Top PDF THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

THE EFFECT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN BEEF

Abstract. Addition of natural antioxidants is one of the ways to extend the durability of meat and meat products. The effects of added pepper extracts on the colour and potential redox changes of beef patties during storage were studied. There were four types of etha- nol based extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot), compacted at different tempera- tures: 35 and 50°C. Experimental material consisted of meat samples produced from lean beef 24-hours postmortem. The colour in a CIE L*a*b* systems was examined using an X-Rite reflection spectro-colorimeter. Oxidation-reduction potential was determined using a pH meter (CPC-501) set to the milivolt scale and equipped with a redox electrode ERPt- -13. The results indicate the influence of extracts of different types of pepper added on oxidation-reduction potential values. Meat samples with pepper extract compacted at 35°C addition had a lower oxidation-reduction potential compared with the samples with pepper extract compacted at 50°C addition. Oxidation-reduction potential values of meat samples increased during storage. No significant effects of type of a particular pepper ex- tract on redox potential values were observed. Pepper extracts increased redness (a* value) of meat samples compared to the control, but had no effects on L* values (light- ness). During storage of meat samples slight changes of CIE a* parameters were noted.
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The sources of natural antioxidants

The sources of natural antioxidants

The levels and kinds of antioxidants present in diet depend mostly on the kind of products and the amount in which they are most often consumed. The studies conducted in the USA showed that the main source of antioxidants in the American diet are fruits and vegetables, where 26% of poliphenols is supplied and 25% of total antioxidants level derives from oranges. Generally, the consumption of polyphenols is at the level of about 1 g/day, from which 45% are biflavons, in 20% – catechins and in 17% – antho- cyanins [Chun et al. 2005]. In the Finnish diet, a high level of anthocyanins is observed, reaching up to 200 mg/day as the result of a very big consumption of berry fruits rich in these compounds: cranberries, bilberries. In the Netherlands, significant consumption of flavonol monomers (50 mg/day) is observed, mostly from tea, chocolate, apples and pears. Notably a high consumption of catechins and proanthocyanidins supplied with apples, pears, grapes and red wine is recorded in Spain. In France, daily polyphenols intake is at the level of 1 g. About 28% of this value is supplied by fruits and vegetables (mainly apples and patatas) and the rest – from coffee, tea, wine, beverages and cereals. Drinking coffee has a very important effect on the consumption of polyphenols from the group of hydroxycinnamic acids in all countries. Consumption of a few cups daily can supply up to 1000 mg of chlorogenic acid. The diet of Asian countries is rich in isofla- vonoids (20-45 mg/day), which is connected with a high consumption of soybean (10- -35 g/day) [Kim and Kwon 2001, Beecher 2003, Manach et al. 2004, Brat et al. 2006].
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Effect of some antioxidants on blood picture and antioxidants status in roosters exposed to oxidative stress

Effect of some antioxidants on blood picture and antioxidants status in roosters exposed to oxidative stress

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Vitamin E 600 mg/kg diet, Vitamin C 450 mg/kg diet and sodium selenite 0.5 mg/kg diet in adult white Leghorn male chickens (30 weeks), which were concomitantly exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) supplemented with drinking water for 6 weeks on blood picture. Blood samples were collected at (0, 3, 6) weeks of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide caused a significant increase in the total leukocyte count, heterophils percentage and heterophils / lymphocytes ratio (stress index) accompanied with a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde level associated with significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, lymphocyte and esoinophil percentage. It also caused a significant decrease in liver glutathione on the 6 th week of the treatment compared with control group. The antioxidants with hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease in the total leukocyte count, heterophils percentage and stress index accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level in liver tissue compared with hydrogen peroxide alone and control group, beside that a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, lymphocyte, esoinophil percentage and liver glutathione level compared with hydrogen peroxide alone which returned to control group values. In general, treatments with Vitamin E, C and Sodium selenite reversed the adverse effects produced by hydrogen peroxide on certain physiological parameters in adult male chickens.
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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

The incorrect macrostructure is distinguished by very significant differences in the grain size, which is reflected in the quantitative analysis. The grain area distributions in the projection plane (Fig. 6) and of the grains with a non-planar surface (Fig. 7) are of a bimodal nature and the differences in the assessment of the average values and standard deviations (Table 1) do not exceed 12%. The quantitative evaluation is supplemented with distributions of the grain shape coefficient (Fig. 8 and 9) and elongation coefficient (Fig. 10 and Fig. 11). These distribution parameters juxtaposed in Tables 2 and 3 show high coincidence of the values calculated.
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Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Evaluating the influence of selected parameters on sensitivity of a numerical model of solidification

Sensitivity analysis was conducted each time for the model described in Section 3, for which it was assumed that the parameters vary in ranges given in Table 1. Table 2 lists parameters influence of which was not taken into consideration in sensitivity analysis. According to the fact that these parameters are connected with the phase change diagram, they cannot be changed freely and independently from one another. Additionally, in Table 2 physical parameters of the mould are included. Table 2.

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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

). This shows that there has been upgrading and improvement in mobile computing device characteristics since Zimm erman’s research up to now. Dahlstrom (2012), a senior research analyst at EDUCAUSE, in his article titled ―Executive Summary: Student Mobile Computing Practices—lessons learned from Qatar‖ says that students find Mobile technology convenient and engaging and institutions need to invest more in mobile device use and support. In Qatar the Education City conducted a survey jointly with ECAR (Every Child a Reader) of United Kingdom (UK) on student mobile computing technology and the results were not only relevant to their student’s experiences but also speaks to the global revolution of mobile technology in the academic environment. The findings revealed that, for students, technology plays an important role in productivity and communication, students want technology integrated into their academic experience and students want to better utilise mobile technology in their learning environments doing such things as creating content for course assignments, accessing course related material and pushing the limits of mobile device productivity. Kim et al (2006) identified the benefits of using mobile wireless phones as freedom of location and time, increasing speed in teaching and learning, enabling one-to-one learning based on individual educational histories or test results, better communication opportunities and better collaboration in group discussions. They also identified the specific benefits of using Personal Data Assistants in m-learning as mobility, information management capacity, beaming capability, ability to work in many places and replacement of pen and paper. A UK essays website argued that the major challenge for educators and trainers is how to develop learning materials for delivery on
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

The opinion of the influence of the temperature of casting on the size of the volumetric contraction, the studied grades of the bronze, it was conducted on the basis of the size of contraction cavity on section along the axis of the probe TDAg. The opinion of processes setting on the surface of plaster mould and liquid bronze was conducted on station showed on Figure 4. Cylindrical samples were used to investigations, from the studied grades of the bronze, about dimensions Ø= 7 mm and h = 7 mm. The sam- ples were smelted in the stream of plasma, created among elec- trodes graphite and tungstic, in the protection of argon.
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Many practical problems can be reduced to systems of linear equations Ax = b, where A, b are known matrices and x is a vector of unknowns. Systems of linear equations play a prominent role in economics, engineering, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of Pure and Applied Sciences [2]. A solution to a system of linear equations is a set of numerical values ….. that satisfies all the equations in a system [1]. There are two classes of iterative methods [3]: linear stationary and linear nonstationary. The stationary iterative methods are the Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR and Nonstationary include Krylov subspace methods: Conjugate Gradient, Minimal Residual, Quasi-Minimal Residual, Generalizes Minimal Residual and Biconjugate gradient methods. The choice of a method for solving linear systems will often depend on the structure of the matrix A. According to [8] ideally, iterative methods should have the property that for any starting vector , it converges to a solution Ax = b. [5] is of the view that examination of the Jacobi iterative method shows that in general one must save all the components of the vector while computing the components of the vector for an iterative method. According to Hadjidimos [6], the first step in the construction of solution of stationary iterative methods usually begins with splitting of matrix A. Thus, A = M – N where det M and M is easily invertible so that A = b is equivalent to = T + C , where T = and C = giving the iterative scheme = T + C , (k = 0,1,2……). [2] noted that for systems of linear equation A the splitting matrix may be chosen in a different way; that is, one can split matrix A as A = D L U where D is the diagonal matrix, L and U are strictly lower and strictly upper triangular matrices respectively. In solving the systems of linear equations Ax = b, therefore, we consider any convergent method which produces a sequence of iterates { [7] .Quite often the convergence is too slow and it has to be accelerated. According to [9] to improve the convergence rate of the basic iterative methods, one may transform the original system A = b into the preconditioned form PA = Pb, where � is called the preconditioned or a preconditioning matrix. Convergent numerical sequences occur quite often in natural Science and Engineering. Some of such sequences converge very slowly and their limits are not available without suitable convergent acceleration method. Some known acceleration schemes are: Chebyshev Extrapolation scheme [4] and residual Smoothing.
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On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

On The Impact Of Pressure Drop On Human Body With Mathematical Models

Where u(r) is the velocity in the axial direction,  and  are the density and viscosity of blood,  is the couple stress parameter,  is the electrical conductivity, B 0 is the external magnetic field and r is the radial coordinate.

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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
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A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

As we know that to find the area of sector the angle made by the chord (that is chord which divides the circle) is required. But in the below method we find the ratio of the segments of the circle. Thus by relating the area of segment to the area of sector the area of sector could be found. The ratio of area of segments is related to tangents that are drawn through diameter on either side.

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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
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The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

ƒ X-ray structural examinations carried out on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer using filtered radiation of cobalt anode tube ( λK α = 1,79Å) and Siemens D500 diffractometer producing monochromatic radiation of a tube with copper anode ( λK α = 1,54Å). The measurement conditions were as follows: angle step Δ2θ = 0,02°, count time τ =5÷10 seconds, angle measuring range 2 θ = 20÷120°.

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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the numerical solution of the inverse problem consisting in the identification of the heat flux on the continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. On the stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme of the boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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ВЗАИМОСВЯЗЬ ФАКТОРА РОСТА ФИБРОБЛАСТОВ-23 (FGF-23),  sKLOTHO,  ТРОПОНИНА-I У БОЛЬНЫХ ХРОНИЧЕСКОЙ БОЛЕЗНЬЮ ПОЧЕК

ВЗАИМОСВЯЗЬ ФАКТОРА РОСТА ФИБРОБЛАСТОВ-23 (FGF-23), sKLOTHO, ТРОПОНИНА-I У БОЛЬНЫХ ХРОНИЧЕСКОЙ БОЛЕЗНЬЮ ПОЧЕК

The study included 140 patients with infertility, peritoneal form of endometriosis, verified by the laparoscopy, and point mutations in the gene NAT2. All patients were performed coagulation foci of endometriosis during laparoscopy, salpingoovariolisis, fimbrioplasty (on therapeutic grounds). Then all patients were divided into 2 groups: the main group included 93 (66.4%) women, who underwent a course of plasmapheresis (2nd stage of complex treatment) in the next cycle after laparoscopy; the comparison group included 47 (33.6%) patients who did not experience efferent methods of treatment. Considering the current recommendations of the European Society of Human Reproduction on the ineffectiveness of hormone replacement therapy and biologically active dietary supplements with regard to increasing fertility after surgery for endometriosis, it was decided not to prescribe any drugs. The course of therapeutic plasmapheresis (PA) for patients of the main group was held in the first phase of the menstrual cycle starting on 5 th or 6 th day and included 3 sessions of PA with an interval of 2-4 days. The procedure was carried out in the PCS2 device made by “Haemonetics» (USA). The assembly of line system was carried out under aseptic conditions, immediately before the procedure. SDA-A solution (acidic dextrose) supplied automatically in a ratio of 1/12 to the blood was used as anticoagulant. Before starting the procedure the patient was intravenously administered with heparin in an amount of 25 units for kg / body weight. The therapeutic plasmapheresis was carried out with the blood flow to the device at speed of 25-40 ml per minute, depending on the catheter capacity and the vein ability. The spin speed of PCS2 centrifuge is 7500 rpm, plasma was removed at speed of 15-30 ml per min depending on speed of blood flow supply.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

IEEE standard images for different number of ASCII characters. Tables 1-2 indicate the PSNR values for various Stego-images of size 256 x 256 using the proposed techniques, calculated for 1500 characters. We conducted further experiments with the Lena image using more characters. Table 2 indicates the PSNR values for the Lena image calculated for up to 1997 characters using the three suggested techniques. Thus, using the proposed method, up to 1997 characters (or 15,976 bits) have been embedded in a 256 x 256 pixel image. This shows that, 12.5% of the image pixels are used to embed 15,976 bits and yet the perceptual quality of the stego-image is still high. The PSNR of the third method can be controlled depending on number of bits being stored in various positions. Considering a minimum of 34 dB PSNR threshold for stego-image perceptual quality [11] It is clear from the obtained PSNR values that the proposed technique can generate stego-images with good perceptual quality. For qualitative assessment, , Figures 11(a), 11(b) show the Baboon image before and after steganography using the proposed technique for 500 characters. Figures 12(a) and 12(b) show the Lena image using the proposed technique, for 1997 ASCII characters.
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The Implication Of Mens Rural-Urban Migration On Household Decision Making In Soy Sub-County Kenya

The Implication Of Mens Rural-Urban Migration On Household Decision Making In Soy Sub-County Kenya

migration in search of employment. In West Africa, Ghana in particular, this has historically been manifested in the migration flow of farmers from the poor regions in the north to the more vibrant urban south (Anarfi et al.2003; Awumbila et al. 2008). Given the significant disparities between Ghana’s rural and urban sectors, it is not surprising that urban life by and large represents the dream of formal employment, less social restrictions and diversified opportunities, while the rural areas provide limited employment outside agriculture, insecure income and inadequate infrastructure (Bookaye-Yiadom, 2008). In Kenya, migration of people from the rural to urban areas is not a recent phenomenon; it has been an issue and a problem over decades. People move to urban areas for various reasons, which are well patterned and lined up from one direction-poverty. The causes of migration of people from the rural areas to urban areas results to various effects that affect both rural and urban areas. However, during rural-urban migration decision making process is greatly affected in the rural areas, particularly by women. Rural women have been known to play a critical role in the rural economies of both developed and developing countries. They participate in crop production and livestock care, provide food, water and fuel for their families, and engage in off-farm activities to diversify their families’ livelihoods. In addition, they carry out vital reproductive functions of caring for children, older persons and the sick (Women, 2000). Although, in patriarchal societies, gender-based stereotypes and discrimination deny rural women equitable access to and control over land and other productive resources, opportunities for income-generating activities, access to education and
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