application

Athletes are more physically active than the general population and therefore they have higher daily energy expenditure. The average physical activity level (PAL), which represents the ratio of TEE and REE, lies between 1.4 and 1.7 in the general population with sedentary or light activity lifestyle [242]. From Table 2.7 it is possible to observe that PAL is typically higher in athletes, ranging from 2.0 – 5.3. For individuals who regularly expend high amounts of energy on a daily basis, adequate nutrition is a primary concern. Athletes need to consume adequate energy to maintain a healthy body composition profile but also to maximize training effects. Low energy intakes can result in loss of skeletal muscle mass; menstrual dysfunction; loss of or failure to gain bone density; an increased risk of fatigue, injury, and illness; and a prolonged recovery process [132]. Energy balance is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Meeting energy needs is a nutrition priority for athletes since optimum athletic performance is promoted by adequate energy intake [132]. With limited energy intake, FM and FFM will be used for fuel by the body. Loss of FFM results in the loss of strength and endurance, as well as compromised immune, endocrine, and musculoskeletal function [243]. Many athletes are chronically energy deficient, even though energy balance is not always the goal, as many times athletes seek to modify their body size and composition to achieve specific performance goals. Therefore, it is determinant to characterize athletes’ energy expenditure in order to identify individual energy requirements in accordance to their individual goals [244]. These concerns have been more directed to weight-sensitive sports (i.e. gravitational sports, weight-class sports, and aesthetic sports) and also to female athletes [9, 147]. Regardless, it is important to estimate energy requirements for athletes from several sports, which will depend on individual factors related to the duration, frequency, and intensity of the exercise, sex, and prior nutritional status [132].
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Calibration models to measure body composition in taller subjects using DXA

Calibration models to measure body composition in taller subjects using DXA

The aims of this study were to assess the accuracy of DXA whole body composition measurements performed with the knees bent compared to the standard position and to develop calibration equations for DXA [ie, bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue (LST)] body composition measurements in subjects using the knees bent during the whole body scan. DXA was used to measure body composition in 104 Caucasian males and females. Comparison of means and linear regression analysis were used to test the performance of DXA measurements and to develop calibration models. For the entire sample, using the knees bent, BMC and FM were overestimated by ~2.6% and ~9.2%, respectively, while LST was underestimated by ~4.0% (p<0.001). The regression between BMC KneesBent and the standard position did not differ from the line of
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