During human society’s development on large geographical areas, a series of cultural systems have appeared and have determined a certain approach concerning the environment and social relations. These systems of thought persist even today and they are strongly influenced by individuals’ thinking and approaches in that society, thing that requires a specific approach for the implementation of these relatively new concepts (e.g. sustainable development, pollution, ecological approaches on social life). Furthermore, the continuous growth ofthedemand for energy in the world is seen as an alarm. Between 1970 and 1997 world energy consumption has almost doubled and it is projected to grow by about 57% during 2004-2030 and the thing which should be mentioned is that with theincreasingenergydemand, pollution levels will increase too. But we must not forget that electric and thermal power represent one ofthe basic needs of mankind, and when the fulfilment of this need started to affect the climate and implicitly human health this problem turned into a hardly manageable one. We must not forget that the world’s population is growing rapidly and the level of pollution per capita increased we might even say in direct proportion. In many cases, increased pollution has its explanation in the growing number of individuals at global level and also theincreasing needs, desires, aspirations, standard of living, of these.
With theincreasingenergydemand associated with cities, the need for energy efficiency integration into the municipal planning process is today a fundamental step. The development of an energy efficient city, supported by ICT and digital solutions for management and planning, is thus an opportunity to increase its competitiveness and sustainability. The E-City web platform, presented in this paper, integrates itself with the existing municipal GIS, developing both the spatial and statistical dimensions associated with zoning and the municipal energy system. It was specifically created to organize and visualize energy performance data at municipal scale and make them accessible to planners, stakeholders, and population. In practical terms, this tool has been used by the public administration of Oeiras to understand important aspects associated with existing and future urban development.
-Improving the competitivity of national economy on the global market and is is assuring macroeconomical balance. Relevant in terms of national importance of quality is the quote from A. Feingembaum: „High quality products are the key of economical health for contemporary nations”. The health of organizations, specially determined by their competitivity, would have the following implications on their national economy: generating bugetary resources for the local budget; creation of new jobs with positive effects on reducing unemployment; increasing incomes ofthe population with positive effects on the standard of life; contribution to the growth ofthe gross domestic product; it has a dinamic effect on economy simulating it’s development and of other fields and organizations; it has a contribution in the foundation of a national brand; it is a source of national pride when a brand is getting well known internationally; it is facilitating the accumulation of know-how not only for the economy but for the society also; it has a strong training role in the promotion of quality cult and in dissemination of management practices. -It ensures the health ofthe population and theenvironmental protection.
The results ofthe current study also agree with Pan et al. (2012) that identified that for zones in Guangzhou, increasingthe wall insulation thickness does not decrease the total energydemandofthe office building under study. These findings again match the results ofthe current study which has predominately cooling needs with low heating demands which cannot outweigh the increase in cooling energy demands due to heat-trapping for the increased perimeter insulation thickness. This same effect was observed by Chvatal & Corvacho (2009), who studied buildings in Portugal and affirm that in office buildings with high internal loads, it is not recommended to use high thermal insulation levels, which would cause the “trapping” ofthe heat inside the buildings. Thus, increasingthe insulation level can restrict the loss of heat stored inside, causing a consequent increase in the consumption ofthe air conditioning system for cooling.
choice between walking or running at the same speed raises different implications in energydemand, as shown in this study VO 2 data, highlighting the influence of different forms of locomotion, when the exercise is conducted at speeds above or below the WRTS. At intensities below, or even at the WRTS, running tends to provide slightly higher values than those of walking. However, above the WRTS, walking will have more influence on VO 2 values, and thus on the expenditure ofenergy, than running. These findings emphasize the importance of choosing the form of locomotion in the exercise programs for cardiac rehabilitation, in which the subjects exercise in intensity near the WRTS, with clinical implications and greater safety in the prescription of atictivities 1,26 .
Since early 1960s, there has been an increasingdemand for materials that are stiffer and stronger yet lighter in fields as aerospace, energy and civil construction and the popularity/usage of bi-woven composites having glass and carbon fibers as reinforcement has been increased in such fields due to their lower production costs, light weight, higher fracture toughness, low thermal expansion, corrosion resistance and better control over the thermo- mechanical properties.By choosing an appropriate combination of reinforcement and matrix material, manufactures can produce properties that exactly fit the requirement for a particular structure for a
There is a plethora of adverse environmental impacts related to the current methods of producing electricity. Aside from the massive amount of emissions released every year by power plants, as discussed in the previous chapter, there are various direct and indirect consequences.  The emission of excess amounts of carbon dioxide and other GHG, such as, methane, nitrous oxide and halogen compounds contribute heavily to climate change and ozone layer depletion. Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and ammonia emissions are responsible for the on-going air acidification. VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are causing theincreasing appearance of tropospheric ozone and the general local air quality is diminishing all across the world due to air pollution originating from theenergy sector, alongside transportation, agriculture and other polluting sectors. 
Efficient use ofenergy and its intensity of use are important issues that affect energy systems and define sustainability trends. An efficient use by final consumer is a way to reduce the amount ofenergy consumed, without compromising socio-economic development and thus translating into sustainable development. Energy efficiency is a key word in today's industry, playing a crucial role in market competitiveness, sustainability and environmental protection. According to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations, global food production will have to increase by 70% to sustain the world population expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050. With this population increase, world energydemand will increase by a third between 2010-2035, making energy and water supply the key to any modern industry's success.
This paper is related with the importance oftheenergy policy and renewable energy which play a important role in the development oftheenvironmental benefits. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources and it is one ofthe largest countries in the world for deploying renewable energy. This paper attempts to review the policies and planning measures undertaken by the Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. Low impact renewable energy (LIRE) technologies offer important benefits compared to conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels or nuclear power. However due to their uncertainty different kinds of renewable- energy resources need to be operated in an integrated way, which complement each other. Global electricity demand is expected to increase considerably during the next decade and at the same time environmental pollution is also increasing with the development of conventional energy source. To meet the challenges for global energydemand various support schemes, policies and planning to promote use of renewable energy sources are discussed in this paper.
On the another hand, occupants work better and tend to be less depressed when working in an environment where the daylight availability (DA) is high , , . Thus, this tendency goes along with the wellbeing ofthe occupants. However, there are many studies pointing to a different reality regarding theenergy efficiency of this tendency. According to Motuziene & Juodis , as a general idea, the concept of using a large area of glazing façade in the building does not bring energy savings to the whole building. The author also mentions that, contrary to previous beliefs, the rooms facing north are the most efficient comparing to rooms facing south. From the analysis, they conclude that cooling energydemand is more dependable ofthe orientation and fenestration comparing to heating energydemand; south façades need to spend more energy on cooling and theenergy saved on lighting is not sufficient to compensate the increased energydemand on cooling and heating. The same conclusions are made by Skarning , where he concludes that maximising solar gains in south-oriented rooms have limited potential when it comes to reduce space heating demand on buildings level, even in colder countries, such as Denmark. From his analysis, he concludes that g-value does not have a great impact on decreasing the heating demand in south oriented façade and for high g-values there is a risk of overheating. However, increasing g-value in north oriented façade can decrease the heating demand several times more than observed in south façades. He also concludes that G-value has a bigger impact in warmer climates than in colder climates; U-value should be the lowest possible in any choice so that the space losses can be minimize in the winter; light transmittance should be the highest possible so that DA can be the highest possible; Focus on increasing g-values to decrease the heat demand in south oriented facades should not be made. Instead, improvements on the utilization of coating products that can achieve better light-to-solar-gain ratio are preferable.
analyses of wind power systems published between 1977 and 2001. Kubiszewski and colleagues  and Raadal and colleagues  extend the work of Lenzen and Munksgaard , adding additional analyses, focusing on energydemand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, respectively. In another review in the IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change [1,8], 126 estimates from 49 studies are surveyed. The present LCA review aims to supplement the previous assess- ments, providing new surveys and analyses of results as well as qualitative discussions. In particular, we attempt to make the following original contributions: (i) taking a broader view ofenvironmental impacts, focusing not only on cumulative energydemand and GHG emissions [5–7], but on a wider set of impact categories assessed in the LCA literature; (ii) discussing impor- tant aspects that are not sufﬁciently treated in previous LCA reviews, including capacity factor assumptions, modeling of recycling beneﬁts, techniques for calculating life cycle inven- tories (process-LCA or hybrid LCA), and static versus future- oriented LCA; (iii) critically assessing the scope and quality of existing studies, identifying areas that are well understood as well as important knowledge gaps; and (iv) proposing directions that future research may take in order to gain a more complete and solid understanding oftheenvironmentalimplicationsof wind power.
Electricity consumption is one ofthe key indicators of economic growth. Electricity demand in Malaysia as an industrialized nation is expected to increases 4.7% annually by the year 2030 (Ali et al., 2012). This was mainly due to the expansion of industrial and residential sectors. Electricity generation has been always challenging. Meeting the growing electricity demand in one hand and minimizing the side effects of electricity generation on the environment on the other hand exert a heavy pressure on the countries’ government. There is a serious need in electricity generation from renewable sources which are clean, non-depleting and not emitting greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time guarantee sustainable economic growth. The drive towards the use of renewable energy sources has been launched many times by Malaysian government through many policies and programs such as Fifth Fuel Policy 2001, National Biofuel Policy 2006 and National Green Technology Policy 2009. Malaysia is well endowed with different kind of renewable sources such as biomass, biogas, municipal waste, hydro and solar. However, Malaysia’ tropical climate is suitable and justifiable for a more extensive use of solar energy. There have been some studies done on other countries that examine the effects of renewable sources specifically solar energy on EKC and on CO 2 emissions mitigation, while there is no such
The final assignment provided to the students a first insight into the professional world (EC, 2001). The contact made by the undergraduate students of Aquatic Sciences with researchers from the Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR) gave them a perspective of skills needed for their future. Those researchers co-operated with the students allowing the connection of traditional biostatistics with the scientific area ofthe course. Researchers helped the students group with the fundamental knowledge ofthe biological specialty area, so that they could be able to build a biological problem with an aim, objectives and interpretation ofthe results obtained after an adequate statistical analysis (DeMets et al., 2006). The role ofthe teacher was to guide the learners through the process of analysis ofthe biological/biomedical problem until the final report is complete and in accordance to a scientific paper format. This guidance was made during the discussion ofthe adequate statistical analysis ofthe data and also in the correct definition ofthe objectives, interpretation and correct transmission ofthe information.
The Declaration of Cooperation recognizes the current oil market conditions and short to medium-term prospects and the “need for joint cooperation ofthe oil exporting countries, to achieve a lasting stability in the oil market in the interest of oil producers and consumers” (OPEC, 2017, p.5). Consequently, the parties are committed to “strengthen their cooperation through a dynamic and transparent framework, including regular monitoring, joint analyses and outlooks for a sustainable market stability in the medium- to long-term” and “to ensure continuity and proactive cooperation through established regular meetings at technical and ministerial levels” (OPEC, 2017, p.8). Mohammed Barkindo, OPEC Secretary General, stated that OPEC, together with their partners from non-OPEC countries, “wrote a new chapter in the history of this industry”. The results from the agreement were positive, as by the end ofthe year, prices were about $60 per barrel, a comfortable price for all the participants (RIA Novosti, 2017a). According to the Russian Minister ofEnergy, Alexander Novak, the agreement means that cooperation between OPEC and countries has reached a new level and it is expected to have a long-term character. Novak argued that is necessary “to restore the situation in the markets to ensure the balancing of supply and demand” and, consequently, the agreement is open to other countries who wants to join in to work together in order to stabilize the market (Ministry ofEnergyofthe Russian Federation, 2016).
Energetic component of ecological security of Ukraine showed that the main energy resources are the nuclear (47%) and coal (37%), which is a bad thing for the coun- try's energy security through outdated production technolo- gies and a significant negative impact on the environment. Another problem in this respect is not only environmental but also economic: 35% of state import is import ofenergy consumption. Using the methodology for calculating the integral index ofenergy security we showed that the situa- tion is unstable. Comparison ofenergy indicators of Ukraine with the same world levels had proved quite weak position of Ukraine. While the analyses of 34 projects for implementation ofenergy efficiency in Ukraine we pro- posed rank function for the evaluation of projects' attrac- tiveness in the aspect of industries and regions of Ukraine. The rank analyses depicted that the most popular among economic sectors for energy efficiency investments are en- terprises of agriculture and consumer goods industry, and the most attractive regions of Ukraine for implementation of investments in energy efficient technologies are Ivano- Frankivsk, Luhansk and Kherson oblasts. The analysis of modern ecological situation in Ukraine found that it remains consistently high air pollution in large cities and industrial centres. To solve priority problems of modern ecological situation in Ukraine the state should ensure full funding of measures provided by national, regional and local programs to develop effective mechanisms of economic enterprises and improve production technology. The movement to the better energy future for Ukraine is impossible without renew- able strategies and mathematically ground calculation ofenergy portfolio for very particular future year.
The structure ofthe remelting zone ofthe steel C90 steel be- fore conventional tempering consitute cells, dendritic cells, sur- rounded with the cementite, inside of which there is a plate mar- tensite and retained austenite, whereas the structure HS 6-5-2 steel consititute cells, dendritic cells and dendrites surrounded with the eutectic, inside of which there is a plate martensite and retained austenite. Such a structure is characterized with the similar micro- hardness (790-800 HV0,065) and intensity ofthe tribilogical wear.
)n the context ofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective ofthe European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
The National Policy on Education recognizes education as an expensive social service that requires adequate financial provision for the successful implementation ofthe educational programs. Government’s ultimate goal is to make education free at all levels although the financial burden appears overwhelming. Financing education is, therefore, a joint responsibility ofthe federal, state, local governments, local communities, individuals, the private sector and other organizations. The limited resources ofthe government to fund education at all levels have made government to solicit education at private sectors as education providers. This is based on the belief that private participation in Education is a way of providing variety and allowing for healthy competition, it is also based on government’s belief in cost sharing for the funding of education, but with the provision that like government private providers should not run private schools essentially for monetary gain but as a social service. Obviously, there is acute scarcity of financial resources which is more extreme in the developing countries to provide teachers, pay salaries, infrastructures and instructional materials and observation shown that this has negatively affected quality. The community, parents and teachers has been encouraged in funding of education. Many communities are involved in self-help project and community partnership in educational funding.
At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes ofthe sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease ofthe temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature ofthe sample to about 996°C. Decrease ofthe temperature ofthe sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence ofthe following diffusion processes:
Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation ofthe chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).