Top PDF Assessment of possible association between rs378854 and prostate cancer risk in the Serbian population

Assessment of possible association between rs378854 and prostate cancer risk in the Serbian population

Assessment of possible association between rs378854 and prostate cancer risk in the Serbian population

Eeles, R.A., Kote-Jarai, Z., Al Olama, A.A., Giles, G.G., Guy, M., Severi, G., Muir, K., Hopper, J.L., Henderson, B.E., Haiman, C.A., Schleutker, J., Hamdy, F.C., Neal, D.E., Donovan, J.L., Stanford, J.L., Ostrander, E.A., Ingles, S.A., John, E.M., Thi- bodeau, S.N., Schaid, D., Park, J.Y., Spurdle, A., Clements, J., Dickinson, J.L., Maier, C., Vogel, W., Dörk, T., Rebbeck, T.R., Cooney, K.A., Cannon-Albright, L., Chappuis, P.O., Hutter, P., Zeegers, M., Kaneva, R., Zhang, H.W., Lu, Y.J., Foulkes, W.D., English, D.R., Leongamornlert, D.A., Tym- rakiewicz, M., Morrison, J., Ardern-Jones, A.T., Hall, A.L., O’Brien, L.T., Wilkinson, R.A., Saunders, E.J., Page, E.C., Sawyer, E.J., Edwards, S.M., Dearnaley, D.P., Horwich, A., Huddart, R.A., Khoo, V.S., Parker, C.C., Van As, N., Wood- house, C.J., Thompson, A., Christmas, T., Ogden, C., Cooper, C.S., Southey, M.C., Lophatananon, A., Liu, J.F., Kolonel, L.N., Le Marchand, L., Wahlfors, T., Tammela, T.L., Auvin- en, A., Lewis, S.J., Cox, A., FitzGerald, L.M., Koopmeiners, J.S., Karyadi, D.M., Kwon, E.M., Stern, M.C., Corral, R., Joshi, A.D., Shahabi, A., McDonnell, S.K., Sellers, T.A., Pow- Sang, J., Chambers, S., Aitken, J., Gardiner, R.A., Batra, J., Kedda, M.A., Lose, F., Polanowski, A., Patterson, B., Serth, J., Meyer, A., Luedeke, M., Stefflova, K., Ray, A.M., Lange, E.M., Farnham, J., Khan, H., Slavov, C., Mitkova, A., Cao, G.; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/Brit- ish Association of Urological Surgeons’ Section of Oncology; UK ProtecT Study Collaborators; PRACTICAL Consor- tium, and D.F. Easton (2009). Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study. Nat Genet 41, 1116–1121.
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Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 with prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 with prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 57 studies.

However, there are some limitations in this meta-analysis. First of all, even though we performed subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and control source, the heterogeneity for GSTM1 polymorphism among the studies was extreme. It suggested that there were other potential confounding factors in the included studies, such as the genotyping error, selection bias, or population-specific gene-gene or gene-environment interaction, allelic heterogeneity, or chance [88,89]. Although evidence of heterogeneity exists, it was found through sensitivity analysis that studies contribute to the heterogeneity do not significantly alter the estimate of overall odds ratio. Secondly, only published studies were included, therefore the publication bias may have been occurred. The Egger’s test provided statistical evidence of that. We observed the publication bias when only considered studies about the association between GSTT1 polymorphism and PCa risk, but did not find it in the studies about the PCa risks with GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms. It is known that positive results usually have a greater probability of being published, and such bias may occur when studies with null or unexpected results. In addition, we also performed the trim-and-fill and the corrected OR was the same as the uncorrected one. Therefore, our result of GSTT1 null genotype was reliable and stable to some extent. Thirdly, the overall outcomes were based on unadjusted effect estimates. Although the cases and controls were matched on age, sex and residence in all studies, these confounding factors might slightly modify the effective estimates and a more precise evaluation needed to be adjusted by the potentially suspected factors. Finally, as the meta-analysis remains a retrospective research which is subject to the methodological deficiencies of the included studies, we tried to develop a detailed protocol before initiating the study, and then performed an explicit method for study researching, selection, data extraction and data analysis to minimize the likelihood of bias.
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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab  vol.53 número8

Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab vol.53 número8

Prostate cancer is the second most frequent malignancy diagnosed in adult men. Androgens are considered the primary growth factors for prostate normal and cancer cells. However, other non-androgenic growth factors are involved in the growth regulation of prostate cancer cells. The association between IGF-I and prostate cancer risk is well established. However, there is no evidence that the measurement of IGF-I enhances the specificity of prostate cancer detection beyond that achievable by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Until now, there is no consensus on the possible association between IGFBP-3 and prostate cancer risk. Although not well established, it seems that high insulin levels are particularly associated with risk of aggres- sive prostatic tumours. This review describes the physiopathological basis, epidemiological evidence, and animal models that support the association of the IGFs family and insulin with prostate cancer. It also describes the potential therapies targeting these growth factors that, in the future, can be used to treat patients with prostate cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2009;53(8):969-75
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Association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

Association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

DNA repair deregulation is a crucial factor in the multistep process of carcinogenesis, and the ERCC5 gene is a vital component of the DNA repair machinery. It has been observed that deficiency of ERCC5 may result in severe autosomal recessive diseases including XP, CS and TTD [14] characterized by solar hypersensitivity of the skin, high predisposition for developing cancers (mainly epithelial and melanoma) on areas exposed to sunlight. Furthermore, studies have suggested that ERCC5 SNPs are associated with development of some cancers, such as breast cancer [44] and smoking-related cancers [23,24]. These suggest a possible link between the ERCC5 function and development of cancer. The biological mechanisms of the ERCC5 gene in carcinogenesis may be complicated, among which nsSNPs, leading to an amino acid change in the protein product and modulating the individual DNA repair capacity phenotype [113,114], may account for some of the known genetic variations related to risk of cancers. However, our meta-analysis suggests that there is no statistical evidence for an association between the ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism and overall cancer risk, which is consistent with the previous two meta-analyses conducted in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively. The former included some studies departure from HWE in the control population, and the latter only contained three studies. Although we excluded the inappropriate studies and expanded the sample size, the null results were not altered. Furthermore, as far as our knowledge is concerned, none of the SNPs in NER have ever been identified as susceptibility locus in the published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for common diseases including cancers based on common SNPs, which are similar to our results. This is a challenge to the theory of common variants and common diseases [115]. It is likely that, as NER genes are considered susceptibility genes, the role of NER variants in cancer development may be dependent on the degree of exposures that cause damage to DNA. Therefore, without detailed information about such exposures for further adjustment or stratification, the results of the observed associations may be either biased or masked. For example, XP patients can drastically reduce risk of developing skin cancer by avoiding exposure to sunlight. Another possibility is that the common
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Prostate-Specific Antigen testing in men between 40 and 70 years in Brazil: database from a check-up program

Prostate-Specific Antigen testing in men between 40 and 70 years in Brazil: database from a check-up program

In the present study, the majority of men was white and less than 50 years old. According to recent data, the recommendation of PSA scre- ening in this specific population remains contro- versial. It is well established that age, race, and family history of prostate cancer increase the risk of developing and dying of the disease. Bla- ck men are approximately twice as likely to die of prostate cancer than other men, and the rea- son for this disparity is unknown (16). Prelimi- nary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer Inter- vention Versus Observation Trial), in which 30% of enrollees were black, found no difference in outcomes due to treatment of prostate cancer in these men compared with other races (17). Des- pite controversies, the 2013 American Urological Association Guidelines recognized that the PSA screening test might benefit certain subgroups of younger men with high risk of prostate can- cer. However, this report suggests that patients should be informed about the potential harmful effects of these tests as well as the benefits of screening at an earlier age. Physicians should be aware that there are no comparative data and the best approach for this specific group is not well established (18).
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Replication and fine mapping for association of the C2orf43, FOXP4, GPRC6A and RFX6 genes with prostate cancer in the Chinese population.

Replication and fine mapping for association of the C2orf43, FOXP4, GPRC6A and RFX6 genes with prostate cancer in the Chinese population.

with prostate cancer than their neighboring SNPs replicated in Phase I. The association of Rs16988102 with prostate cancer was also supported by strong associations of multiple surrounding SNPs with prostate cancer. Rs16988102 is located in 5 9 upstream of the C2orf43 gene. The distance between rs16988102 and rs13385191 is more than 300 kb, which is much longer than general distance of LD. Thus, we prefer to claim the rs16988102 as a risk locus for prostate cancer independent to rs13385191. This is in accordance with the significantly lifted OR by adding rs16988102 to the risk model of prostate cancer which only took the variation of rs13385191 into account. Rs9489065 is located in Figure 1. LD maps of the tested SNPs and association test results for the loci around rs13385191 in Phase II.
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Correlations between risk factors for prostate cancer: an epidemiological analysis

Correlations between risk factors for prostate cancer: an epidemiological analysis

Associations between smoking and cancer, due to the diversity of chemical products that comprise the tobacco, are considered as genotoxic and carcinogenic. 16,19 Smoking is associated with the occurrence of several malignant diseases in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, liver and biliary tract, kidneys, bladder, breast, cervix, vulva, myeloid leukemia, among others. 21-22 Numerous evidences indicate an association between active and passive smokers with cancer. However, this correlation is not yet well established due to possible interactions between smoking, alcohol and influences of hormonal factors, 50,52 one aspect that can also be found in the presented data.
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Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

In our data example, we obtained confirmatory evidence of the association of the HOXB13 G84E mutation with prostate cancer, and provided age-specific risks for developing prostate cancer for mutation carriers in a large, prospective cohort. We also provided evidence that the G84E mutation exhibits a pleiotropic effect on numerous other cancers, though sample sizes made it difficult to determine precisely which cancers are involved. Consistent with the hypothe- sis of pleiotropy, we also provided suggestive evidence that the mutation exhibits a stronger asso- ciation in individuals with multiple cancers, both involving prostate cancer and independent of prostate cancer. Multiple cancers in the same individual will most often arise independently and may reflect pleiotropic events, though in some cases may be due to metastasis. A shared genetic basis among cancers may be supported by HOXB13’s role in embryonic development and body patterning [20,43,44]. HOXB13 is particularly expressed in the prostate [20], where it physically interacts with the androgen receptor, which is important for growth and regulation of differentia- tion in normal cell biology. Thus, HOXB13 may impact the carcinogenic process via its action on growth and development. More work is needed to examine the biological mechanisms and effects that the mutation has on the function of the HOXB13 gene. Two key factors made this investiga- tion possible: a very large genotyped cohort with information on multiple cancers and our ability to impute the G84E mutation using a custom reference panel.
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Association between HPV infection and prostate cancer in a Mexican population

Association between HPV infection and prostate cancer in a Mexican population

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer (PCa) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Mexican population. We studied 356 paraffin-embedded tissues from unrelated Mexican men with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with the latter serving as control. HPV detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using universal primers, and viral genotypes were detected using sequencing or multiplex PCR. Light microscopy analyses enabled the identification of koilocytes in samples subsequently analyzed for HPV detection by in situ PCR and for p16-INK4A expression by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that high risk- (HR) HPVs were detected in 37/189 (19.6%) PCa specimens compared to 16/167 (9.6%) of BHP speci- mens (odds ratio 2.3; 95% CI= 1.2 to 4.3; p=0.01). These data suggest HR-HPV may play a role in PCa. HPV 52 and 58 were the most frequent genotypes (33 and 17%, respectively) detected in the population studied. Koilocytes were detected in all in situ PCR-HPV-positive samples, representing a pathognomonic feature of infection, and we ob- served the overexpression of p16-INK4A in HPV-positive samples compared to HPV-negative samples, indirectly suggesting the presence of HR-HPV E7 oncoprotein. These results suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in prostate cancer development.
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Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP, Brasil;2 Fleury Medicina e Saúde São Paulo, SP, Brasil;3 Departamento de Epidemiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP, Brasil;2 Fleury Medicina e Saúde São Paulo, SP, Brasil;3 Departamento de Epidemiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

fluence in PSA (like history of prostatitis or re- cent urologic procedures). Thus, the reasons for these assays in young patients were not clear, affecting the representativeness of data. Other limitations are the retrospective nature of this study and the different numbers of individuals included per age. However, considering our ou- tcomes, we might consider evaluating all these subjects as a single group. Finally, even after analyzing the values > 4.0 ng / mL separately of our main analysis, we still have several ca- ses of outliners at all ages. Nevertheless, they represented few patients when considered the universe of the study.
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There is no association between microRNA gene polymorphisms and risk of triple negative breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.

There is no association between microRNA gene polymorphisms and risk of triple negative breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It is characterized by aggressive behavior, poor prognosis and lack of targeted therapies. MicroRNA (miRNA) as a novel modulator of gene expression has played an important regulatory role in the malignancy. Dysregulation and/or mutation of the miRNAs may also contribute to the TNBC susceptibility since it is associated with the expression of ER, PR and HER2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs may be extremely relevant for TNBC. We tried to validate the hypothesis that genetic variations in miRNA are associated with TNBC development, and identify candidate biomarkers for TNBC susceptibility and clinical treatment. We screened the genetic variants in all miRNA genes listed in the public database miRBase and NCBI. A total of 23 common SNPs in 22 miRNAs, which tagged the known common variants in the Chinese Han people with a minor allele frequency greater than 0.05, were genotyped. This case-control study involved 191 patients with TNBC and 192 healthy female controls. Frequencies of SNPs were compared between cases and controls to identify the SNPs associated with TNBC susceptibility. No significant association was found between TNBC risk and the SNPs in the miRNA genes in the Chinese Han people (P.0.05), but this warrants further studies.
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Genetic variants in the MicroRNA biosynthetic pathway Gemin3 and Gemin4 are associated with a risk of cancer: a meta-analysis

Genetic variants in the MicroRNA biosynthetic pathway Gemin3 and Gemin4 are associated with a risk of cancer: a meta-analysis

(P = 0.007) and rs2740348 (P = 0.044) enhanced the reliability of our results. We did not show the results for HWE in Table 2 because all collected data were related to the GG and GC + CC genotypes, and HWE could not be calculated. However, the authors of these studies indicated that all gene polymorphisms of the control group conformed to HWE. Next, we investigated the Gemin3 rs197412 SNP, which is a key indicator of renal cell carcinoma. In this meta-analysis, however, rs197412 was not associated with increased cancer risk. In addition, we searched for articles related to the Gemin3 rs197414 and rs197338 SNPs, and the Gemin4 rs3744741 and rs4968104 SNPs. However, we identified fewer than five articles, which was insufficient for us to evaluate the precise relationship between these SNPs and cancer risk. However, we found several articles that reported an association between Gemin polymorphisms and several chronic diseases, such as hepatitis B (Shang et al., 2014). The relationship between Gemin and these chronic diseases, as well as cancer, should be investigated further.
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The SNP rs402710 in 5p15.33 is associated with lung cancer risk: a replication study in Chinese population and a meta-analysis.

The SNP rs402710 in 5p15.33 is associated with lung cancer risk: a replication study in Chinese population and a meta-analysis.

various tissue, including lung tissue and overexpress in cisplatin- resistant cell lines, encodes an enzyme—cleft lip and palate trans- membrane 1-like that may be associated with apoptosis [13]. In consideration of the premises, this associated SNP rs402710 has attracted many investigators’ attention from multiple countries and regions. Several follow-up replication studies have resound- ingly replicated the significant association of the SNP with lung cancer risk, in Caucasian [14,15,16] and Asian [16,17,18,19] population. However, some other replication studies showed the inconsistent outcomes [20,21,22]. Two Chinese replication studies failed to identify the similar effect in separate Chinese population [20,21], which may be due to the small sample size. Additionally, owing to the phenomena ‘‘winner’s curse’’ that the effect sizes of initial positive study are usually overestimated, the following replication studies are possibly to be underpowered and then very likely to fail if the necessary sample sizes are based on the initially overestimated effect sizes [23]. Nevertheless, meta-analysis, a method combining data together to make sample size exponential growth to get enough power, can clarify inconsistent results in genetic association studies [24]. Therefore, we conducted a case- control study to examine the association between rs402710 and lung cancer risk in Chinese population, after that, a meta-analysis combining previously published studies and our current study was conducted to provide a more precise estimate of this association.
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Investigation of CD28 gene polymorphisms in patients with sporadic breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in Northeast China.

Investigation of CD28 gene polymorphisms in patients with sporadic breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in Northeast China.

SNPs are the most common genetic variations which influence interindividual predisposition to breast carcinogenesis and prog- nosis [19]. SNP association analysis has provided valuable information about the genetic susceptibility of breast cancer [20]. The human CD28 gene is located in the chromosome 2q33 region. Polymorphisms in the CD28 gene were previously shown to be genetically associated with autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Bechet’s disease [21,22]. Several compelling reports characterized the association between this susceptibility loci and cervical cancer risk in different ethnic groups [23,24,25,26,27]. Chen et al. [23] and Ivansson et al. [24] found that the rs3116496 TT genotype was associated with a low risk of cervical cancer in a Chinese Han and a Swedish population, respectively. Conversely, Guzman et al. [26] observed that the rs3116496 TT genotype was associated with an increased cervical cancer risk when combined with the IFN+847AA genotype, in a Brazilian population. Pawlak et al. [25] demonstrated that rs3116496 was not correlated with cervical squamous cell carcinoma, when taking all evaluated patients into consideration. No case-control study of CD28 gene polymorphisms in sporadic breast cancer has been reported. Given the association between polymorphisms in the CD28 gene region and cervical cancer risk in different populations, as well as the potential role of costimulatory molecules in carcinogenesis, we examined the association between CD28 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and tumor pathology. Our data provides the first evidence for the involvement of the human CD28 gene in breast cancer.
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
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Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

We compared baseline demographic and lifestyle characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls by student t test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. Serum concentrations of finasteride were categorized based on clinically defined cut points. Lo- gistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for risk of total prostate cancer, and polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs of both low-grade and high-grade prostate cancers. The polytomous regression with a generalized logit link permits a model including both low-grade and high-grade cancers as outcomes in the same model, con- trasted with no cancer. Tests for linear trend for finasteride concentration were based on an or- dinal variable corresponding to rank (lowest to highest). Model covariates were carefully selected based on a priori information about potential confounding as well as diagnostic proce- dures completed as part of our modeling exercises. Final covariates included age, race (white/ black/others), time of day of finasteride blood draw, and family history of prostate cancer. To determine the association between single SNP and finasteride levels among whites, mean con- centrations of finsteride were calculated for each allele, and p-values were calculated using line- ar regression adjusted for age and alcohol consumption. All statistical tests were two-sided, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. SAS (version 9.2) and R (version 2.15.1) were used for all statistical analyses. Haploview v4.1 was used for assessing LD patterns and haplo- type association statistics [18]. Haplotype blocks were determined using the algorithm of Ga- briel et al [19].
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

The essence of social economy is the inclusive function of the labor market through which the different forms of social economy that exist in the member states can play a role in the overcoming the crisis, especially in the creating of jobs, including in social services field Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the post‐ 2010 Lisbon Strategy 9, p. .

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Dental trauma and oral health-related quality of life in schoolchildren from public schools of a southern Brazilian city

Dental trauma and oral health-related quality of life in schoolchildren from public schools of a southern Brazilian city

A pilot study was conducted with 10% of the total sample, involving students who were not participating in the main study. The methodology showed to be adequate, with no need for adjustments. The data collected were inserted into a spreadsheet specially designed for this study where they were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed using Poisson log-linear regression with robust estimator in order to determine the association between the dependent variable (OIDP> 0) and the independent variables (dental trauma, age, sex, dental caries and malocclusion) with a significance level of p <0.05. Raw and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their respective confidence intervals (95%) were also estimated.
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Rev. Bras. Reumatol.  vol.57 número6

Rev. Bras. Reumatol. vol.57 número6

Results: JLS was observed in 56/5881 patients (0.9%), mainly linear morphea subtype. EI was observed in 23/56(41%) of JLS patients. Eight(35%) of 23 EI patients with JLS were symptomatic and presented heartburn(5/8), solid and liquid dysphagia(3/8), nausea and epi- gastralgia(1/8). The frequency of any cumulative extracutaneous manifestations (calcinosis, arthritis/arthralgia, central nervous system, interstitial pneumonitis, mesangial nephritis and/or arrhythmia) was significantly higher in JLS patients with EI compared to those with- out this complication (56% vs. 24%, p = 0.024). No differences were evidenced in demographic data, JLS subtypes and in each extracutaneous manifestation in both groups (p > 0.05). The frequency of methotrexate use was significantly higher in JLS patients with EI compared to those without (52% vs. 12%, p = 0.002). Autoantibody profile (antinuclear antibodies, anti- SCL-70, rheumatoid factor, anticentromere, anti-cardiolipin, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).
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Association Analysis between the Polymorphisms of HSD11B1 and H6PD and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Population.

Association Analysis between the Polymorphisms of HSD11B1 and H6PD and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Population.

On the 3rd to the 5th day of a spontaneous menstrual cycle or a progesterone-induced with- drawal bleeding from PCOS patients, heparinized whole-blood samples were gathered in the morning after fasting overnight using tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) (as anticoagulant). Then, every subject had a physical examination including weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement. The hip circumference was the largest hip size and waist circumference was measured nearby umbilicus when subjects were standing. The plasma of the whole-blood samples was removed and stored at -80°C before analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the heparinized venous blood leukocytes of PCOS patients and controls using standard phenol-chloroform method. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone-sul- fate (DHEAS) and fasting insulin (FINS) were detected by chemiluminescence assay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were detected by hexokinase- method. The following formulas were adopted to calculate some parameters: HOMA-B% (homeostasis model assessment-B) = 20 × fasting insulin / (fasting plasma glucose-3.5). HOMA-IR (essment-Insulin resistance) = fasting insulin × fasting plasma glucose/22.5 (normal range: < 1.8). QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) = 1 / (logFINS + logFPG (mg/dl)) (normal range:  0.375). BMI = weight (kg) / height 2 (m 2 ).
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