Top PDF A Microstripe Slotted Patch Antenna Using Amc

A Microstripe Slotted Patch Antenna Using Amc

A Microstripe Slotted Patch Antenna Using Amc

easily be designed to have vertical, horizontal, right hand circular (RHCP) or left hand with asymmetric patch structures. This unique property allows patch antennas to be used in many types of communications links that may have varied requirements. Microstrip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. These methods can be classified into two categories- contacting and non-contacting. In the contacting method, the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line. In the non-contacting scheme, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch. Non- contacting feeding methods such as proximity/aperture coupled can be used to improve the impedence bandwidth, but this is difficult to fabricate. The four most popular feed techniques used are the microstrip line, coaxial probe (both contacting schemes), aperture coupling and proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes)[4]. For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually 0.333λo < L< 0.5λo, where λo is the free space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that the patch thickness t<<λo. The height h of the dielectric constant of the substrate (Ԑ r) is typically in the range 2.2 ≤ Ԑ ≤ 12. The microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, the choice of substrate used is an important factor. There are numerous substrates that can be used for the design of microstrip antennas within the dielectric constants range of 2.2 ≤ Ԑ ≤ 12. The low dielectric constant Ԑ is about 2.2 to 3, the medium around 6.15 and the high approximately above 10.5[2]. A thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth and better radiation. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to design a compact microstrip patch antenna, substrate with higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a trade-off must be realized between the antenna dimensions and antenna performance [4].
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A Multiple U Slotted Rectangular Micro-strip Patch Antenna

A Multiple U Slotted Rectangular Micro-strip Patch Antenna

[2]. Micro-strip patch antenna is widely considered to be suitable for many wireless applications, even though it usually has a narrow bandwidth [3]. The bandwidth limitation can be addressed by using thick substrates, cutting slots in the metallic patch, using aperture coupled stacked patch antenna [2]. The stacked patch antenna have multilayer structure consisting of several parasitic radiating elements placed one above the other and above the driven element[4]. However this approach has the inherent disadvantage of increased overall thickness and issues related on aligning various precisely. In this paper we design a rectangular micro-strip patch antenna in which five U shaped slots are cut. By cutting a slot in micro-strip patch enhance its bandwidth.
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Design of Active Integrated Antenna for Dual Frequency Image Rejection

Design of Active Integrated Antenna for Dual Frequency Image Rejection

In principle, dual frequency patch antenna should operate with similar features in both term of radiation and impedance matching at two separate frequencies. There are many techniques to obtain dual frequency patch antenna, such as orthogonal-mode, multi layer patch and reactively loaded. Maci and Gentili [2] introduces many of these techniques where one of the techniques is used in the system. A single layer slotted square patch antenna is used to provide the dual frequency operation. Using two pairs of orthogonal slots as shown in Fig. 1 produces the dual frequency antenna.
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Realization of Band-Notch UWB Monopole Antenna Using AMC Structure

Realization of Band-Notch UWB Monopole Antenna Using AMC Structure

placed at a distance d = 2.4 mm from radiating patch and with the gap of g = 0.7 mm from the feed line. Metallic via of radius r = 0.5 mm is used to short EBG patch with the ground plane. Both metallic vias are shifted from the centre towards the feed line having a distance of a = 2.5 mm from patch end, to increase the mutual coupling between them. The final dimensions of Antenna-2 using simulated analysis are listed in Table 1. The proposed antenna is fabricated over FR4 substrate as shown in Fig. 6, and measured for time domain analysis.

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SIERPIENSKI & CROWN SQUARE FRACTAL SHAPES SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

SIERPIENSKI & CROWN SQUARE FRACTAL SHAPES SLOTTED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

surface, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed circuit technology, mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surface, compatible with MMIC designs and when the particular shape and mode are selected they are very versatile in terms of resonant frequency, polarization, field pattern and impedance. Microstrip patch antenna consist of a very thin metallic strip (patch) placed a small fraction of a wavelength above a ground plane. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape.
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J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl.  vol.15 número3

J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. vol.15 número3

applications is depicted in [15]. In [19], a simple miniaturized triple-band antenna is realized by using a defected ground plane for WLAN/WiMAX applications. Double L-slot microstrip patch antenna array for WiMAX and WLAN applications is proposed in [20]. A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed planar monopole antenna with Y-shaped for PCS / WLAN applications and a compact dual-band planar antenna for DCS-1900 / PCS / PHS, WCDMA / IMT-2000 and WLAN applications are presented in [21, 22]. In [23], a compact antenna with a wide square slot in the center, a rectangular feeding strip and two pairs of planar inverted L strips connecting with the slotted ground for WLAN / WiMAX applications.
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Compact Triple Band Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

Compact Triple Band Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

In this paper a printed multi-band antenna fed by a coaxial probe is presented. The antenna is simulated using IE3D, 12.32 version of Zealand. The results show that the impedance bandwidth has achieved a good match. Besides to make sure that the antenna designed in this paper can be applied into practice a slot of Swastika symbol is cut to generate lower frequency. Hence it can be applied for AMPS, GSM WLAN etc. 2. ANTENNA DESIGN

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Dual Band U- shaped microstrip antenna for wireless Communication

Dual Band U- shaped microstrip antenna for wireless Communication

The technique for enhancing bandwidth of the Microstrip antenna has been shown and it can be used for various wireless applications . As mentioned, this technique has its advantages such as it does not increase the lateral size of the microstrip antenna and disadvantages such as it increases the height of the microstrip antenna. Therefore, trade- of issues need to be considered in this design. Simulations and measurements on the new proposed antenna configuration have provided a useful design for a wide bandwidth.

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Design Of Monopole Antenna With U Slot In Patch And Ground Plane Ideally Suited For Wireless Applications

Design Of Monopole Antenna With U Slot In Patch And Ground Plane Ideally Suited For Wireless Applications

ABSTRACT- In this paper, a Monopole Antenna, square in shape, has been designed by cutting slots in both ground plane and patch for better impedance matching. The patch is assigned PEC material, and the substrate of the proposed antenna is Rogers RO3003(tm) having relative permittivity 3, and di- electric loss tangent of 0.0013. It is a Tri-band antenna having three resonant frequencies viz. 3.1GHz, 5.1GHz and 8.7GHz respectively, which exhibits same operating characteristics over a wider range of pass band. Comprehensive study of the frequency domain characteristics of the Antenna is being done, and is presented in this paper. The Antenna is simple and small in size, and is simulated using High Frequency Structure Simulator(HFSS) software. It is found to be suitable especially for Wireless Applications.
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A fully probe corrected near-field far-field transformation technique employing plane-wave synthesis

A fully probe corrected near-field far-field transformation technique employing plane-wave synthesis

For the plane-wave synthesis approach (Hansen, 1988; Ya- maguchi et al., 2009; Bennett and Schoessow, 1978), there is no explicit transmission equation needed. The probe which is sampling the near-field successively at different locations is considered to form a virtual array of probe antennas on a measurement surface. This array is then used to synthesize a plane wave in the vicinity of the AUT through a weighted superposition of the fields radiated by the elements of the virtual probe antenna array. The appropriate weights form a filter which is gained from the solution of an inverse problem. The proposed method allows shifting most of the compu- tational expense of the NFFF transformation and probe cor- rection to a preprocessing step whose result is a set of filters containing the weighting factors for the probe signals. These filters are used to compute the far-field directly from the ac- quired measurement data in a near-field far-field transforma- tion step.
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Method for mounting Gunn Diode in Active Tapered Slot-Ring Antenna

Method for mounting Gunn Diode in Active Tapered Slot-Ring Antenna

To find the optimum location of an active device i.e., Gunn diode in the Active tapered Slot-Ring Antenna (ASRA) equivalent {ABCD} matrix parameters has been used, so that the best performance in antenna characteristics is realized in terms of power radiated and power received. Microstrip tapered slot- ring antenna was fabricated by using a 0.787mm thick Takonic TLY-5-0310-CH/CH substrate with  r =

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J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl.  vol.15 número4

J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. vol.15 número4

The objective in this section is the design of an infinite Circular EBG slot-patch antenna array. Since the conventional technology presents some limitations such as those in coupling between elements, stability, complexity, the New Multilayered EBG Slot-patch antenna array has the aim to rectify some of these limitations. It is designed to cover high directivity, covering navigation systems, and be substitute for conventional technology antennas. It has been applied with the main challenge here complying with all the specifications given by Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). High directivity, stable Axial Ratio and phase center were the most critical parameters. Several EBG technologies have been designed [14,15]. In our case, it is fundamental to analyze a prototype of single circular EBG Slot-patch antenna with periodic lateral walls. Hence, we can obtain an optimization for the infinite array. At the same time antenna dimensions are significantly reduced by the use of high dielectric EBG constant substrates while maintaining high efficiency values. Some precautions regarding the sources placement and coupling should be taken. It is then necessary to check parameter levels all along the antenna operating band: A high coupling level can perturb the global functioning of the antenna array. In our case, this kind of circular multilayered EBG slot-patch antenna with periodic lateral walls is designed and the multilayered technology is checked to give us an idea on the entire attitude of the periodic circular planar EBG slot-patch antenna network. Here, we Keep the same geometric parameters as the previous analysis. Hence, we introduce new change concerning the lateral walls in order to could analyze a whole network composed by infinite patches. That periodic lateral walls condition is very important in
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DESIGN OF HYBRID COUPLER CONNECTED SQUARE ARRAY PATCH ANTENNA FOR Wi-Fi APPLICATIONS

DESIGN OF HYBRID COUPLER CONNECTED SQUARE ARRAY PATCH ANTENNA FOR Wi-Fi APPLICATIONS

Polarization of an antenna is defined as the polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna, whereas polarization of radiated wave is defined as property of an electromagnetic wave describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric- field vector; specifically, the figure traced as a function of time by the extremity of the vector at fixed location in the space and the sense in which it is traced, as observed along the direction of propagation. Polarization may be classified as linear, circular and elliptical. The proposed antenna having circular polarization and is achieved by dual feed in patch antenna. Figure 2 shows the general configuration of dual feed patches (Guo et al., 2004). External polarizer used to categories the dual-fed CP patch antenna they are 3dB hybrid type and the other is an offset-line coupler are used and it produces of equal amplitude but 90° out of phase at its centre frequency. Figure 3 and 4 shows internal diagram and simulated diagram of 3db hybrid coupler.
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Metamaterial inspired improved antennas and circuits

Metamaterial inspired improved antennas and circuits

Electromagnetic bandgap structures have been widely studied for their behavior as High Impedance Surface. The high-impedance surface has proven to be very useful in a large variety of antennas as a ground plane [67-68]. Antennas have been demonstrated that take advantage of the suppression of surface waves, stop band frequencies in which the tangential magnetic fields are considerably reduced and its unusual reflection phase. At low and high frequencies, the structure behaves as a simple classic ground plane since the reflected waves are in opposition of phase ( ± 180° ). Around the resonance frequency, the reflected waves are in phase. The structure acts as a magnetic conductor (High Impedance Surface). As a result of the suppression of surface waves, an antenna on a HIS ground plane produces a radiation profile smoother than a similar antenna on a conventional metal ground plane, with less power wasted in the backward direction. The Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) or HIS is a structure designed to imitate the behavior of a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC). In fact, the AMC condition is characterized by the frequencies where the phase of the reflection coefficient is zero, i.e., Γ = +1.
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L-SHAPED SLOT LOADED SEMICIRCULAR PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIDEBAND OPERATION

L-SHAPED SLOT LOADED SEMICIRCULAR PATCH ANTENNA FOR WIDEBAND OPERATION

Today, the state of the art antenna technology allows the use of different types and models of antennas, depending on the area of application considered. With the rapid development of wireless communications, it is desirable to design small size, low profile and wideband multi- frequency planar antennas. Microstrip antennas are now extensively used in various communication systems due to their compactness, economical efficiency, light weight, low profile and conformability to any structure. The main drawback to implementing these antennas in many applications is their limited bandwidth. However, the most important challenge in microstrip antenna design is to increase the bandwidth and gain [1-14]. Several techniques that can be used to achieve multi-band performances such as multilayer stacked patch, multi resonator and insertion of slots and slits [2] of various shapes and sizes in the patch antennas have been proposed recently [1-14]. When a microstrip patch antenna is loaded with reactive elements such as slots, stubs or shorting pin, it gives tunable or dual frequency antenna characteristics [6]. The most popular technique for obtaining dual-frequency behaviour is to introduce the slots on a single patch [1-4]. Since the slots are cut at an appropriate position inside the patch, they neither increase the patch size nor largely affect the radiation pattern of the patch [11]. These slots can take different shapes like, rectangular or square slot, step slot, tooth-brush shaped slot, V-slot, U- slot, etc [11]. The slot adds another resonant mode near the fundamental mode of the patch and realizes dual frequency response [11].
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Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

The potential roles of aminopeptidases in snake venom are far from clear. Indeed, although aminopeptidases are expressed in many mammalian tissues, even their roles are not completely understood. Generally, mammalian aminopeptidases have been found to cleave oligopeptides. For example mammalian APA cleaves brain angiotensin II to yield angiotensin III, and is thus implicated in the control of arterial blood pressure [55]. In vivo APA has also been shown to cleave cholecystokinin (CCK-8) [56], which is widely distributed in the mammalian central nervous system and could be involved in pain perception, feeding, anxiety and memory. Other possible natural substrates which have only been tested in vitro include neurokinin B, chromogranin and Figure 5. The modelled structure of rhiminopeptidase A. MODELLER was used to create a model of the structure of rhiminopeptidase A using the determined structure of tricorn interacting factor F3 from T. acidophilum (PDB code 1z5h) as a template. A, image of the 4-domain structure of rhiminopeptidase A with the domains coloured as follows: N-terminal saddle shaped b-sheet domain in red; catalytic domain in orange; b-sandwich domain in yellow and C-terminal a-helical domain in green. Key functional residues are highlighted as follows: zinc ligands in blue, calcium binding site in cyan, substrate binding residues in grey and the threonine involved in substrate specificity in magenta. B, detailed view of the key functional residues coloured as in A. The images were generated using PyMOL.
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Design of Miniature Patch Antenna Around the Frequency 3.5 GHz for WIMAX Technology

Design of Miniature Patch Antenna Around the Frequency 3.5 GHz for WIMAX Technology

Note, that the addition of a capacitor reactance which cancels the effect of inductive reactance causes the decrease of the reflection coefficient of the value -19.6 dB to achieve the value of -54.4 dB at the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz, this to calculate the bandwidth of the patch antenna.

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Design Analysis of An Electromagnetic Band Gap Microstrip Antenna

Design Analysis of An Electromagnetic Band Gap Microstrip Antenna

Finite Element Method (FEM) based full wave eletromagnetic simulator Ansoft's HFSS v.10 is utilized to design and study the proposed EBG antenna performances. This design is aimed to be a simple construction with smaller size. First, the EBG structure is designed to have a wide band gap and then the rectangular radiating patch is optimized to meet the 2.45GHz ISM band WLAN applications reqiurement. The antenna is directly fed by a coaxial probe and some parametric studies are performed to obtain the feeding position to avoid impedance mismatch.
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Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.

Semiparametric Modeling of Daily Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.

Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environ- mental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model daily AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on a daily basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. Temperatures above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the daily varia- tions observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material).
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A low mutual coupling multiband mimo antenna

A low mutual coupling multiband mimo antenna

>@ 0RKDPPDG 7DULTXO ,VODP DQG 0G 6KDKLGXO $ODP Design of High Impedance Electromagnetic Surface for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Patch Antenna Array, 0DWHULDOV. >@ %DKDUDN0RKDMH[r]

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